长沙航空职业技术学院
Changsha Aeronautical Vocational and Technical College
毕 业 论 文
题 班 姓 学
目 级 名 号
贸易谈判中英汉应酬语的对比 商 英 0701 陈 都
200700281005 陈 跃 华
指导老师 完成时间
2010 年 3 月 31 日
A Comparative Study of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation
Abstract: International Business Negotiation is the key part of International
Trade, only we understand the concept and effect of negotiation ,can we occupy the superiroty position in international trade. International Business Negotiation means that the difference sujects.International Business Trade Negotiation is a cross ?countries compaign. It's important to know the different countries culture environment and consider the difference of culture in business negotiation .If we wanna get the success of foreign negotiation ,it's necessary to understand other educators'discrepancy of thought ways ,negotiation ways and styles, customs, guesture language ,time opinions and others. To add the chance of achieving our aims based on their culture to formulate and admend our negotiation tactics. Key Words: International Trade; Business Negotiation; Phatic Languages ; ; ; Culture Discrepancy
批注 [LU1]: 论文中不能用这样的缩 写
Contents
A Comparative Study of Phatic LanguageBetween Chinese and English in Trade Negotiation .......................................................................................................................................................... 2 PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Before Ⅰ Trade Negotiation. ................................................................................................................... 4
  1.1 The Difference of language. ............................................................................ 4
  1.
  1.1 The Difference of Oral Language. ................................................................ 4
  1.
  1.2 The Difference of Body Language................................................................. 5
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. ................................................................................ 5
  1.
  2.1 Meeting Etiquette ........................................................................................ 6 PartⅡ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Ⅱ Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation. .................................................................... 7
  2.1 Phraseology ......................................................................................................... 7
  2.
  1.1 Formal Language ...................................................................................... 7
  2.
  1.2 Use more ancient words ................................................................................. 8
  2.
  1.3 Capitalize stressed ........................................................................................ 10
  2.
  1.4 The Tense and the Voice............................................................................... 11 Part Ⅲ The Difference of Phatic Language between Chinese and English after Negotiation. ............................................................................................................................ 11
  3.1 The Condition of Successful Negotiation............................................................... 11
  3.
  1.1 The Comparison of Language. .................................................................... 12
  3.
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. ........................................................................ 12
  3.2 The Condition of Failed Negotiation ..................................................................... 14
  3.
  2.1 The Comparison of Language. .................................................................... 14
  3.
  2.
  1.1 The Comparison Compliments ........................................................ 14 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................. 15 Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 16
批注 [LU2]: 这个小标题可以去掉 批注 [LU3]: 去掉标题
Business negotiation is an action to achieve economic strategy, definite mutual rights and obligations to consult between interested parties. It's the guarantee to research the feature and principles to ensure negotiation successful. In terms of negotiation features, we can summarize following three points. Firstly, business negotiation is aim to get economic benefit, the negotiation doesn't talk benefit must lose its value and significance. Secondly, business negotiation is the center of value negotiation, on one hand, we must assist our benefit, price center, on the other hand, we couldn't only limited to price but also reclaim our thought, achieve more benefit from other points. Lastly, business negotiation concern the tight and accurate of contract clauses, it reflects the authority and obligations, at the same time ,that's the premise to guarantee more benefits. Successful negotiation is the result of handling language art between interested parties. Now, we'll analysis the discrepancy of Negotiation Phatic Language, then analysis the culture differences from Etiquette. PartⅠ The Comparison of Phatic Language Between Chinese and English Ⅰ Before Trade Negotiation.
  1.1 The Difference of language.

