Passage One In January 1989,the Community of European Railways presented their proposal for a high speed pan-European train network, extending from Sweden to Sicily and from Portugal to Poland by the year 20
  20. If their proposal becomes a reality,it will revolutionize train travel in Europe. Journeys between major cities will take half the time they take today. Brussels will be only one and half hours from Paris. The quickest way to get from Paris to Frankfurt,from Barcelona to Madrid will be by train,not plane. When the network is complete,it will integrate three types of railway line,totally new high-speed lines,with trains operating its speeds of 300kms per hour;upgraded lines,which allow for speeds up to 200 to 225 kms per hour and existing lines,for local connections and distribution of freight. If business people can choose between a 3-hour train journey from city center to city center and 1-hour flight,they'll choose the train,said an executive travel consultant. They won't go by plane anymore. If you calculate flight time,check in and travel to and from the
airport,you'll find almost no difference and if your plane arrives late due to bad weather or air traffic jams or strikes,then the train passengers will arrive at their destination first. Since France introduced the first 260-km per hour high speed train service between Paris and Lyons in 1981,the trains have achieved higher and higher speeds. On many routes,airlines have lost up to 90 percent of their passengers to high speed trains. If people accept the community of European Railways' plan,the 21st century will be the new age of the train. Questions 26-29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  26.What is the proposal presented by the Community of the European Railways?
  27.What will happen when the proposal becomes a reality?
  28.Why will business people prefer a 3-hour train journey to a 1-hour flight?
  29.When did France introduce the first high speed train service?
Passage Three Articles in magazines and newspapers and special reports on radio and television reflect the concern of many Americans about the increasing drop-out rate in our junior and senior high schools.
Coupled with this fact is the warning that soon we will no longer have a work force to fill the many jobs that require properly educated personnel. The high student drop-out rate is not a recent development. Ten years ago,many urban schools were reporting drop-out rates between 35 and 50 percent. Some administrators maintain that drop-outs remain the single greatest problem in their schools. Consequently,much effort has been spent on identifying students with problems in order to give them more attention before they become failures. Since the drop-out problem doesn't start in senior high school,special programs in junior high school focus on students who show promise but have a record of truancy?that is staying away from school without permission. Under the guidance of counselors,these students are placed in classes with teachers who have had success in working with similar young people. Strategies to motivate students in a high school include rewarding academic excellence by designating scholars of the month,or by issuing articles of clothing,such as school letter jackets formerly given only to athletes.
No one working with these students claims to know how to keep all students in school. Counselors,teachers and administrators are in the frontlines of what seems at times to be a losing battle. Actually,this problem should be everyone's concern since
uneducated,unemployed citizens affect us all. Questions 33 to 35 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  33.Why are many Americans concerned with the increasing drop-out rate in school?
  34.What do we learn about the student drop-out problem in America?
  35.What is mentioned as one of the strategies used to motivate students?
Passage Two It seems to me that neighbors are going out of style in America. The friend next door from whom you borrowed four eggs or a ladder has moved and the people in there now are strangers. Some of the traditional stories of neighborliness are impractical or silly,and it may be just as well that our relations with our neighbors are changing. The saying in the Bible "Love Thy Neighbor" was probably a poor
translation of what must have originally been "Respect Thy Neighbor." Love can't be called up on order. Fewer than half the people in the United States live in the same house they lived in five years ago,so there's no reason to love the people who live next door to you just because they happened to wander into a real estate office that listed the place next door to yours. The only thing neighbors have in common,to begin with,is proximity,and unless something more develops,that isn't reason enough to be best friends. It sometimes happens naturally,but the chances are very small that your neighbors will be you choice as friends. Or that you will be theirs,either. The best relationship with neighbors is one of friendly distance. You say hello,you small-talk if you see them in the yard,you discuss problems as they arise and you help each other in an emergency. The driveway or the fence between you is not really a cold shoulder,but a clear boundary. We all like clearly-defined boundaries for ourselves. Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. 30 What does the speaker say about the relations among
neighbors nowadays? 31 Why does the speaker say it may be difficult for people to love their neighbors? 32 What should neighbors do in the speaker's opinion?
Passage One Water scooters are water vehicles that look very much like motorcycles. Nowadays,speedy,colorful water scooters are gaining in popularity. They can travel anywhere a small boat can and particularly popular with young people. The rising popularity of the craft has raised the question of water scooter regulation. In this case,the argument for strict regulation is compelling. Water scooters are a particularly deadly form of water recreation. For example,two women were vacationing in Longboat Key while they were floating on the rubber boat along the shore,a water scooter crashed into them and kill them. Also water scooter operators have been killed or seriously injured in collisions with other water craft. Others have been stranded at the sea when their scooters either failed or sank far from shore.
