英语句子成份
英语句子成分有:主语,谓语,表语,定语,状语,补语,表语等等 主语是句子叙述的主体,可由名词,代词,数词,名词化的形容词,不定式,动名词和主语从 句等来承担. 谓语说明主语所发出的动作或具有的特征和状态.谓语由动词来承担. 宾语是动作的对象或承受者,常位于及物动词或介词后面.宾语可由名词,代词,数词,名词 化的形容词,不定式,动名词,宾语从句等来担任. 主语和谓语是英语句子的两大成分,除少数句子(如祈使句和感叹句等)外,一句话必须同时 具有主语和谓语所表达的意思才能完整.主语是针对谓语而言的,是一句话的主题,谓语用来说明 主语的情况,为主语提供信息.例如:They are working.主语是 they(他们),那麽他们在做什麽 呢?看来没有谓语 are working 是不行的.在正常情况下,英语的主语和谓语的位置与汉语一致, 也就是说主语在前,谓语紧跟其后.那麽,哪些词语可以做主语,谓语,何时主谓倒置,主语与谓 语的一致情况如何,我将一一讲述. 一,哪些词可以充当主语 1,名词 例如: A moon-cake is a delicious, round cake. The first truck is carrying a few baskets. The temperature will stay above zero. The doctor looked over Mrs. Brown very carefully. China does not want to copy the USA's example. 2,代词 例如: It's a young forest. I don't know if it will grow. That's a bit expensive. You'd better buy a new pair. I'm afraid we haven't got any black shoes. 3,数词 例如:One and two is three. One is not enough for me. I want one more. One of them is English. Suddenly one of the bags fell off the truck. Two will be enough. 4,不定式 (常以 It's adj. to do sth. 形式出现) 例如: To give is better than to receive =Its better to give. I found it difficult to get to sleep. It's glad to see you again. It was difficult to see. But it's good to swim in summer. 5,IT 作主语,有如下情况:
  1)指代刚刚提到的事物:What's this ? It's a bus. (指代 what)
  2)指代一个你不知道或判断不清性别的人:Who's knocking the door? It's me. (指代 who) Who's the baby in the picture? It's my sister. (指代 who)
  3) 表示时间,天气,距离: What's the time? It's eight o'clock. (时间) What's it going to be tomorrow? It's going to be rainy.(天气) How far is it? It's about one kilometre away. (距离)
  6. THERE 引起的 There be 句型中,be 作谓语,主语位居其后.如: There are many different kinds of mooncakes. There will be a strong wind. 二,谓语 谓语有动词构成,依据其在句中繁简程度可把谓语分为简单谓语和复合谓语两类.不论何种时 态,语态,语气,凡由一个动词(或动词词组)构成的谓语都是简单谓语.例如: I like walking.(一般现在时主动语态) I made your birthday cake last night. (一般过去时主动语态) It is used by travellers and business people all over the world. (一般现在时被动语 态) 复合谓语也可分为两种情况: 第一种是由情态动词,助动词+不带 to 的动词不定式构成的复合谓语: What does this word mean? I won't do it again. I'll go and move away the bag of rice with Lin Tao. You'd better catch a bus.
第二种是由连系动词+表语构成的复合谓语.例如: You look the same. We are all here. The weather gets warmer, and the days get longer. Keep quite and listen to me. He looked worried. We have to be up early in the morning. Is Bill in? School Is over. Let's go home. My pen is in my bag. I feel terrible. I* fell tried all the time. He seemed rather tired last night. 连系动词和表语在意思上紧密联系,不宜分割;有关动词的种类这方面知识在课本中已有介绍, 此处不多说了. 三,主语与谓语的一致 英语句子的主语和谓语的一致性,是英汉两种语言的区别之一.具体说来有如下特征: 1, 谓语动词在人称和数上应与主语保持一致.如: Now the teacher comes into the classroom. 本句属一般现在时,主语 the teacher 为第三人称单数,因而谓语动词 come 应加 s. One morming she was working at her desk in the library wher a boy came in. 本句属主 从复合句, 主句用过去进行时, 从句为一般过去时; 主句中主语 she 为第三人称单数, 所以谓语为 was working.
  1) 主语含有 and 时,如表示一个单一的概念,谓语动词常用单数(特别是当 and 连接的是两 个不可数名词时),否则用复数.如: One and three is four. And 前后均为数字,表示同一个概念,谓语动词应用 is. Tea and milk is my favourite drink. 本题中 tea and milk 指一种饮料,故谓语用 is. Tom and Li Lei are my best friends. Tom 和 Li lei 是完全不同的两个人,有不同的特征, 因而谓语是 are.
  2) 主语为动词不定式时,其谓语常用单数形式.如: To give is better than to receive. It was difficult to see. It's best to wear cool clothes. 同样,动名词作主语,谓语动词也为单数.初中阶段只学了一句: It (playing) is much better than having classes.
  3) 不可数名词作主语,谓语动词视为单数.如: The best time to come to China is autumn. The weather in England never gets too hot.
  4) 在姓的复数前加 the 表示一家人,谓语动词为复数.如: What time do the Reads have breakfast? 主语是 the Reads, 表示里得一家人,谓语动词用 do….have.
  5) 表示时间的复数名词作主语,常作整体看待,其谓语动词为单数形式.如: Two months is quite a long time.
