Text A scientific attitudes
  1.attitude n. 姿势,姿态;态度,看法
  1)The plane was in a nose-down attitude. (飞机处于俯冲姿态。)
  2)They decided to take an attitude of wait and see to/toward the new policy. (他们决定对新政策采取观望 态度。)
  3)We should adopt a correct attitude about tests. (对考试我们应抱正确的态度。) 环境,周围状况,
  2.environment n. 环境,周围状况,自然环境
  1)A child can easily adjust to changes in the environment. (孩子很容易适应环境的变化。)
  2)They promised to provide us a good environment for work and rest. (他们许诺为我们提供良好的工作或休息环境。)
  3)Science offers us total mastery over environment and over our destiny. (科学赋予我们控制环境掌握命运的能力。)
  4)He grew up in an environment of poverty. (他在贫穷的环境中长大。) environmental adj. 环境的 environmental protection 环境保护 environmental pollution 环境污染 environmental biology 环境生物学,生态学 environmental engineer 环境工程师 好奇(
  3.curiosity n. 好奇(心) 好奇的; curious adj. 好奇的;离奇古怪的

  1)He walked to the silent old man out of curiosity. (出于好奇,他向那位沉默寡言的老人走去。)
  2)She showed great curiosity about my past. (她对我的过去显示出莫大的好奇。)
  3)Children are curious about everything. (儿童对什么都感到好奇。)
  4)Not long after they left, a curious thing happened. (他们走后不久,一件古怪的事情发生了。) 想像,想像力;幻觉;
  4.imagination n. 想像,想像力;幻觉;应变能力 imagine v. 想像;料想 想像;
  1)He is a writer of rich imagination. (他是一个富有想像力的作家。)
  2)No one moved in the bushes, it was only your imagination. (没人在树丛里走动,只是你的幻觉而已。)
  3)Due to his lack of imagination, he just didn't know what to do next. http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn
  4)It is hard to imagine life with electricity. (很难想像没有电,生活会是怎样。)
  5)I imagine he will come tomorrow. (我料想他明天会来。) 请注意区别下面三个形容词 imaginative,imaginary,imaginable
  1)It is an imaginative tale. (这是个虚构的故事。)
  2)The teacher is waiting for imaginative answer. (老师正等待着具有丰富想像力的回答。)
  3)The equator is an imaginary circle around the earth. (赤道即假想的环绕地球的大圆。)
  4)an imaginary enemy (假想敌)
  5)They said they would save the patient by every means imaginable. (他们说他们会用尽一切想得出的方法抢救病人。) (imaginable 常与最高级形容词或 all,every,only 等连用,放在被修饰的名词的后面。 ) 分离,
  5.apart adv. 分离,分开
  1)The two schools are 20 miles apart. (两校相距 20 英里。)
  2)I cannot tell these two things apart. (我无从区分这两件东西。)
  3)Apart from what he mentioned just now, there are some other causes for the failure. (除了他刚才提到的,还有一些其他的失败原因。)
  4)He took the machine apart to see what was wrong. (他把机器拆开,看看出了什么毛病。) 刺激,
  6.stimulate v. 刺激,激励 stimulation n. 刺激,激励 刺激,
  1)Praise stimulated the students to make greater efforts. (表扬激励学生作更大的努力。)
  2)Exercise stimulates the flow of blood. (锻练促进血液循环。)
  3)TV, if properly used, can stimulate a child's imagination. (电视如果使用适当能激发孩子的想像力。)
  4)The intention of lowering interest rates is to stimulate the economy and develop industries. (降低利率的打算是为了刺激经济,发展工业。)
  5)Young children needs stimulation. (年幼的孩子需要激励。) 不留心的,
  7.regardless adj. 不留心的,不注意的 不顾, adv. 不顾,不惜

