isis of his illness. 我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。

  2)选择性疑问从句 选择性疑问从句由关联词 if/whether…or或whethe…or not构成, 例如: Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典 人还是丹麦人。 I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。

  2. 情态助动词表推测
can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测, 其用法如下:
  1)情态动词+动词原形。 表示对现在或将来的情况的推测,此时 动词通常为系动词。 I don't know where she is. She may be in Wuhan.
  2)情态动词+动词现在进行时。 表示对现在或将来正在进行的情况进行 推测。 At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers. 这时,我们老师想必在批改试卷。

  3)情态动词+动词完成时。 表示对过去情况的推测。 We would have finished this work by the end of next December. 明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。 The road is wet. It must have rained last night. 地是湿的,昨天晚上一定下雨了。
  4)情态动词+动词的现在完成进行时。 表示对过去正在发生事情的推测。 Your mother must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。
推测的否定形式,疑问形式用can't, couldn't表示。 Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车,因为 早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。 注意:could, might表示推测时不表 示时态,其推测的程度不如can, may。
情态动词+ have +过去分词 情态动词+ +过去分词

  1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去,推测过去时间里 可能发生的事情。 Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident. Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.
  2) must have +done sth,对过去时间里可能 发生的事情的推测,语气较强,具有"肯定", "谅必"的意思。 Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here. She must have gone by bus.

  3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth. 本应该做某事,而事实上并没有做。否 定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。 You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment. He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.(事实上已扔了。) ought to 在语气上比should 要强。
  4) needn't have done sth 本没必要做某事 I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot.
  5) would like to have done sth本打算做某事 I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then.

  3. 大学英语四级中常考搭配
…for… be in for call for care for have a fancy for 1,一定会遭到(麻烦等); 2,参加(竞赛等) 要求,需要 1,照管,关心; 2,喜欢,中 意 爱好,喜爱,迷恋
on (the) alert against\for 警戒着,防备着
…in… abound with\in be abundant in …decrease\increase in persist in give in 1,(物产)丰富; 2,富于,充 满 丰富,富于 减少\增长 坚持 1,投降,屈服; 2,交上,呈 上
…of… at the cost of be aware of be capable of be composed of be free from\of by means of by virtue of for the sake of 以…为代价 意识到,知道的 有能力的,能干得出谋事的 组成,构成 免…的,无…的 借助于 借助,由于 为了…起见,看在…的份上
get rid of in honor of in spite of in terms of in the name of on (the) ground of rob sb. of sth.
处理掉,丢弃,摆脱,除去 向…表示敬意,为纪念 1,不顾,不管; 2,尽管,虽然 1,就…而言; 2,以…来表示 以…的名义 根据 抢劫,(非法)剥夺
…on… congratulate sb. on sth. cast\shed\throw light (up) on elaborate on press sth. on sb. live on 因为谋事祝贺某人 使明白,阐明 对…作详细说明 把…强加于别人 靠…生活,以…为食
…to… adapt oneself to be bound for\to be bound to do bump into get down to in proportion to one’s attitude towards\to owing to prior to run into with\in respect to
使自己适应 准备到…去的,开往…的 一定,必定 偶然碰到,遇见 开始,着手 按…的比例,与…成正比 对…的态度 由于 在…之前 1,遭遇(困难等); 2,偶然碰 见; 3,共计 关于,至于
…with… be honest with sb. be on (good) terms with catch up with deposit sth. with sb. identical to\with in comparison with (in) conflict with in harmony (with) 对某人诚实 与…关系(好) 追上,赶上 把某物寄存在某人那里 同一的,同样的 与…相比较 冲突,抵触 协调,和谐,融洽

  4. 倒装
倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置 于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时 和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:
  1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于 句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter.