Many water scooter operators are inexperienced and ignorant of navigational rules,which increase the potential for accidents. The increasing popularity of the scooter has aggravated the problem,providing more water vehicles to compete for the same space. Crowded water waves are simply an open invitation to disaster. In addition to the inherent operational hazards of water scooters,they are proving to be an environmental nuisance. Beach residents complain of the noise of the scooters. The Pacific Whale Foundation on the west coast expressed concern that the scooters are frightening away an endangered species of whale that migrates to Hawaii for breeding. Regulations such as minimum operating age,restricted operating areas and compulsory classes in water safety are essential. Without such regulations,tragedies involving water scooters are sure to multiply,which makes many beaches unsafe for recreation. Questions 26-29 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  26.What does the speaker say about water scooters?
  27.What is mentioned as one of the causes of water accidents?
  28.In what way are water scooters said to be an environmental nuisance?
  29.What does the speaker propose to ensure the safety of beaches
for recreation?
Passage Three In many stressful situations the body's responses can improve our performance. We become more energetic,more alert,better able to take effective action. But when stress is encountered continually,the body's reactions are more likely to be harmful than helpful to us. The continual speeding up of bodily reactions and the production of stress-related hormones seem to make people more susceptible to heart disease. And stress reactions can reduce the disease-fighting effectiveness of body's immune system,thereby increasing susceptibility to illnesses,ranging from colds to cancer. Stress may also contribute to disease in less direct ways by influencing moods and behavior. People,under stress,may become anxious or depressed and as a result may eat too much or too little,have sleep difficulties,or fail to exercise. These behavioral changes may in turn be harmful to their health. In addition,people are more likely to pay attention to certain bodily
sensations such as aches and pains when they are under stress and to think they are sick. If the person were not under stress,the same bodily sensations might not be perceived as symptoms and the person might continue to feel well. Some researchers have suggested that assuming the role of a sick person is one way in which certain people try to cope with stress. Instead of dealing with the stressful situation directly,these people fall sick. After all,it is often more acceptable in our society to be sick and to seek medical help than it is to admit that one can not cope with the stresses of life. Questions 32 to 35 are based on the conversations you have just heard. Question 32:What does the speaker say about people who encounter stress once in a while? Question 33:What does speaker say frequent stress reactions may lead to? Question 34:What are people more likely to do when they are under stress? Question 35:What does the passage mainly talk about?
Passage Two Many days seem to bring numerous tasks and responsibilities,all of which apparently must be tackled right away. You spend a day putting out fires,but by the end of the day,you haven't accomplished any of the really important things you set out to do. In desperation,you draft a "to-do" list. But most days,you can make little progress with it. When you look at the list each morning,a big fat cloud of doom is right at the top?those difficult,complex,important tasks that are so crucial to get done and so easy to avoid. Plenty of us create a "to-do" list to address feelings of being overwhelmed,but we rarely use these tools to their best effect. They wind up being guilt-provoking reminders of the fact that we are over-committed,and losing control of our priorities. According to Timothy Pikle,professor of a psychology at Carlton University in Ottawa. People often draw up a "to-do" list and then that's it. The list itself becomes the day's achievement,allowing us to feel we've done something useful without taking on any real work. In fact,drawing up the list becomes a way of avoiding the work itself.
"Too often,the list is seen as the accomplishment for the day,reducing the immediate guilt of not working on the tasks at hand by investing energy in the list,"says Pikle,"when a list is used like this,it's simply another way in which we lie to our selves." Questions 29 to 31 are based on the passage you have just heard.
  29.What is the problem that troubles many people nowadays according to the speaker?
  30.According to the speaker,what do many people do to cope with their daily tasks?
  31.According to psychologist Timothy Pikle what do people find by the end of the day?
Passage One To find out what the weather is going to be,most people go straight to the radio,television,or newspaper to get an expert weather forecast. But if you know what to look for,you can use your own senses to make weather predictions. There are many signs that can help you. For example,in fair weather the air pressure is generally high,the air is still and often full of dust,and far away objects may look vague. But when the storm is brewing,the pressure drops,and you are
often able to see things more clearly. Sailors took note of this long ago,and came up with the saying,"The farther the sight,the nearer the rain." Your sense of smell can also help you detect the weather changes. Just before it rains,odors become stronger,this is because odors are repressed in a fair high pressure center. When a bad weather low moves in,air pressure lessens and odors are released. You can also hear an approaching storm. Sounds bounce off heavy storm clouds and return to earth with increased force. An old saying describes it this way,"Sounds traveling far and wide a stormy day will be tied". And don't laugh at your grandmother if she says she can feel a storm coming. It is commonly known that many people feel pains in their bones or joints while the humidity rises,the pressure drops,and bad weather is on the way. Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you've heard. 26:Why does the speaker say we can see far away objects more clearly as a storm is approaching? 27:What does the speaker want to show by quoting a couple of old
sayings? 28:What does the passage mainly talk about?
Passage 3 To see if hair color affects a person's chances of getting a job, researchers at California State University asked 136 college students to review the resume and photograph of a female applicant for a job as an accountant. Each student was given the same resume but the applicant's picture was altered so that in some photos,her hair was golden,in some red and in some brown. The resultwith brown hair,the woman was rated more capable and she was offered a higher salary than when she had a golden or red hair. Other studies have found similar results. Many respondents rate wom



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