  6) "几加几等于几"的算式中,谓语动词常为单数.如: Twenty and forty is sixty. 主 谓
  7) 某些表示学科的名词作主语,无论其结尾是什麽,谓语动词都视为单数.如: Maths is my favourite subject. 主 谓
  8) each 以及由 some,any,no,every 构成的复合代词作主语,谓语动词为单数.如: There's something wrong with my ears! 谓 主 Everyone is going into class. 主 谓
  9) what,who which 等词做主语,谓语动词形式视意思而定.如: What is this?(this 为单数,用 is) What are these? (these 为复数,用 are ) Which is your friend? 哪一个人是你的朋友? Which are your friends? 哪些人是你的朋友?
  10) None 作主语,其谓语可以是单数,也可以是复数,此项目并非初中阶段重点,故此不谈.
  11) People,Chinese, Japanese 作主语,谓语动词为复数.如: There are four people in my family.
谓 主 The chinese people are very friendly.
  12) population 作主语,指"人口"时,谓语为单数;其前有表示数量的修饰语时,谓语为复 数;课本第三册只要求掌握作"人口"讲时谓语的情况: What's the population of Germany? 谓 主 What was the population of the world in 1950? 谓 主 Half of the population of China are women. 修饰语 主 谓 2, 由 either …or 或 neither …nor 连接的两个并列成分作主语,其谓语动词形式与后一个 主语保持一致.如:Either Lily or Lucy is going to come.(Lily 和 Lucy 谁去都行.后一个主 语 Lucy 为第三人称单数,谓语用 is going to come.) Either I or he does well in English. 我和他的英语都不错. Neither I nor she likes swimming. 我和她都不喜欢游泳. 由 these 和 here 引出的含有不只一个主语的句子,其谓语动词形式由最靠近谓语的主语形式 决定.如: These is a pen, two rulers and three books on the desk. Here are some cups,a glass and some pears on 句子的成分: 构成句子的基本成分叫做句子成分.句子成分可分为主语,谓语,宾语,表语,定语,状语,同位语. 它们可以由单词来担任,也可以由词组,以及句子来担任. 主语 主语是一个句子中所要表达,描述的人或物,是句子的主体. I work here. 我在这儿工作. She is an new teacher. 她是一个新教师. He is in charge of allmited company. 他主管一家有限公司. 主语可以由名词,代词,数词,动词不定式,动名词,名词化形容词,分词,从句,短语等来担任. The book is on the desk. 书在桌子上. I get an idea. 我有一个主意. Two and two are four. 二加二等于四. Smoking is bad to health. 吸烟对身体有害. The wounded has been taken to the hospital. 伤员已经送到医院. When to begin is not known yet. 什么时间开始还不知道. What I know is important. 我所知道的很重要. 谓语 谓语是用来说明主语做了什么动作或处在什么状态.谓语可以由动词来担任,一般放在主语的后 面. The child has been brought up by his mother. 这孩子是由他的妈妈带大的. We don't know him very well. 我们不太了解他. She speaks English fluently. 她英语讲得很流利. 表语 表语是用来说明主语的性质,身份,特征和状态.表语须和连系动词一起构成句子的复合谓语. 表语一般放在系动词之后.表语可以由名词,形容词或起名词和形容词作用的词和短语担任. These desks are yellow. 这些桌子是黄色的. I am all right. 我没事. We are happy now.
我们现在很幸福. It's over. 时间到了. She is ten. 她十岁了. My work is teaching English, 我的工作是教英语. The dictionary is in the bag. 词典在书包里边. My question is how you knew him. 我的问题是你如何认识他的. 宾语 宾语是谓语动作所涉及的对象,它是动作的承受者,宾语可以由名词或起名词作用的成分担任, 宾语一般放在谓语动词后面. I saw a cat in the tree. 我看见树上有一只猫. I want to go shopping. 我想去买东西. He said he could be here. 他说他会来的. We think you are right. 我们认为你是对的. 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,其中一个宾语多指人,另一个宾语指物,指人的宾语叫做间接宾 语,指物的宾语叫做直接宾语,可以带两个宾语的动词有 bring,give,show,send,pass,tell 等.间 接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面,如果强调直接宾语可把直接宾语放在间接宾语的前面, 但间接宾 语前须加"to". My father bought me a book. 我父亲给我买了一本书. Give the rubber to me. 把橡皮给我. Please give the letter to XiaoLi. 请把这封信给小李. 有些及物动词除跟一个宾语外,还需要加上宾语补足语,否则意思不完整,它们一起构成复合宾 语,复合宾语中宾语和后面的宾语补足语有一种逻辑上的主谓关系, 这也是判断是两个宾语还是复合 宾语的依据,宾语可以由名词或起名词作用的词担任. We all call him LaoWang. 我们都叫他老王. Please color it red. 请给它涂上红颜色. We found the little girl in the hill. 我们在山上找到了小女孩. 定语 定语用于描述名词,代词,短语或从句的性质,特征范围等情况的词叫做定语,定语可以由名词, 形容词和起名词和形容词作用的词,短语担任. 如果定语是单个词,定语放在被修饰词的前面,如果是 词组,定语放在被修饰词的后面. That is a beautiful flower. 那是一朵漂亮的花. The TV set made in that factory is very good. 那个工厂生产的电视机很好. This is my book, not your book. 这是我的书,不是你的书. There are more than twenty trees in our school. 我们学校里有二十多棵树. I have a lot of things to do. 我有好多要做的事情. Ou rcountry is a developing country. 我们的国家是一个发展中的国家. 状语:说明事物发生的时间,地点,原因,目的,结果方式,条件或伴随情况,程度等情况的词叫状 语.状语可以由副词,短语以及从句来担任.
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