Unit One 名词和代词
名词 数
可数 (单数,复数) 不可数 单数,复数)
所有格 ‘s, of
名词的种类

  1)专有名词 Europe ,the USA(普通名词合成) , 互联网 USA(普通名词合成)
  2)
普通名词
个体名词 集体名词 物质名词 抽象名词
名词的数与格
可数名词的数
  1.规则(--s,--es, --ves)
  1.规则(--s --es, --ves)
  2.不规则(特殊记忆词汇,合成词)
  2.不规则(特殊记忆词汇,合成词)
  3. 抽象名词、不可数名词与具体名词的转换
名词有单、复数形式,单数前可以使用a/an;不可 名词有单、复数形式,单数前可以使用a/an;不可 数名词没有复数形式,一般前面不用a/an,但是可 数名词没有复数形式,一般前面不用a/an,但是可 以用the 以用the 名词可数与否,影响句子中的谓语的单复数及其 限定词的使用 There is much/a lot of /a great deal of water. There are many jobs. 主要的不可数名词: Advice, accommodation, baggage/luggage, cash, behavior, clothing, equipment, furniture, garbage, harm, information, knowledge, luck, machinery, money, music, news, nonsense, paper, permission, produce, progress, scenery, sweat, traffic, weather
不规则的名词复数
表示“某国人” 表示“某国人” 的名词,单复数形式的几种变化:
  1. 单复数同形: a Chinese??two Chinese; a Japanesetwo Japanese Chinese??two Japanesetwo
  2. 词尾加 ?s: a Russiantwo Russians; a Germantwo Germans Russiantwo Germantwo
  3. 变man 为men: an Englishmantwo Englishmen; Englishmantwo a Dutchmantwo Dutchmen Dutchmantwo
复合名词的复数

  1. 写成一个词,中间无连字符,在词尾加-s 写成一个词,中间无连字符,在词尾加bathroombathrooms; blackboardblackboards bathroombathrooms; blackboardblackboards
  2. 分开写,中间无连字符,一般在词尾加-s,但第一部分 分开写,中间无连字符,一般在词尾加为man或woman时,两部分同时变复数。 man或woman时,两部分同时变复数。 girl friendgirl friends; friendgirl woman doctorwomen doctors doctorwomen
  3. 有连字符,若有名词,在主体名词后变复数;若无名词, 则在整个名词后变复数: looker-on??lookerslooker-on??lookers-on; sister-in-law ??sisters-in-law; sister-in??sisters-ingrown- ??growngrown-up ??grown-ups; go-between ??go-betweens go??go-
可数与不可数名词的转换
  1.蔬菜,动物的名词,一般是可数的,但作为食
  1.蔬菜,动物的名词,一般是可数的,但作为食 物时,转为不可数名词 They grow their own carrots. Good stew must contain carrot. There are few lambs in the zoo. Would you like some lamb?
  2.物质名词或者抽象名词一般不可数,用来指具
  2.物质名词或者抽象名词一般不可数,用来指具 体对象可数 Beer is refreshing. He had two beers.

  3.抽象名词前后有修饰语表示特定意义时,
  3.抽象名词前后有修饰语表示特定意义时, 可以看做可数 There is a certain honesty about this man which forces me to admire him.
  4.某些物质名词或者抽象名词用作复数时,意
  4.某些物质名词或者抽象名词用作复数时,意 义有所变化。 Light travels faster than sound. Do you have lights in the corridor?
名词的格(所有格表示名词的所有或所属关系 的形式
  1. ?’s 属格
  1)单数名词或不以s结尾的名词后加“ ’s” . )单数名词或不以s结尾的名词后加“ Mary and Jane’s car Mary’s and Jane’s cars Jane’ car Mary’ Jane’
  2)以-s或-es结尾的复数名词后,只加“ ’ ”
  2)以 es结尾的复数名词后,只加“ the boys’ room; the girls’ skirts boys’ girls’

