各类测试特别是高考(N)MET 试题,历来都十分重视情景对话与交际用语知识点的考查,即强调 英语在活的语言环境中的交际功能。 而实际测试结果表明。 同学们在解答这一类型的单项选择题 时,对于所选答案是对还是错,往往心中没有底,把握不准。鉴于情景对话和交际用语选择题中 一般都存省略现象的特点, 我们认为, 验证此类试题答案的正确与否的最巧妙而又简便的方法是 “还原法”,其具体做法是:把你所选的答案选项中的省略成分给予补全,并还原成为一个意义 完整的句子,这样,你就能一眼看出你的选项是否与上、下文相符,迅速判断其正误。
  1.??Have a nice weekend! ??.(MET'
  92) A.The same to you 也祝你 周末愉快。)该祝贺用语与上文一致,故可断定:选项 A 是正确的。
  2.??John won first prize in the contest. ??.(MET'
  87) A.So he did 可还 原为:Indeed John won first prize in the contest.选项 A 是对上文提及的情况 给予一 种强调性的肯定,与上文相互呼应。故可断定:选项 A 是正确是。
  3.??David has made great progress recently. ??.and.(1997 年上海高考题) A.So he has,so you have C.So has he,so have you 简析:初选答案为 B。So he has 可还原为: Indeed David has made great progress recenetly. so have you 则可还原为:You have made great progess recently,too.选项 B 与 上文相 呼应,并保持意义一致。故可断定:选项 B 是正确的。
  4.??Do you mind my taking this seat? ??.(MET'
  90) A.Yes,sit down please C.Yes,take it please No,of course I don't mind your taking this seat.(at all).选项 B 与上文的问句相符,所以,它是正确的。
  5.??I wonder if I could use your telephone. ??.(NET'96,上海) A.I wonder how C.Sorry,it's out of order I'm sorry to say that you can't use my telephone,because it's out of order.如此看来,选项 C 与上文相 符, B.I don't wonder D.No wonder,here it is B.No,of course not D.No,you can't take it B.So he has,so have you D.So has he,so you have B.So did he C.So he did,too D.So did he,too 简析: 初选答案为 A。 “So he did.”结构中的 so 意为: indeed;certainly,etc.So he did. B.You do too C.The same as you D.You have it too 简析:初选答案为 A。The same to you.可还原为:Have a nice weekend to you,too!(我
简析:初选答案为 B。No,of course not.可还原为:
简析:初选答案为 C。要验证其是对是错,我们可将选项 C 还原为:
是正确的。
  6.??Wasn't it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now? ??.(上海 1996 年高考题) A.I don't know he was 选 项 B 与上文(问句)保持一致,相互呼应,所以是正确的选项。
  7.??Which would you rather have,tea or coffee? ??.(96 上海高考题) A.Sure,I would C.Yes,both 由此 可看出,选项 D 与上文相呼应,所以可断定它是正确的选项。
  8.??Would you do me a favour and give me a ride? ??.(1997 年上海高考题) A.Yes,that's right 选项 D 与 上文相呼应,是正确的选项。
  9.??Would you like some wine? ??Yes, Just.(MET'
  93) A.little C.a little 此可看 出,选项 C 是符合问句要求的,是对的。
  10.??Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow. ??.(NMET'
  94) A.I don't B.I won't C.I can't D.I haven't 简析: 初选答案是 B。 验证: I won't 还原为: won't forget to come to your birthday 将 I party tomorrow.由此可看出,选项 B 与上文相应,是正确的选项。 1998 年全国高考上海英语试题中有这样一道考题: caused the accident is still a complite mystery. A.What B.That C.How D.Where 该题的正确答案是 A。 很显然, 本题是为了考查学生是否掌握了 what 与 that 的实际含义及引导名词性从句时的用 法差异而设 定的。那 what 和 that 在引导名词性从句时究竟有怎样的差别呢? 一、what 当 what 用作连接代词,引导名词性从句时,可引导主语从句、表语从句和宾语从句(不可 引导同位语 从句);它本身在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语。 B.very little D.I haven't pleasure B.No trouble C.Never mind D.With pleasure 简析:初选答案为 D。把选项 D 还原为:I'd like/love to give you a ride.由此看出, B.Yes,please D.Neither,thank you B.Yes,it was C.No,he was not D.Yes,he did 简析: 初选答案为 B。 选项 B 可以还原为: Yes,it was Dr Wang who spoke to me just now.
