长沙航空职业技术学院
Changsha Aeronautical Vocational and Technical College
毕 业 论 文
题 班 姓 学
目 级 名 号
贸易谈判中英汉应酬语的对比 商 英 0701 陈 都
200700281005 陈 跃 华
指导老师 完成时间
2010 年 3 月 31 日
A Comparative Study of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation
Abstract: International Business Negotiation is the key part of International
Trade, only we understand the concept and effect of negotiation ,can we occupy the superiroty position in international trade. International Business Negotiation means that the difference sujects.International Business Trade Negotiation is a cross ?countries compaign. It's important to know the different countries culture environment and consider the difference of culture in business negotiation .If we wanna get the success of foreign negotiation ,it's necessary to understand other educators'discrepancy of thought ways ,negotiation ways and styles, customs, guesture language ,time opinions and others. To add the chance of achieving our aims based on their culture to formulate and admend our negotiation tactics. Key Words: International Trade; Business Negotiation; Phatic Languages ; ; ; Culture Discrepancy
批注 [LU1]: 论文中不能用这样的缩 写
Contents
A Comparative Study of Phatic LanguageBetween Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation .......................................................................................................................................................... 2 PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Before Ⅰ Trade Negotiation. ................................................................................................................... 4
  1.1 The Difference of language. ............................................................................ 4
  1.
  1.1 The Difference of Oral Language. ................................................................ 4
  1.
  1.2 The Difference of Body Language................................................................. 5
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. ................................................................................ 5
  1.
  2.1 Meeting Etiquette ........................................................................................ 6 PartⅡ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Ⅱ Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation. .................................................................... 7
  2.1 Phraseology ......................................................................................................... 7
  2.
  1.1 Formal Language ...................................................................................... 7
  2.
  1.2 Use more ancient words ................................................................................. 8
  2.
  1.3 Capitalize stressed ........................................................................................ 10
  2.
  1.4 The Tense and the Voice............................................................................... 11 Part Ⅲ The Difference of Phatic Language between Chinese and English after Negotiation. ............................................................................................................................ 11
  3.1 The Condition of Successful Negotiation............................................................... 11
  3.
  1.1 The Comparison of Language. .................................................................... 12
  3.
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. ........................................................................ 12
  3.2 The Condition of Failed Negotiation ..................................................................... 14
  3.
  2.1 The Comparison of Language. .................................................................... 14
  3.
  2.
  1.1 The Comparison Compliments ........................................................ 14 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 15 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16
批注 [LU2]: 这个小标题可以去掉 批注 [LU3]: 去掉标题
Business negotiation is an action to achieve economic strategy, definite mutual rights and obligations to consult between interested parties. It's the guarantee to research the feature and principles to ensure negotiation successful. In terms of negotiation features, we can summarize following three points. Firstly, business negotiation is aim to get economic benefit, the negotiation doesn't talk benefit must lose its value and significance. Secondly, business negotiation is the center of value negotiation, on one hand, we must assist our benefit, price center, on the other hand, we couldn't only limited to price but also reclaim our thought, achieve more benefit from other points. Lastly, business negotiation concern the tight and accurate of contract clauses, it reflects the authority and obligations, at the same time ,that's the premise to guarantee more benefits. Successful negotiation is the result of handling language art between interested parties. Now, we'll analysis the discrepancy of Negotiation Phatic Language, then analysis the culture differences from Etiquette. PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Ⅰ Before Trade Negotiation.
  1.1 The Difference of language.