  2. Of 属格: 属格: the meaning of the word; the cover of the book;
  3. 双重属格”of+’s所有格“: 双重属格”of+’ 所有格“ 在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、数词、不 定代词或指示代词(如a, 定代词或指示代词(如a, two, some, a few, this, that, those, these等)时,应使用双重属格, these等)时,应使用双重属格, 表示”许多…中的一个(或一部分)“ 表示”许多…中的一个(或一部分)“ a student of my father’s grandmother father’ that novel of Dickens’ Dickens’
‘s 和of 的区别
  1. 有生命的名词倾向使用‘s, 有生命的名词倾向使用‘ her family’s pride; family’ Tom’ Tom’s and Frank’s bikes (汤姆和弗兰克各自的自行车) Frank’ (汤姆和弗兰克各自的自行车)
  2. 表示“店铺”、“某家人 ”的所有格,用‘s 表示“店铺” 的所有格,用‘ the tailor’s 裁缝铺; the Zhang’s 张家; tailor’ 裁缝铺; Zhang’ at my aunt’s 在我姑姑家 aunt’
  3. 无生命的名词一般用of 短语。 无生命的名词一般用of the wall of the house; the workshop of the plant (工厂的车 (工厂的车 间)
  4. 修饰名词的定语较长,或属格的名词后有修饰语时,用 of属格。 of属格。 Do you know the name of the teacher standing over there? She is the dean of the English department in this university.
双重属格: 双重属格: a.双重属格表示所有关系是人,不是物 a.双重属格表示所有关系是人,不是物 some sons of Mr. Hamilton b.双重属格还表示感情 b.双重属格还表示感情 Look at those dirty hands of yours.
代词
性 阴 阳中 数 单数 复数 格 主格 宾格
代词的种类
人称代词各人称单复数形式及对应的 人称代词各人称单复数形式及对应的 主宾格 物主代词名词性、形容词性 物主代词名词性、形容词性 反身代词单复数 反身代词单复数
代词的顺序: You/he and I we and you/they You and he you and they You, he and I we, you and they 注意we 注意we 和us 的用法 The witnesses were we clerks. The judge lectured us drivers. Two of us were chosen.
Error Correction :
  1.There is nothing us we waitors can do.
  2. The mayor was busy talking to the strangers, forgetting we old friends.
  3. It was her who missed the train.
  4. Tom listened to the instructions carefully, but he could not remember it clearly.
反身代词
常用反身代词 a. Beside oneself 发狂,忘形 John is beside himself with anger. b.All by oneself Did you do your homework all by yourself? c. For oneself Mary is old enough to do it for itself.
Error correction:

  1.

  2.
  3.

  4.

  5.
You spent your money buying a new car. We put our in the bank. Where is that DVD of their’s? their’ Do you put “Your’s truly” at the end of your Your’ truly” letter? The dog is lying on its back, but I don’t know don’ whether its dead or alive. The old lady covered hers face with both hands.
不定代词
使用注意事项:
  1. 不定代词作主语时,要注意主谓一致问题; 如both 是复数,而either, neither则是单数。 是复数,而either, neither则是单数。 all指人时一般做复数,指物时一般是单数. all指人时一般做复数,指物时一般是单数.
  2. 不定代词修饰可数名词或不可数名词的情 况:many/much; 况:many/much; few/little
each vs. every Each of us has a new English-Chinese dictionary. EnglishWe have a new book each. (副词) (副词) Every other (或数词)+名词=“每隔…” (或数词)+名词= 每隔…” every other day; every other line; every other four years
many vs. much many修饰或代替可数名词;much修饰或代 many修饰或代替可数名词;much修饰或代 替不可数名词 There are not many mistakes in your homework. Many of the girls are good at english. Much of what you said is true. He has much work today.
All Both , either ,neither Few, a few, little, a little No, none One ,another, the other Some ,any
复合不定代词 This is a story about four people called Everybody, Somebody, Nobody, and Anybody. There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it. But Everybody knew Anybody could do it as it was not so difficult and thought that Somebody really ought to do it. As it turned out Nobody did it and Everybody was very angry because Nobody had done what Anybody could have done and Somebody should have done.
I am only one; but still I am one. I cannot do , but still I can do something. I will not refuse to do I can do. A. all, what B. anything, something C. everything, those D. everything, the something 我虽只有一人,但至少是一个人。我虽不能样样都 做,但至少可以做些事。而因为我不能样样都 做,所以我不会拒绝做我能做的一些事。
anything but 决不是,并非;nothing but只是, 决不是,并非;nothing but只是, 只不过 The problem is anything but easy. He is interested in nothing but money and fame. Every day he is either busy making money or busy being important. Cf. Her French is anything but correct. Her French is nothing but correct.

  1. It is impossible for so workers to do so work in a single day. A. few; much B. few; many C. little; much D. little; many
  2. There are two windows in his bedroom. of them face south, overlooking a beautiful park. A. Both B. One C. The two D. Either
  3. Neither my wife nor myself able to persuade my daughter to change her mind. A. am B. are C. were D. are not
  4.The tenth and the last chapter translated by Mr. Green. A. are B. was C. is D. has been
  5. The United Stated must look out for the rights of citizens. A. its B. their C. our D. your

  6. Another five weeks needed for us to finish the work. A. are B. was C. is D. were
  7. Those of us who are over fifty years old should get blood pressure checked regularly. A. their B. his C. our D. theirs
  8. I have eleven novels. Nine of them are Chinese, and are English. A. others B. the others C. the other D. another
  9. This is not my coat. It’s . It’ A. my daughter’s B. of my daughter’s daughter’ daughter’ C. of my daughter D. to my daughter
 

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