简析: 初选答案为 D。 选项 D 可还原为: would rather have neither of them,thank you. I
简析:初选答案为 C。验证:将答句还原为:Yes.But I'd like just a little(wine).由

  1.what 表示“所以……的(事)”的意思,相当于“the thing(s) that…;all that…; that which…;everything that…;等。例如:
  1)Leave it with me and I'll see what I can do. (what 引导宾语从句并作 do 的宾语)
  2)What you have done might do harm to other people. (what 引导主语从句并在从句中作宾语)
  3)What he said at the meeting astonished everybody present. (what 引导主语从句并在从句中作宾语)
  4)What is most important in life isn't money. (what 引导主语从句,并在从句中作主语)
  5)But wait till you see what we'll make for you to your own measure. (what 引导宾语从句并在从句中作宾语)
  6)What he wanted to see was an end to all the armies of the world. (what 引导主语从句并在从句中作宾语)
  2.What 表示“所……的(人)”意思,相当于“the person that…”等。例如:
  1)He is not what he used to be.他已不是从前的他了。 (what 引导表语从句并在从句中作表语)
  2)She is no longer what she was five years ago. (what 引导表语从句并在从句中作表语) 二、that 当 that 用作连接词,引导名词性从句时,可引导主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语 从句,that 在从句中既不充当任何成分,也无实际意义,仅起着连接句子的作用。一般不可省略(宾语从句 除外)。 若从句置于句子后面,代词 it 作形式主语。例如:
  1)It worried her a bit that her hair was turning grey. (that 引导主语从句)
  2)It is a fact that Chinese is accepted as an international language. (that 引导主语从句)
  3)Can you believe (that)in such a rich country there should be so many poor people? themselves. (that 引导同位语从句)
  6)Another problem is that good soil is gradually lost. (that 引导表语从句)
  7)But the truth is that everyone should take care of disabled people,not just the government. NMET’99 有这样一道单项选择题: The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier,it more difficult. (that 引导表语从句) (that 引导宾语从句) (that 引导宾语从句)
  4)Tom felt that he knew everybody's business better than they knew it
  5)We heard the news that our team had won.
A.not make
B.not to make
C.not making
D.do not make
在解这道题之前,我们先来探讨以下三个问题: 一、对称原则及其在高考试题中的应用 并列连词 and.or,but,while 等连接的前后两个部分有某种对称性,或曰前后的词形要一 致。比如说前面是动词,后面也要是动词;前面是过去式,后面也要是过去式;前面是主动语态, 后面也要用主动语态,如此等等。掌握这种对称原则,对解单项填空和短文改错有很大用处。下 面举数例高考试题佐证。 例
  1:My brother while he his bicycle and hurt himself.(MET'
  89) A.fell,was riding C.had fallen,rode B.fell were riding D.had fallen,was riding
[分析]答案 A。根据对称原则,and 连接的并列谓语时态要一致,后面 hurt 是过去式,前面 也应用过去式 fell。while 从句表示 fell 动作发生的时间是“在骑自行车时”,应用过去进行 时。 例
  2:On saturday afternoon,Mr Green went to the market,some bananas and visited her cousin.(MET'
  91) A.bought B.buying C.to buy D.buy
[分析]答案 A。此题是含 and 连接的三个并列谓语,第一,三个动词用了过去式(went, visited),第二个必然要用过去式。 例
  3: Playing football not only makes up grow up tall and strong but also give us a sense of fair play and team spirit.(NMET'
  98) [分析] gives. 例
  4: They eager to know everything about