  1.
  1.1 The
批注 [LU4]: 正文前加上标题
Difference of Oral Language.
批注 [LU5]: 文章中你没有比较语言 的不同
At the beginning of negotiation, the first impression is rather important, we should create the negotiation atmosphere of friendly and relaxing. When introduce ourselves to others, we should be natural, it's badly to express naughty and self?conceited. The introduced person should stand up and smile, of
course ,we can be politely to say "Nice to meet you" ().Meantime ,we should be courtesy to ask others' name. For example, May I know your name? End introduction, we could talk based on the common interested topic.(稍作寒暄),to communicate, create kindly atmosphere ,and ready for the next business negotiation.
  1.
  1.2 The Difference of Body Language. Attitude at the beginning of the negotiations is to grasp the atmosphere of the talks plays an important role. Visual when each other, should remain in each other's eyes their eyes to the forehead triangle area Square,Make the other person feel concerned think you sincerely and seriously. Palm dashed is better than down. gesture ,of course, it is not appropriate for gestures in order to avoid frivolous. Avoid arms cross in front of the chest, so it is insolence. An important task at the beginning of the negotiations is researching the bottom of each other. therefore, We must conscientiously listen to each other's speeches, carefully observe the behavior of other expressions, and appropriate response, and in this way can understand each other's intentions, and showing respect and politeness.
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. Etiquette is the most important part of International Business Trade, it's the principle of every joiner must observe .However ,for reasons of culture discrepancy ,to a country's appropriately etiquette to business person ,maybe express badly, even discourtesy, then produce misunderstanding, grate, even the failure of negotiation .As international business negotiator ,it's necessary to
批注 [LU6]: 问题同上,你需要讲出 身体语言在中西方有哪些不一样的 地方.
understand those culture discrepancy and know the corresponding measures.
  1.
  2.1 Meeting Etiquette Meeting is a totally important action in trade negotiation .Meeting Etiquette contain introduction etiquette and shook hands etiquette. Generally speaking, introduction is introducing teamers respectively .The turn is ladies first, and high position first. Called "Lady" "Miss" "Mr". We always call sb as "comrade" ,but this word means homosexuality in western countries .So, we should forbid to use this word in International Trade Negotiation to avoid misunderstanding. The most important etiquette is shaking hands in China, and it's also an international etiquette. It looks very simple, however, this small action links with the image of person and company, the successful of negotiation or not. The power of shaking hands. For Chinese, we often end it after shaking , not to be heavy .On the contrary, the Europeans and Americans like heavy shaking, the light means feeble and non?confidence. The time of shaking hands. The time shouldn't be too long, but not too be short. International standard time is about 3sec. However, if elder friend meet or achieve an important agreement , or after successful negotiation, the time could be a little long. The turn of shaking hands. Lady shakes hand with gentlemen, gentlemen doesn't be shaking first. When there are so many workers , we should kook for correct person, avoid crossing and disputing.
Shook hands with actions, Shook hands and eyes to address each other and with a smile, a tribute; not looking around or face without expression. Looking showed that inattention, expressionless display unfriendly, both are lack of respect for others. Of course, shook hands isn't their etiquette in some countries. For instance, the Japanese always bow to respect person; Thailand hands folded, French kiss, the Argentine people not only kiss and hug, The man kissing women, women kissed a woman, but men don't kiss a Man. In most African countries, used to using body greet - long hours put on the shoulders of the guests How to use those meeting etiquette should be based on different cultures ,when in Rome, do as the Romans is the best policy. Part Ⅱ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation.
()

  2.1
  2.
  1.1
Phraseology Formal Language For instance, the "in accordance with" is more strict and formal than
批注 [LU7]: 在写下一点前,需要有 过渡的句子
"according to" in contract. The latter often used at daily life and oral. Others such as "be liable for; provided that; unless otherwise; be deemed to; in the even that; in the case of; where" and so on.Those words could express the law feature of contract. Eg
  1):If the contract can not come into effect within six months after the date of signing the contract, both parties shall have the rigt to terminate the contract.
Eg
  2):In case the contract can not come into force within six months after the date of signing the contract, the contract shall become null and void and binding neither to party A nor to party B This two prographies are same meaning , but the result is totally different The former is a common expression ;the latter, however, no matter what about it's frame or phraseology is more formal and coherence than the former, this is the acquirement of contract language .
  2.
  1.2 Use more ancient words The ancient words mean that they wouldn't be used in other documents, only be used in trade contract in English. Meantime, this words would be composed by "here, there, where and preposition". Here group. Here and preposition equal to preposition and this. For example: hereafter (From now on), hereby, hereof, hereto, herewith, hereupon
etc. Those mean after this, by this, of this, to this, with this, upon this. There group.There and preposition equal to preposition and that. For instance, thereafter, thereby, thereof, thereto, therefor, etc. Those mean after that, by that, of that, to that, for that. Where group,Where and preposition equal to preposition and which. , Familiar words like whereas, wherein, whereby, whereof, wherewith etc. Equally, means as which, in which, by which, of which, with which. Here group and there group usually are adverbs, means time, place, ways and condition. Where is conjonction.
批注 [LU8]: 注意红色的标点
Eg
  3) This contract is made by and between China National Native Produce & ) : Animal By?Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch (hereafter called the seller) and American Trading Co, Ltd(hereafter called buyer) whereby the Seller agree to sell and the Buyer agree to buy the under ?mentioned goods in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated below. Eg
  4): Both parties shall keep secret all technical know?how, technical documentation and all the information of hydrology, geology and production of the Contract Factory regarding the business of the other party, being either technical or commercial of nature, during the validity period of the contract as well as thereafter for a period of 10 years. The first hereafter brief "China National Native Produce & Animal By?Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch" as "seller", the second hereafter has the same function. This make the contract language be more concision in Eg
  3. Whereby and thereafter not only express correct meaning, but also conform to the phraseology and style of contract. Use more ancient words could make contract language more standard and strict.
  2.
  1.3 Use more modal verbs. It's a obviously feature to use more modal verbs in trade contract. The highest frequencies used is shall" in those words. "shall " is the most strict word " for law document, it means to bear responsibilities and obligations. Provided can't
 

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