  1)He crushed the bloom with regardless tread. (他毫不在意一脚践踏了鲜花。)
  2)There may be difficulties but I shall carry on regardless. (可能会遇到种种困难,但不管怎样,我将继续干下去。)
  3)I'm buying the book, regardless of the cost. (不管价钱如何,我都打算买下那本书。) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn
请注意区别 regardless of 和 in spite of
  1)The plane will take off, regardless of the weather. (不管天气好坏,飞机都将起飞。)
  2)The plane took off in spite of the bad weather. (尽管天气不好,飞机还是起飞了。) 让人不愉快的 不合心意的; 愉快的,
  8.disagreeable adj. 让人不愉快的,不合心意的;难相处的 disagree v. 不同意;不符;不适宜 不同意;不符;
  1)She is disagreeable towards me. (她对我不友好。)
  2)This medicine has a very disagreeable smell. (这药有一股很难闻的气味。)
  3)I disagree with you on that point. (在那一点上我跟你意见不同。)
  4)The damp weather disagrees with me. (潮湿的天气使我不舒服。) 失败;
  9.failure n. 失败;变弱 fail v. 失败;变弱;使失望 失败;变弱;
  1)His plans ended in failure. (他的计划以失败告终。)
  2)The power failure caused heavy losses. (供电中断造成严重的损失。)
  3)His carelessness resulted in his failure of the exam. (他的粗心致使他考试不及格。)
  4)I failed in persuading him. (我没能说服他。)
  5)His eyesight is failing. (他的视力在衰退。)
  6)His courage failed him. (他失去了勇气。)
  10.solution n. 解决办法 solve v. 解决
  1)The loan was only a temporary solution to the country's financial difficulties. (借贷只能暂时解决这个国家的经济困难。)
  2)After a day's careful thought, he came up with a good solution. (经过一天的仔细考虑,他才想出一个 好办法。)
  3)We should work together on the solution of our national problems. (我们应该一起解决我们国家的问 题。)
  4)I really don't know how to solve the problem. (我真不知道如何解决这个问题。)
  5)They found a new way of solving the problem. (他们找到了解决这个问题的新办法。) (请注意用 solution 这个名词时,通常用 a solution to a problem 表示“问题的解决办法。 。 ”)
  11. 使适应,使适合;
  11.adapt v. 使适应,使适合;改写
  1)We should adapt our thinking to the new conditions. (我们应该使自己的思想适应新的情况。) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn

  2)Some animals will modify their behavior to adapt to their environment. (一些动物改变它们的习性以适应环境。)
  3)Can you adapt your way of thinking to the new life-style? (你能使你的思想适应新的生活方式吗?)
  4)They adapt a novel for the screen. (他们把小说改编为电影。) 请注意 adapt 和 adopt 的区别,adopt 意为“采用;收养” 。
  1)They are going to adopt new techniques in raising silkworms. (他们准备采用新的养蚕技术。)
  2)A little girl was adopted into the family. (一个小女孩被收养为家庭一员。) 完美的;
  12. perfect adj. 完美的;完全的 使完美, v. 使完美,改善