  2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句 首,谓语表示运动的动词。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必 须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全 倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went.
倒装句之部分倒装
部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主 语之前。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需 添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。
  1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。 Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当Not until引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep.
典型例题

  1) Why can't I smoke here? At no time in the meeting-room A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit
  2) Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is. A. man did know B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know
答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于 句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结 构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序 是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time. 答案D. 看到Not until…的句型,我们知道 为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现 在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意 思就变了。
以否定词开头作部分倒装
Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 典型例题 No sooner than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began B. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun 答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓 语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。 注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个 分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两 个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music.
nor作部分倒装 so, neither, nor作部分倒装 表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。 Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. 典型例题 Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? I don't know, . A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。 A错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏 连词。 D缺乏连词。 注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或 肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. It's raining hard. So it is.
only在句首要倒装的情况 only在句首要倒装的情况 Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒 装,从句不倒装 Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.
as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提 前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。 注意:
  1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。
  2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。 如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在 主语之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意: 让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后 面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。
其他部分倒装
  1) so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒 装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.
  2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy.
  3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分 倒装。 Were I you, I would try it again.
典型例题:
  1) Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is A. man did know B. man knew C. didn't man know D. did man know
  2) Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realize
  3) Do you know Tom bought a new car? I don't know, . A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also

  1)答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用 部分倒装的句子结构。
  2)答案为B。
  3)答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结 构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引 导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。 其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用 在否定句中。

  1: Additional Grammar
  1: 四级常考句型结构

  1)”It is (was) said/ reported/ believed that…” “据说/报道;人们都认为…”
  2)”As” 作连词,”按照…的那样; 和…一样” -- We have made changes in our plans for a new science park as you suggested.
  3)”May/ might (just) as well” 意思为: “不妨,也无妨” -- It’s too late to go to the movies so we may as well watch TV.

  4)”感官动词+as if: taste/ look/ smell/ sound/ feel as if” “尝起来/看起来/闻起来/听起来/感觉”
  5)”As many as/ as much as” “和…一样多” 如果要表示倍数概念则把倍数概念的词放as much as 或as many as之前 -- We spent twice as much time on this exercise as we did on that one.
  6)”Only to” 常用来表示某人做了某事后出现失望 或惊讶的结果 -- Scott arrived at the South Pole on Jan. 18th, only to find that someone had got there before him.

  7)”With+ noun+ complement”结构表示”随 着…” -- With his physical condition improving day by day, the patient’s mood has changed visibly.
  8)”So much so that” 从句 意为”到…程度以致…” -- She herself believed in freedom, so much so that she would rather die than live without it.
  9)”Assuming (that)”从句 意为”假设,假定…”,作 条件状语 -- Assuming (that) this painting really is a Picasso, how much do you think it’s worth?

  10)”Only” 引导的条件状语置于句首,谓语应倒装. -- Only when I myself became a mother did I realize the value of my parents’ advice.
  11)句型”know better than to do sth.”意为”明事 理而不至于做某事” -- You ought to know better than to go swimming right after lunch.
  12)”be+of+n. “这种句型相当于be+与此名词相应 的形容词,在句中做后置定语或表语. -- The book is of no value to one who is not familiar with the subject.

  13)”find+oneself+形容词/现在分词/过去分词/介 词短语”, 这种结构意为:”突然发现自己处于… 境地或情况”. -- When the passenger woke up, he found himself lying in a hospital ward.
  14)”If only…”引导带虚拟语气的条件状语从句,意 思是”要是…该多好”表示一种与事实相反的 愿望. -- If only it were that simple.
  15)”When it comes to”结构 意思是”谈到…;说 起...”. -- Women are not smarter than men when it comes to emotional intelligence, nor are men smarter than women.

  16)”Not all/ everyone/ everything” 句型表部 分否定,意思是:”并非所有人(事)都…”. -- Speaking of hamburgers not all Americans like them.
  17)”Come to do sth.”句型表示经过长时间的 过程后才逐渐… -- Often it is in overcoming hardships that we come to appreciate the value of life.
  18)”Chances are that…”后接从句表示很有可 能,可能性极大. -- If they don’t agree to work extra
 

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