英语句子结构
音素?词汇?表达法?句子成分?段落?文章 注意: 主语的形式:名词,代词,the+形容词,the+分词,不定式,动名词,疑问句+不定式,For+ 名词或宾格的代词+不定式(for him to study mathematics),介词短语(from eight to tweleve),名词从句.
谓语:由简单动词或动词短语构成.(助动词或情态动词+主要动词) 英语中常用某些动词 名词代替表动态的位于动词,以表生动.
宾语的形式:基本和主语的形式一致.多了一个副词(My friend came from afar to see me) 表语:在系表结构中,联系动词只是形式上的谓语,真正起谓语作用的是表语,也可以说是 一种主语补语
补语的形式:名词,形容词或代用语,副词(my brother is out),分词
定语从句: 修饰名词,短语,从句,主句
状语从句: 修饰动词,分词,形容词,副词
名词可以充当:主语,宾语,主语补语(his father is a lawyer, he was elected President),宾语 补语(the class elected Jim its president.) 名词的代用词:动名词,代词,不定式,短语,从句
(主语和宾语)名词从句引导词:that, whether, if, who, whose, whom, which, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever.
动词可以充当:谓语 形容词可以充当:定语,补语,状语,表语,主语,感叹语 副词可以充当:状语,表语,定语,介词宾语,宾语补足语 副词可以修饰:动词(包括不定式,动名词,分词等动状词),形容词,副词,副 词短语,状语从句,修饰全句
介词词组可以充当:定语(须后置),状语,表语,宾补,另一介词的宾语,主语 介词的位置:1,动词+介词+名词,2,不及物动词+介词(往往构成及物动 词 at, for, from, into, of, to, with ) 介词的宾语:名词,代词,形容词,副词(from here, till recently, from below), 动名词(on doing, in reading),不定式(), 不定式可以充当:主语,宾语,表语,宾语补足语,定语,状语, 不定式短语可以当作名 词短语, 动名词可以充当:主语,表语,动词宾语,介词宾语,定语,状语(放在介词后面,after getting up,本身不能做状语) 分词可以充当:定语,表语,宾语补足语,状语(前面可以有连词,as if, though, whether) 前后相关的词性:前面:名词,连接副词,介词 后面:从句,名词,介词
连词:包含副词性连词,代词性连词,关系代词,关系副词,关系形容词(whose daughter, what little),
难点: 1,主语+动词+宾语+宾语补语,主语+动词+间宾+直宾,后者可以改为 to 的形式; The tailor made John a suit. =The tailor made a suit to John 2,反意疑问句;She learns French, doesn't she He had a letter from home, didn't you 第一大类:系表结构;不及物动词的主谓结构 1, English is a difficult language (for me to learn.) !!! 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(名词)+(等于不定式) 状语 (Winning first place 'in the speech contest') was (his special ambition.) 主语(动名词短语)+系动词+表语(名词短语) 等于倒装句 2,I have been dreaming (during the night.) 主语(代词)+谓语(不及物动词现在完成进行时态)+时间状语(介词短语) 3,I have fallen behind (in my class) 主语(代词)+谓语(不及物动词现在完成时态)+修饰副词+地点状语(介词词组) 4,It is dangerous (for me to drive a car.) =to drive a car is dangerous for me. 形式主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+真正主语(等同不定式短语)=名词 for me to drive a car is dangerous. 5, (To understand English) is not difficult. 主语(不定式短语)+系动词+表语(形容词) (For him to study mathematics) is a waste of time 主语(等同不定式短语)+系动词+表语(名词词组) This book is (of great value.) Of great value=形容词 !!! 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(介词短语) 6,I 'am tired (of' 'arguing with you')( all the time) !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语
主语(代词)+谓语+宾语+状语 老师 7,He 'was worried about' 'whether he passed the French examination.' !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+从句 "主+谓+宾语从句(连词引导)老师" 8,The lake is safe (to swim in) 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+结果状语(不定式) He is hesitant (to accept her proposal.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+方式状语(不定式短语) He was very happy (to see his mother taken good care of) at home. 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+条件状语(不定式短语) The writer is free (to work in whatever place and at whatever time "he chooses.") 