  1)He speaks perfect English. (他说一口地道的英语。)
  2)The actor is perfect for the part. (由这位演员担任这一角色再理想不过了。)
  3)He is in perfect health. (他身体十分健康。)
  4)He is a perfect stranger. (他是个完全陌生的人。)
  5)They decided to send their son to England to perfect his English. (他们决定把儿子送到英国去提高他的英语水平。)
  13. acceptable adj. 可以接受的 accept v. 接受
  1)This proposal is acceptable to all. (这个建议大家都能接受。)
  2)Tom received an acceptable marks on the test. (汤姆在测验中的分数尚可。)
  3)Don't accept everything you see on TV as true. (别以为在电视上看到的一切都是真实的。)
  4)I didn't expect him to accept my suggestion. (我没指望他接受我的建议。)
  5)The plan has won wide acceptance among the people. (这个计划受到了人们的普通欢迎。)
  6)He nodded in delighted acceptance. (他愉快地点头表示赞同。) 发现; 调查或研究)结果; (调查或研究
  14. evidence n. 发现; 调查或研究)结果;根据 ( evident adj. 明显的
  1)Do you have any evidence for this statement? (你这样说有任何根据吗?)
  2)There are evidences that somebody has been living here. (迹象表明有人一直住在这儿。)
  3)It is evident that we do not understand each other. (显然,我们彼此不了解。)
  4)He spoke with evident disappointment. (他带着明显的失望说话。)
  5)We can say with good evidence that their work is one of the best. (我们有充分的证据说明他们的工作是最好的。) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn
  15. determine v. 决定;确定 determined adj. 下决心的 determination n. 决心;结论 决心;
  1)He has determined on a course of action. (他已决定了行动计划。)
  2)The police wanted to determine all the facts. (警察想查明全部事实。)
  3)His father is determined to quit smoking. (他父亲决心戒烟。)
  4)He made his determination after he read the test report. (他在看了化验报告后下了结论。)
  5)Mr. Smith is a man of determination. (史密斯先生是个有决断力的人。)
  16. growth n. 生长 grow v. 生长
  1)The growth in tourism is really astonishing. (旅游业的发展实在令人惊异。)
  2)The rapid growth of world population is creating more and more problems. (世界人口的迅速发展带来了越来越多的问题。)
  3)His hair has grown too long. (他的头发长得太长了。)
  4)Friendship grew between them. (他们之间产生了友情。)
  5)You will grow used to it. (你会渐渐对此习惯的。)
Affixation 词缀法
  1. 形容词后缀 -able disagreeable acceptable
  2. 副词后缀 -ly scientifically previously entirely frequently
  3. 名词后缀 -ion imagination solution
  4. 反义词前缀 ununknown unpleasant
在“Scientific Attitudes”这篇课文中,作者指出科学始于人类对周围环境的疑问。当人类具有去伪存真 的能力时,科学也开始迅猛发展。好奇和想像是有助于推动科学发现和发展重要素质。作者还认为具有科学
头脑的人相信“因果”关系。任何现象的存在必有原因,只是有些尚未被发现。思想开放、无偏见;尊重别 人的观点;凡事以事实为依据都是科学的态度。

  1.Benjamin Franklin:富兰克林(17
  06-1790 年) ,美国政治家及科学家。美国 18 世纪名列华盛顿 后的最著名的人物,参加起草独立宣言。在科学方面进行过有名的电实验,并对电做了理论说明。只受过极 短的正规教育,全靠勤奋自学成才。法国经济学家杜尔哥颂扬他“从天空抓到雷电,从专制统治者手
中夺回权力” 。

  2.Thomas Edison:爱迪生(18
  47-1931 年) ,美国发明家。技术历史中显著的天才之一,拥有白炽 灯、留声机、电影放映机等 1093 种发明专利,还创办了世界上第一个工业研究实验室。
  64-1642 年) ,意大利物理学家及天文学家。对现代科学思想的发展作出过 重大贡献。最早用望远镜观察天体,并曾用大量事实证明地球环绕太阳转,否定地心说。
  4.Louis Pasteur:巴斯德(18
  22-1895 年)法国化学家及微生物学家。证明发酵及传染病是微生物 引起的,创始并首先应用疫苗接种以预防狂犬病、鸡霍乱等,挽救了法、英等国的养蚕业和啤酒业。
  5.Edward Jenner:金纳(17
  49-1823 年) ,英国医生,牛痘接种法创始人。历经周折使牛痘接种法 得以公认,并传播到欧美大陆及全世界,使天花的病死率大为下降。

  1.Science had its beginning when man started asking questions about his environment. 句中的 beginning 是一个名词,意思是“开始、开端、 例如: ”
  1)We had too much rain at the beginning of the month. (月初雨水过多。 )
  2)He has made a good beginning in the field of publishing. (他在出版领域做出了良好的开端。 ) 在动词 start 的后面,可以用动名词作宾语,也可以用不定式。一般来说,如果表示有意识地“开始
做某事” ,多用动名词,否则用不定式更多一些,如:

  1)We started working on it in 19
  99. (我们是 1999 年开始这项工作的。)
  2)Suddenly it started to rain.(突然下起雨来。 )
  2.He sought answers to these and other questions. 本句中的 sought 是动词 seek 的过去分词。seek answers to… “寻找…答案” 是介词,常与 answer ,to 这类名词连用。例如:
  1)The answer to your question is very simple. (你的问题答案很简单)
  2)I haven't found the solution to the problem yet. (我还没找到解决这个问题的办法)
  3)He couldn't find the key to the door. (他找不到开这个门的钥匙) http//:www.edu-edu.com.cn
  3.Not all his answer were correct, but at least he did want to know. Not al



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