Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu (流感) may make a difference in how long the misery lasts. The American Lung Association (ALA) has issued new guidelines on combating colds and the flu, and one of the keys is being able to quickly tell the two apart. That’s because the prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon after the illness sets in. As for colds, the sooner a person starts taking over-the-counter remedy, the sooner relief will come. The common cold and the flu are both caused by viruses. More than 200 viruses can cause cold symptoms, while the flu is caused by three viruses?flu A, B and C. There is no cure for either illness, but the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine (疫苗), which is, for most people, the best way to fight the flu, according to the ALA. But if the flu does strike, quick action can help. Although the flu and common cold have many similarities, there are some obvious signs to look for. Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. On the other hand, fever is one of the characteristic features of the flu for all ages. And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms. The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. It advises parents to call the doctor if their small children have flu-like symptoms. Both cold and flu symptoms can be eased with over-the-counter medications as well. However, children and teens with a cold or flu should not take aspirin for pain relief because of the risk of Reye syndrome (综合症),a rare but serious condition of the liver and central nervous system. There is, of course, no vaccine for the common cold. But frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds can reduce the likelihood of catching one.
  11. According to the author, knowing the cause of the misery will help . A) shorten the duration of the illness B) the patient buy medicine over the counter C) the patient obtain cheaper prescription drugs D) prevent people from catching colds and the flu(A)
  12. We learn from the passage that . A) one doesn’t need to take any medicine if he has a cold or the flu B) aspirin should not be included in over-the-counter medicines for the flu C) delayed treatment of the flu will harm the liver and central nervous system D) over-the-counter drugs can be taken to ease the misery caused by a cold or the flu(D)
  13. According to the passage, to combat the flu effectively, . A) one should identify the virus which causes it B) one should consult a doctor as soon as possible C) one should take medicine upon catching the disease D) one should remain alert when the disease is spreading(C)
  14. Which of the following symptoms will distinguish the flu from a cold? A) A stuffy nose. B) A high temperature.
C) A sore throat. D) A dry cough.(B)
  15. If children have flu-like symptoms, their parents . A) are advised not to give them aspirin B) should watch out for signs of Reye syndrome C) are encouraged to take them to hospital for vaccination D) should prevent them from mixing with people running a fever(A) 这篇文章讲的是应该如何区别对待感冒和流感。 因为文章旨在向普通民众传播医疗 知识,所以遣词造句较为简易,结构清晰易辨,理解的难度不大。 文章开篇指出两点,一是感冒与流感有很多相似的症状(Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery),二是应当学会区分感冒和流感(may make a difference)。 这两点也是文章所述内容的纲领,后者是论述的侧重点。 第二段引用医疗权威 ALA 的指导原则,指出区分普通感[考.试*大]冒与流感的原因 所在:辨别出是哪种疾病后可以立即进行相应的治疗。对于流感来说,要马上把医生的药房 付诸实施(prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon);对感冒来说,则要立即 服用非处方药(starts taking over-the-counter remedy)。 接下来的几段从致病成因、预防手段、症状等方面介绍了感冒与流感的区别。 第三段讲述了二者的致病因素,感冒源于二百多种病毒,而流感源于三种病毒。作 者附带讲到流感的预防方法:接种疫苗(the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine)。而普通感 冒的预防方法则跳到了最后一段: frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact, 勤洗手, 不与感冒病人密切接触。 四、五、六段介绍了感冒与流感在症状上的区别。第四段只起了承上启下的作用, 第五段详细讲解了二者的区别。 第六段则指出一个特例: 婴幼儿和学龄前儿童的流感症状不 易辨认。 第七段讲的是治疗方法,着重说明了治疗禁忌:少年儿童不宜服用阿司匹林(should not take aspirin for pain relief)。 In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 American preschool teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents (答问卷者) listed “to give children a good start academically” as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the American respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents. In the recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented (强 调个性发展的) Americans listed group experience as one of their top three choices. An emphasis on the importance of the group seen in Japanese early childhood education continues into
elementary school education. Like in America, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary schools. Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children’s chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens.