  1.
  1.1 The
批注 [LU4]: 正文前加上标题
Difference of Oral Language.
批注 [LU5]: 文章中你没有比较语言 的不同
At the beginning of negotiation, the first impression is rather important, we should create the negotiation atmosphere of friendly and relaxing. When introduce ourselves to others, we should be natural, it's badly to express naughty and self?conceited. The introduced person should stand up and smile, of
course ,we can be politely to say "Nice to meet you" ().Meantime ,we should be courtesy to ask others' name. For example, May I know your name? End introduction, we could talk based on the common interested topic.(稍作寒暄),to communicate, create kindly atmosphere ,and ready for the next business negotiation.
  1.
  1.2 The Difference of Body Language. Attitude at the beginning of the negotiations is to grasp the atmosphere of the talks plays an important role. Visual when each other, should remain in each other's eyes their eyes to the forehead triangle area Square,Make the other person feel concerned think you sincerely and seriously. Palm dashed is better than down. gesture ,of course, it is not appropriate for gestures in order to avoid frivolous. Avoid arms cross in front of the chest, so it is insolence. An important task at the beginning of the negotiations is researching the bottom of each other. therefore, We must conscientiously listen to each other's speeches, carefully observe the behavior of other expressions, and appropriate response, and in this way can understand each other's intentions, and showing respect and politeness.
  1.2 The Difference of Etiquette. Etiquette is the most important part of International Business Trade, it's the principle of every joiner must observe .However ,for reasons of culture discrepancy ,to a country's appropriately etiquette to business person ,maybe express badly, even discourtesy, then produce misunderstanding, grate, even the failure of negotiation .As international business negotiator ,it's necessary to
批注 [LU6]: 问题同上,你需要讲出 身体语言在中西方有哪些不一样的 地方.
understand those culture discrepancy and know the corresponding measures.
  1.
  2.1 Meeting Etiquette Meeting is a totally important action in trade negotiation .Meeting Etiquette contain introduction etiquette and shook hands etiquette. Generally speaking, introduction is introducing teamers respectively .The turn is ladies first, and high position first. Called "Lady" "Miss" "Mr". We always call sb as "comrade" ,but this word means homosexuality in western countries .So, we should forbid to use this word in International Trade Negotiation to avoid misunderstanding. The most important etiquette is shaking hands in China, and it's also an international etiquette. It looks very simple, however, this small action links with the image of person and company, the successful of negotiation or not. The power of shaking hands. For Chinese, we often end it after shaking , not to be heavy .On the contrary, the Europeans and Americans like heavy shaking, the light means feeble and non?confidence. The time of shaking hands. The time shouldn't be too long, but not too be short. International standard time is about 3sec. However, if elder friend meet or achieve an important agreement , or after successful negotiation, the time could be a little long. The turn of shaking hands. Lady shakes hand with gentlemen, gentlemen doesn't be shaking first. When there are so many workers , we should kook for correct person, avoid crossing and disputing.
Shook hands with actions, Shook hands and eyes to address each other and with a smile, a tribute; not looking around or face without expression. Looking showed that inattention, expressionless display unfriendly, both are lack of respect for others. Of course, shook hands isn't their etiquette in some countries. For instance, the Japanese always bow to respect person; Thailand hands folded, French kiss, the Argentine people not only kiss and hug, The man kissing women, women kissed a woman, but men don't kiss a Man. In most African countries, used to using body greet - long hours put on the shoulders of the guests How to use those meeting etiquette should be based on different cultures ,when in Rome, do as the Romans is the best policy. Part Ⅱ Analysis the Features of contract language to Compare the Difference of Phatic Language in the Process of Trade Negotiation.
()

