英语句子成分和英语句子结构讲解及练习

  1. 主语(subject):句子说明的人或事物。 主语(subject) The sun rises in the east (名词) He likes dancing. (代词) Seeing is believing.
Twenty years is a short time in history. (数词) (动名词)
To see is to believe.(不定式) What he needs is a book.(主语从句) It is very clear that the elephant is round and tall like a tree. (It 形式主语,主语从句是真正主语) (一)指出下列句中主语的中心词 ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year. ④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult.
  2. 谓语(predicate):是对主语加以陈述,表示主语的行为或状态,常用动词 谓语(predicate) 或者动词词组担任,放在主语的后面。 We study English. (二). 选出句中谓语的中心词 ① I don't like the picture on the wall. wall A. don't B. like C. picture D. He is asleep.
② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer ③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually C. go D. bus
④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon
⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? have D. breakfast
A. Did B. twins C.

  3. 表语(predicative):系动词之后的成分,表示主语的性质、状态和特征。 表语(predicative) He is a teacher. (名词) 词) Five and five is ten. (数词) His father is in.(副词) 语) Seventy-four! You don’t look it. (代
He is asleep.
(形容词) (介词短
The picture is on the wall.
My watch is gone / missing / lost.
(形容词化的分词)
The question is whether they will come. (表语从句) (常见的系动词有: be, sound(听起来), look(看起来), feel(摸起来,smell (闻起来), taste(尝、吃起来), remain(保持,仍是), feel(感觉)…… It sounds a good idea. Her voice sounds sweet. The food smells delicious. The door remains open. (三) 挑出下列句中的表语 ① The old man was feeling very tired. ③ The leaves have turned yellow. in the subject. ② Why is he worried about Jim? ④ Soon They all became interested The sound sounds strange. Tom looks thin. The food tastes good. Now I feel tired.
⑤ She was the first to learn about it.
  4. 宾语 宾语:
  1)动宾表示行为的对象,常由名词或者代词担任。放在及物动词或者 介词之后。如: I like China. (名词) He hates you. (代词)
How many do you need? We need two. (数词)I enjoy working with you. (动 名词)
I hope to see you again. (不定式) (宾语从句)
Did you write down what he said?

  2)介词后的名词、代词和动名词介宾 Are you afraid of the snake? Under the snow, there are many rocks.

  3)双宾语间宾(指人)和直宾(指物) He gave me a book yesterday. (四) 挑出下列句中的宾语 ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation. ④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?
  5. 宾补 宾补:对宾语的补充,全称为宾语补足语。 We elected him monitor. (名词) come here. (名词) We all think it a pity that she didn’t Give the poor man some money.
We will make them happy. (形容词) We found nobody in. ( 副词 ) Please make yourself at home. (介词短语) Don’t let him do that. (省 to 不定式) His father advised him to teach the lazy boy a lesson. (带 to 不定式) Don’t keep the lights burning. (现在分词) I’ll have my bike repaired. (过去分词) (五) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语 ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work.
④ They call me Lily sometimes. ⑤ I saw Mr. Wang get on the bus. ⑥ Did you see Li Ming playing football on the playground just now?
  6. 定语 定语:修饰或限制名词或代词的词、词组或句子。 Ai Yanling is a chemistry teacher.(名词) He is our friend. (代词) We belong to the third world.(数词) He was advised to teach the lazy boy a lesson.(形容词) The man over there is my old friend.(副词) The woman with a baby in her arms is my sister. (介词) The boys playing football are in Class
  2. (现在分词) The trees planted last year are growing well now. (过去分词) I have an idea to do it well.(不定式) You should do everything that I do. (定语从句) (六) 挑出下列句中的定语 ① They use Mr., Mrs. with the family name. ② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class
  3. ④ I am afraid some people forgot to sweep the floor. ⑤ The man downstairs was trying to sleep.
  7. 状语 状语:用来修饰 v., adj., adv., or 句子。表示时间、地点、原因、目的、 结果、程度、条件、方式和让步。(以下例句按上述顺序排列) I will go there tomorrow. room. The meeting will be held in the meeting
The meat went bad because of the hot weather. English well.
He studies hard to learn
He didn’t study hard so that he failed in the exam. you very much. If you study hard, you will pass the exam. bike. Though he is young, he can do it well. (七) 挑出下列句中的状语 ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven. ④ The man on the motorbike was travelling too fast.
I like some of
He goes to school by
⑤ With the medicine box under her arm, Miss Li hurried off. (八) 划出句中的直接宾语和间接宾语 ① Please tell us a story. ② My father bought a new bike for me last week. ③ Mr. Li is going to teach us history next term. ④ Here is a pen. Give it to Tom. ⑤ Did he leave any message for me?
参 考 答 案 (一) ① teacher ② man ③ dictionary ④ To do (二) ① B ② A ③ C ④ A ⑤ C (三) ① tired ② worried ③ yellow ④ interested ⑤ first ④ new words ⑤
(四) ① his homework to go swimming
② English
③ your pronunciation
(五) ① to read newspapers and books in the reading-room boy out of school ③ Lily ④ get on the bus ② given
② to take the
⑤ playing football on the playground ④ some ⑤ downstairs ④ fast ⑤
(六) ① family
③ third
(七) ① on the face off
② Every night
③ when he was eleven
(八) ① us, 间接宾语 a story, 直接宾语 接宾语 ③ us, 间接宾语 history, 直接宾语 语 ⑤ me, 间接宾语 message, 直接宾语
② me, 间接宾语 a new bike, 直
④ Tom, 间接宾语 it, 直接宾
 

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