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+方式状语(不定式短语含定语从句修饰 free) She is (sad for you) (to have acted so rashly) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词短语)+原因状语(等同不定式短语) She 'is apologetic (for' breaking the vase.) !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+原因状语(介词短语) 主谓宾 老师 He 'is blind to' his own mistake. !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语) 主谓宾 老师 He 'felt shame (for' his daughter "to have told lies") !!! 主语(代词)+系动词 +表语(名词)+状语(等同不定式短语) 主谓宾+宾补 老师系动词+形容词或形容词短语或名词短语=谓语 10,The rich are not always happier (than the poor.) 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语修饰 happier) 11,To sleep soundly "is (a good preparation") (for tomorrow.) !!! 主语(不定式短语)+系动词+表语(名词)+定语(介词短语修饰 preparation)
等同主谓结构 12,His hobby is (making model airplanes.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(动名词短语) 13,His hobby was (to collect autographs.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(不定式短语) One "is to struggle for" one's living. 主语+谓语+宾语 老师 主系表-自认为 My idea is (to go there right today.) 主语+系动词+表语(不定式短语) 与上句比较. 14,He is a businessman (growing rich 'in recent years.') 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(名词)+定语(现在分词短语) He is (the greatest writer) (alive.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(名词)+定语(形容词) He is not the kind of man (to do such things.) !!! who may do such things 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(名词)+定语(不定式短语) (不定式短语=从句) I "am convinced of" his honesty. !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词短语) 主谓宾老师 15,He was then a teacher respected (who was respected) by all his students. 主语(代词)+系动词+副词+表语(名词)+定语(过去分词短语含介词短语) 16,They "are satisfied with" their present job. !!! 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语 (介词短语) 主谓宾 老师 Ability is quite useless (without opportunity.) 主语(名词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+条件状语(介词短语修饰 is) He stood motionless for a few moments. 也能等同主谓状老师
主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语修饰 stood) 17,The man (writing something at the desk) is my cousin. 主语(名词)+定语(分词短语)+系动词+表语(名词) The man (waiting for a bus) is (the principal of our school.) 主语(名词)+定语(现在分词连介词短语)+系动词+表语(名词短语) The room (facing the yard) is her study. 主语(名词)+定语(现在分词短语)+系动词+表语(名词) The book (being studied) is a classical novel. !!! 主语(名词)+定语(过去分词短语)+系动词+表语(名词) An old man (with some teeth missing) (was sitting) "under the tree." 主语(名词)+定语(介词短语)+谓语+状语 18,The desire (to succeed) is strong (in youth.) 主语(名词)+定语(不定式)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语) Her promise (to write) was forgotten. 主谓被动语态 老师 !!! 主语(代词)+定语(不定式)+系动词+表语(形容词) 19,A friend (who helps you 'in time of need') is (a real friend.) 主语(名词)+定语从句+系动词+表语(名词) 20,He was the first (to come) and the last (to leave.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(名词)+定语(不定式短语) 20,He is (too poor) (to go abroad for further training.) 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+结果状语(不定式短语修饰 poor) She was so naive (as to believe his words.) 副词 as 修饰后面不定式 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(不定式短语) 21,(An undutiful daughter) (will prove) (an unmanageable wife.)