  2.1
  2.
  1.1
Phraseology Formal Language For instance, the "in accordance with" is more strict and formal than
批注 [LU7]: 在写下一点前,需要有 过渡的句子
"according to" in contract. The latter often used at daily life and oral. Others such as "be liable for; provided that; unless otherwise; be deemed to; in the even that; in the case of; where" and so on.Those words could express the law feature of contract. Eg
  1):If the contract can not come into effect within six months after the date of signing the contract, both parties shall have the rigt to terminate the contract.
Eg
  2):In case the contract can not come into force within six months after the date of signing the contract, the contract shall become null and void and binding neither to party A nor to party B This two prographies are same meaning , but the result is totally different The former is a common expression ;the latter, however, no matter what about it's frame or phraseology is more formal and coherence than the former, this is the acquirement of contract language .
  2.
  1.2 Use more ancient words The ancient words mean that they wouldn't be used in other documents, only be used in trade contract in English. Meantime, this words would be composed by "here, there, where and preposition". Here group. Here and preposition equal to preposition and this. For example: hereafter (From now on), hereby, hereof, hereto, herewith, hereupon
etc. Those mean after this, by this, of this, to this, with this, upon this. There group.There and preposition equal to preposition and that. For instance, thereafter, thereby, thereof, thereto, therefor, etc. Those mean after that, by that, of that, to that, for that. Where group,Where and preposition equal to preposition and which. , Familiar words like whereas, wherein, whereby, whereof, wherewith etc. Equally, means as which, in which, by which, of which, with which. Here group and there group usually are adverbs, means time, place, ways and condition. Where is conjonction.
批注 [LU8]: 注意红色的标点
Eg
  3) This contract is made by and between China National Native Produce & ) : Animal By?Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch (hereafter called the seller) and American Trading Co, Ltd(hereafter called buyer) whereby the Seller agree to sell and the Buyer agree to buy the under ?mentioned goods in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated below. Eg
  4): Both parties shall keep secret all technical know?how, technical documentation and all the information of hydrology, geology and production of the Contract Factory regarding the business of the other party, being either technical or commercial of nature, during the validity period of the contract as well as thereafter for a period of 10 years. The first hereafter brief "China National Native Produce & Animal By?Products Corporation, Guangdong Native Produce Branch" as "seller", the second hereafter has the same function. This make the contract language be more concision in Eg
  3. Whereby and thereafter not only express correct meaning, but also conform to the phraseology and style of contract. Use more ancient words could make contract language more standard and strict.
  2.
  1.3 Use more modal verbs. It's a obviously feature to use more modal verbs in trade contract. The highest frequencies used is shall" in those words. "shall " is the most strict word " for law document, it means to bear responsibilities and obligations. Provided can't
 

相关内容

英语论文

   初中英语教学论文:浅谈初中英语教学中的素质教育 「摘 要」基础教育阶段英语教学应以素质教育和学生发展为宗旨,通过优化课堂教学目标,改进教学方法、创设交际情境,提高教师素质等途径,使学生形成有效的学习策略,激发和培养学习兴趣,养成良好的学习习惯,注重对学生听、说、读、写综合技能的全面训练,获得基本的语言交际能力,为学生的发展和终身学习打下良好的基础。 「关键词」素质教育;课堂教学目标;教学方法;交际情境;教师素质 在广大农村初中,尽管英语教学已受到普遍重视,教学质量也在不断提高,但由 ...

英语论文

   山东农业大学 课 程 论 文 科 目 英美文化及影视欣赏 论文题目 _ Superhero 学 院 机械与电子工程学院 交通运输 胡小松 20096278 任艳 专业 09 级 2 班 专业班级 学生姓名 学 号 任课教师 2010 年 12 月 28 日 论文方向: 论文方向: 1. 2. 3. Superhero Complex Reflected in the American Movies Vampire Complex in American Culture Christmas C ...

英语论文

   Learner-Based Teaching in ELT Class Author: Supervisor: Qian Li Wang Yuelan A Thesis Submitted as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of B.A. in English Foreign Language Department Fuyang Teachers College, Anhui Province May, 20 ...

英语论文

   毕业设计论文 Study on Seven: A Social & cultural perspective 系 别: 外国语系 英 语 专业名称: 学 号: 学生姓名: 指导教师: 指导单位: 完成时间: 外国语 2010 年 5 月 1 日 FOREIGN LANGUAGES DEPARTMENT Zhongshan College UESTC Declaration of Academic Integrity 学术诚信声明 I promise that the thesis c ...

英语论文

   整个高中教学都是为高考服务的 一、 语篇教学的必要性和紧迫性。 1:语篇阅读教学的模式就是以段落或篇章为教学的基本单位,以培养学生的语言运用能力 为目的,进行听、说、读、写、译等方面的训练的教学模式。 2:根据国家考试中心制定的《高考英语学科考试说明书》及《高考试题分析》的规定,最 近几年高考命题所依据的理论是:作为语言,各部分相加的总和不等于整体。也就是说,学 生虽然掌握了英语语法知识,掌握了英语词汇知识,并不等于学生学好了英语,并不意味着 学生的英语水平就很高。所以不能片面的强调语法,片 ...

英语论文

   AN ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE FEATURES IN ENGLISH ADVERTISEMENTS 摘要 本文旨在通过对书面英语广告的语言分析总结出广告英语在词汇句法篇章上的语言特点。为了使研究从数据出发得出科学结论,本文作者建立了一个拥有60篇各类广告的小型语料库。通过对此语料库中日用品广告科技设备广告服务业广告的深入细致的定量和定性分析,总结出广告英语在此三类广告中的相同点与不同点,并且根据语言的意义,风格及功能解释广告英语的共性以及广告英语在不同类型广告中的特殊性。 本 ...