  93.China and asked me lots of questions. (NMET'
  96) [分析]在这道改错题中这句话的主语是 they,and 连接的并列谓语第二个是过去式 asked, 根据对称原则,第一个也应是过去式。但 eager 是形容词,前面须加 be 的过去形式 were. 二、对称原则中的省略现象 两个(或更多)作用相同的词,词组并列使用,后面一个为了避免重复而将与前面一个相同 not only … but also … 在这里连接并列谓语,根据对称原则,前面用的是一般
现在时单数第三人称形式 makes,后面一个应是一般现在时单数第三人称,故这行 give 应改为
的情态动词,助动词、不定式前面的 to 和名词前面的冠词等省略。高考试题中并列结构第二个 省略某些词语现象时有出现。又如: 例
  5:The police found that the houseand a lot of things .(MET'
  91) A.has broken into,has been stolen C.has been broken into,stolen B.had broken into,had been stolen D.had been broken into,stolen
[分析]答案 D。主句谓语动词 found 后有两个并列的宾语从句,因为其主语 the house 和 a lot of things 是物,谓语动词应用过去完成时被动语态。为避免重复第二省略了相同的助动 词 had been. 例
  6:The car was quite old but in excellent condition. 这部车子相当旧,但机器性能还非常好。 [分析]but 后省略了相同的连系动词 were. 例
  7:The noun is the name of a person or thing.名词是人或物的名称。 [分析]thing 前省略了相同的冠词 a. 例
  8: It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their ho me.(NMET'
  96)
  89.. [分析]此题 it 是形式主语,and 连接两个不定式 to meet me 和 to drive me 是真正的主 语。为避免重复第二个不定式要省略 to,所以 drove 要改成 drive. 三、具有对比意义时,第二个不定式不省略 to To be or not to be ??that is the question.是生是死,就是问题所在。 I came not to scold,but to praise you.我来不是骂你,而是夸你的。 To try anf fail is better than not to try at all.尝试失败总比不尝试好。 两个不定式相距较远,即使中间没有对比关系,为避免意思上的含混,后面不定式 to 也不 省略。如:
We are to take the train to Hancow and after that to travel up the Changjiang River by ship. 我们将坐火车到汉口,然后再坐船沿长江往上行。
现在回到本文开头的那道高考题,它含有用逗号分开的两个不定式短语, to make life easier 和 not tomake it more difficulet,句中并列作连系动词 be(is)的表 语,因为有强烈的对比意义,不定式符号 to 不省略,所以 B 为其正确答案。
对于英语学习者来说,动词是最难学的一个实词类别。纵观历届高考命题,有关动词的内容占的 比例相当大,它常常与时态、语态、语境交际等诸方面揉合起来,进行综合测试。通过研悟高考 试题,我们会发现常考的可圈可点的高考英语“主打”动词有以下一些。 一、表示“使/让……”概念的动词 这类动词常见的有: have,let,make,get,keep,drive,send,leave,force,cause 等.它们后边分别可跟不定 式,分词,形容词、介词短语,名词等作宾语补足语。 例如:I felt sorry to have kept you waiting for me so long.对不起,让你久等了。 The victory sent our spirits rising.胜利使得我们情绪高涨。 二、不定式做宾补,不定式符号可以省略的动词 常 见 的 有 ; see,watch,hear,observe,feel,notice,listen to,llook at 等 感 官 动 词及 表 示使 役 概 念的 have,let,mak 等。这类词在变为被动语态时,其后不定式符号 to 常补出。 例如:We are made to work far into the night.我们被迫干活到深夜。注;在这种结构中,watch, have,let 一般不变为被动语态。如: The boy was watched to come out。(误) 三、不定式作宾语补足语,其后内容省略而只保留不定式符号的动词此类动词常见的有; refuse,want,intend,oblige,mean,expect,tell,hope,like,love,plan, try, prefer,wish 如:Why did you cause the baby cry?Idid n't mean to. 四、引导宾语从句用虚拟预期的动词这类动词在引导宾语从句从句时常用:should+动词原形, should 可以省略,常见的有:order ,demend,suggest,insist,require,advise,decide,propose 等。例如 He orderd that we should do it at once. 他 要 求 我 们 立 即 完 成 这 项 工 作 。 He adviced we should do more speaking practising inorder to
 

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