  16. We learn from the first paragraph that many Americans believe . A) Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents B) Japan’s economic success is a result of its scientific achievements C) Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction D) Japan’s higher education is superior to theirs(C)
  17. Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to . A) problem solving B) group experience C) parental guidance D) individually-oriented development(B)
  18. In Japan’s preschool education, the focus is on . A) preparing children academically B) developing children’s artistic interests C) tapping children’s potential D) shaping children’s character(D)
  19. Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to . A) broaden children’s horizon B) cultivate children’s creativity C) lighten children’s study load D) enrich children’s knowledge(C)
  20. Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university-based kindergartens? A) They can do better in their future studies. B) They can accumulate more group experience there. C) They can be individually oriented when they grow up. D) They can have better chances of getting a first-rate education.(D) 这是一篇讲述日本学前教育的材料,因为文章是讲给美国人看的,所以附带介绍 美国的学前教育以和日本进行对比。 材料一共只有三大段, 第一大段指出日本学前教育的侧 重点, 第二段进一步说明日本学前教育侧重点中对集体主义的重视, 第三段则说明日本学前 教育除集体主义外的丰富内容。 第一段开头实际上提出了研究日本学前教育的原因:low academic achievement by children in the United States,大意是美国的儿童教育成效不明显,这迫使人们把目光投向了 教育和经济水平都很高的日本,以期得到答案(for possible answers)。这一探询的结果是出乎 美国人意料的, 日本学前教育很少强调功课指导(little emphasis is put on academic instruction),
这也是本文的主要观点。文章接下来以问卷调查为论据对这一观点进行了论证。 问卷调查的结果是日本人更重视坚韧、专注和集体主义等素质的培养(but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group),第 二段继续对集体主义这一项素质做了进一步说明(可见其重要性):91%的日本人将其列为学 前教育的三大目标之一(91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience) , 这 项 教 育 甚 至 会 延 续 到 小 学 教 育 (continues into elementary school education)。 最后一段讨论了除去上述素质教育外, 日本学前教育的其他内容和特色。 其中包括 早期音乐训练和潜力发掘(early musical training or potential development),附属于大学(这一 项属于特色),以及自由玩耍(have introduced free play)。 Exercise is one of the few factors with a positive role in long-term maintenance of body weight. Unfortunately, that message has not gotten through to the average American, who would rather try switching to “light” beer and low-calorie bread than increase physical exertion. The Centers for Disease Control, for example, found that fewer than one-fourth of overweight adults who were trying to shed pounds said they were combining exercise with their diet. In rejecting exercise, some people may be discouraged too much by caloric-expenditure charts: for example, one would have to briskly walk three miles just to work off the 275 calories in one delicious Danish pastry (小甜饼). Even exercise professionals concede half a point here. “Exercise by itself is a very tough way to lose weight,” says York Onnen, program director of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Still, exercise’s supporting role in weight reduction is vital. A study at the Boston University Medical Center of overweight police officers and other public employees confirmed that those who dieted without exercise regained almost all their old weight, while those who worked exercise into their daily routine maintained their new weight. If you have been sedentary (极少活动的) and decide to start walking one mile a day, the added exercise could burn an extra 100 calories daily. In a year’s time, assuming no increase in food intake, you could lose ten pounds. By increasing the distance of your walks gradually and making other dietary adjustments, you may lose even more weight.
  26. What is said about the average American in the passage? A) They tend to exaggerate the healthful effect of “light” beer. B) They usually ignore the effect of exercise on losing weight. C) They prefer “light” beer and low-calorie bread to other drinks and food. D) They know the factors that play a positive role in keeping down body weight.(B)
  27. Some people dislike exercise because . A) they think it is physically exhausting B) they find it hard to exercise while on a diet C) they don’t think it possible to walk 3 miles every day D) they find consulting caloric-expenditure charts troublesome(B)
  28. “Even exercise professionals concede half a point here” (Line 3, Para.
  2) means “They ”. A) agree that the calories in a small piece of pastry can be difficult to work off by exercise B) partially believe diet plays a supporting role in weight reduction
C) are not fully convinced that dieting can help maintain one’s new weight D) are not sufficiently informed of the positive role of exercise in losing weight(B)
  29. What was confirmed by the Boston University Medical Center’s study? A) Controlling one’s calorie intake is more important than doing exercise. B) Even occasional exercise can help reduce weight. C) Weight reduction is impossible without exercise. D) One could lose ten pounds in a year’s time if there’s
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