主语(名词)+系动词+表语(名词) 22,Her regret is having done so much for him and being abandoned by him. 主语(代词)+系动词+表语(完成时态)+ 动名词(is)being abandoned 待整理: The verdict appears (to be) just. 主语+系动词+表语(不定式)加强联系动词力量 I was so much surprised at it. 主语+系动词+表语(过去分词做形容词)+状语(介词短语) I am very pleased with what he has done. 主语+系动词+表语(过去分词做形容词)+状语(介词短语) They appear (out of breath.) 主语+系动词+表语(介词短语) 为什么 Are you going (to the station ) 主语+谓语+状语(介词短语) Are you sure (about the arrival time.) 主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语) We will be lucky (to get there before dark.) 主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(不定式短语) He had been in Germany for five years. 主语+系动词(过去完成时)+表语(介词短语) My idea is (to go there right today.) 主语+系动词+表语(不定式短语) Our dream has come true. 主语+系动词(现在完成)+表语(形容词)
He seems (to be working) very hard. 主语+系动词+表语(不定式短语) She is not aware of your (being)动名词 so lazy. =He is not aware that you are so lazy. 主语+系动词+表语+状语(介词短语含动名词) 或主谓宾 He was scolded for (telling) a lie. =He was scolded because he had told a lie. 主语+谓语(被动)+状语(介词短语含动名词) This picture is of his own painting. 主语(名词)+系动词+表语 He is (above telling) a lie. (他耻于说谎) 主语+系动词+表语(介词短语含动名词) Her eyes were tired (from long reading.) 主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+状语(介词短语) She sat up (reading) last night. 主语+谓语(不及物+介词)+主语补语(现在分词) The child kept crying all night. 主语+系动词+表语(现在分词)主语补语 We are pleased (that much is changing in china for the better.) 主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+从句做宾语,或者主+谓+宾语从句(pleased 后省略了 at) We are happy (to be part of this renewal process) (by what we teach our students.) 主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+宾语或原因状语(不定式短语)+状语(介词短语含从句 He is about to start for America. 主语+系动词+表语 主谓宾 不定式做介词的宾语 You (are to pay) your debt. 你应该还债 be 动词+不定式 主语+系动词+表语 主谓宾
I should be happy (to be) of any service to you. =if I am of any service to you I should be happy. 主语+系动词+表语+状语(不定式) He is (too ready to) criticize others. = He is very fond of criticizing others. 主语+系动词+表语+状语 Lincoln was born a poor farmer's boy and died President of United States. 主语+谓语+主语补语 He was taken for my brother. 主语+谓语+主语补语 The successful enterprise will go down (in local history) (as representing the best that our town can do.) 主语+谓语+状语+主语补语 He was regarded (as very promising.) 主语+谓语+补语 第二大类:主谓结构 (不及物动词) 1,He kept waiting very long. 主语(代词)+谓语(不及物动词)+主语补语(现在分词短语)+时间状语 He came (running) into the room. 主语(代词)+谓语+主语补语(现在分词短语)+地点状语 He admitted (taking the watch.) 主语(代词)+谓语+宾语(动名词) 与分词结构的对比,动名词经常后有宾语 2,A mouse ran (out) (from under the floor.) 主语(名词)+谓语+方位状语(副词)+地点状语(介词短语) The sun rises (in the east.) 主语(名词)+谓语+方位状语(介词短语) She left (shortly) after the meeting.
主语(代词)+谓语+副词(修饰介词短语)+时间状语(介词短语) She grew up (to be a diplomat.) 主语(代词)+谓语(不及物动词+介词或副词) +结果状语(不定式短语) 3,She remained (sitting alone in the dark) 主语(代词)+谓语+主语补语+状语(副词+介词短语构成) 4,He seemed disappointed. 主语(代词)+系动词+表语. He turned away disappointed. 主语(代词)+谓语(不及物+副词)+状语(过去分词) 5,She read slowly but distinctly. 主语(代词)+谓语+状语(副词) 6, Men eat (to live), but not live (to eat.) 主语(代词)+谓语+状语(不定式) !!! She has phoned to say that she will resign. 主语(代词)+谓语(现在完成时)+目的状语(不定式短语)!!! He studied hard (only to fail.) 主语(代词)+谓语+结果状语(不定式短语) She (woke suddenly) (to find someone standing in the doorway.) !! 主语(代词)+谓语+副词(修饰谓语)+结果状语(不定式短语) She (spoke so softly) (that I couldn't hear what she said.) 主语(代词)+谓语+副词+结果状语(从句) She lived (to see her son becoming the president.) !! 主语(代词)+谓语+结果状语(不定式短语含宾补) 7,He struggled (with courage.)
主语(代词)+谓语+状语(介词短语) Our desire always increases (with our possessions.) 主语(代词)+谓语+状语(介词短语) He smiled (in an encouraging way.) 主语(代词)+谓
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