常用的长句翻译技巧与方法 常用的长句翻译技巧与方法 长句翻译 (
  1) 顺序法。 当英语长句的内容的叙述层次与汉语基本一致时, 可以 按照英语原文的顺序翻译成汉语。例如:
  1. Even when we turn off the beside lamp and are fast asleep, electricity is working for us, driving our refrigerators, heating our water, or keeping our rooms air-conditioned.
  2. But now it is realized that supplies of some of them are limited, and it is even possible to give a reasonable estimate of their “expectation of life”, the time it will take to exhaust all known sources and reserves of these materials.
  3. Prior to the twentieth century, women in novels were stereotypes of lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the male-dominated culture.
  4. If parents were prepared for this adolescent reaction, and realized that it was a sign that the child was growing up and developing valuable powers of observation and independent judgment , they would not be so hurt, and therefore would not drive the child into opposition by resenting and resisting it. (
  2) 逆序法。英语有些长句的表达次序与汉语表达习惯不同, 甚至 完全相反, 这时必须从原文后面开始翻译。例如:
  1. Aluminum remained unknown until the nineteenth century, because nowhere in nature is it found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements, most commonly with oxygen, for which it has a strong affinity.
  2. It therefore becomes more and more important that, if students are not to waste their opportunities, there will have to be much more detailed information about courses and more advice.
  3. It is probably easier for teachers than for students to appreciate the reasons why learningEnglish seems to become increasingly difficult once the basic structures and patterns of the languagehave been understood.
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  4. They (the poor) are the first to experience technological progress as a curse which destroys the old muscle-power jobs that previous generations used as a means to fight their way out of poverty.
  5.A great number of graduate students were driven into the intellectual slum when in the United States the intellectual poor became the classic poor, the poor under the rather romantic guise of the Beat Generation, a real phenomenon in the late fifties.
  6. Such is a human nature in the West that a great many people are often willing to sacrifice higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar workers.
  7. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. (
  3)分句法。 有时英语长句中主语或主句与修饰词的关系并不十分密 切, 翻译时可以按照汉语多用短句的习惯,把长句的从句或短语化成句 子, 分开来叙述,为了使语意连贯, 有时需要适当增加词语。例如:
  1. The number of the young people in the United States who can`t read is incredible about one in four.
  2. Television, it is often said, keeps one informed about current events, allow one to follow the latest developments in science and politics, and offers an endless series of programmes which areboth instructive and entertaining.
  3. All they have to do is press a button, and they can see plays, films, operas, and shows of every kind, not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match.
  4. Although perhaps only 1 per cent of the life that has started somewhere will develop into highly complex and intelligent patterns, so vast is the number of planets that intelligent life is bound to be a natural part of the universe. (
  4) 综合法。例如:
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  1. People were afraid to leave their houses, for although the police had been ordered to stand by in case of emergency, they were just as confused and helpless as anybody else.
  2. Modern scientific and technical books, especially textbooks, requires revision at short intervals if their authors wish to keep pace with new ideas, observations and discoveries.
  3. Taking his cue from Ibsen`s A Doll`s House, in which the heroine, Nora, leaves home because she resents her husband`s treating her like a child, the writer Lu Xun warned that Nora would need money to support herself; she must have economic rights to survive.
  4. Up to the present time, through-out the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this new tendency placed the home in the immediate suburbs, but concentrated manufacturing activity, business relations, government, and pleasure in the centers of the cities. 一些常用的结构及其翻译 all but:几乎,差不多 as anything:非常地 anything but:根本不 apart from:除了 but for:要不是 by far:远不,……得多 by no means:根本不 by any means:无论如何 due to:由于 except for:除了 far from:远非 in contact with:与……联系 instead of:而不是 on account of:因为 on the basis of:根据 only to:结果是 might/may as well:还是……的好
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not so much…as:与其说……不如说 not really:远不 not to mention:更不用说 let alone:更不用说 no more…than…:和……一样都不 no less than:简直是 nothing less than:完全是 cannot…too…:再……也不过分 rather than:而不是 owing to:由于 It is assumed that:人们认为 It is said that:据说 It is learned that:据闻 It is supposed that:据推测 It is considered that:据估计 It is believed that:人们认为 It is reported that:据报道 It is well-known that:众所周知 It is asserted that:有人断言 It is clear/obvious/evident that:很显然 It can’t be denied that:不可否认 It must be admitted that:必须承认 It must be pointed that:必须指出
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