英语论文

   专业英语实践调查 实习目的: 为了了解英语在日常生活中的运用及是否正确, 帮助完善英语这门语言 从改革开放的浪潮中到如今日新月异的发展,中国 已经整整走过三十二年。虽然起初步子走得不是那样稳 健 ,偶尔有步履蹒跚, 偶尔有举步维艰的时候,可后 来的中国开始大步大步的朝前走,如矫健的年轻力壮的 青年人。是啊,看着今天的中国,我们不禁油然从心底 升起一股自豪感。自豪我们生在长在这样一个国度,自 豪我们沐浴在中国的伟大光辉中,可以自由的成长。随 着改革开放的迅速发展,许多以前中国不曾接触过,或 者 ...

英语论文

   英语论文 浅谈初中英语有效教学的几点做法 亭湖区桂英初级中学 陈亮 [提要]英语教师在课堂教学中,要坚持在语境中教学词汇,加强听力、朗读、背诵训练、鼓励学生积极使用英语等多种途径,来打造有效的英语课堂。 [关键词] 语境 词汇 听力 诵读 激励 英语课程标准强调,要改变英语课程过分重视语法和词汇知识的讲解与传授、忽视对学生实际语言运用能力的培养的倾向,强调课程从学生的学习兴趣、生活经验和认知水平出发,倡导体验、实践、参与、合作与交流的学习方式和任务型的教学途径,发展学生的综合语言运用能力 ...

英语论文

   小学英语“情趣教学” 小学英语“情趣教学”漫谈 教育心理学告诉我们: 小学生的年龄特点是好奇心强、 模仿性强、 生性好动, 有意注意持续时间相对较短 。语言学习本身是较为单调枯燥的,而一味以教师 讲、学生听这种教学形式,势必使学生学习兴趣荡然无存。 只要学生感兴趣的 东西,他们就有求知欲,没有兴趣就不会有求知欲,学习热情大减,从而直接影 ,可以让学生在形式多变的教学 响学习效果 。因此,小学英语进行“情趣教学” 中,始终处于兴奋、活跃的状态,这样, 对教学是不无裨益的。那么,该如何 开展“情 ...

英语论文

   英语论文 英语论文 史上最牛英语口语学习法: 躺在家里练口语, 全程外教一对一, 三个月畅谈无阻! 史上最牛英语口语学习法: 躺在家里练口语, 全程外教一对一, 三个月畅谈无阻! 太平洋在线英语,可免费体验全部外教一对一课程: 太平洋在线英语,可免费体验全部外教一对一课程:www.pacificenglish.cn Lectures on Writing for M.D Students Plan for the lectures The first lecture: Paragraph w ...

热门内容

六年级英语下册unit4教案

   教案?? ??Unit4 牛津小学英语 6B 教案??Unit4 Review and check Unit4 Review and check (第一课时) 一. 教材析 教学目标 1.复习第一至第二单元相关的语言结构。 2.养成仔细观察图片的良好习惯。 3.能流利地根据教室里的实际情况用英语来描述,并以此作自我检查,补 缺补漏。 4.完成本课的 A,D. 教学重难点:完成本课的 A,D.养成仔细观察图片的良好习惯。 二.课前准备 教师归纳好比较级并作好 A 与 D 部分的教学工作,学生同 ...

2011届中考英语介词和连词专题复习

   3eud 教育网 http://www.3edu.net 百万教学资源,完全免费,无须注册,天天更新! 2011 届中考英语专题复习六:介词、连词考点讲解和训练 届中考英语专题复习六 介词、 【考点直击】 1. 2. 3. 4. 常用介词及其词组的主要用法和意义; 常用动词、形容词与介词、副词的固定搭配及其意义。 并列连词 and, but, or, so 等的主要用法; 常用的从属连词的基本用法 【名师点睛】 1. 介词的功能 介词是一种虚词, 用来表示名词或相当于名词的其它词语句中其它词 ...

英语阅读文章+翻译

   Where is love?How can we find love in our life? Once a little boy wanted to meet love.He knew it was a long trip to where love lived,so he got his things ready with some pizzas and drinks and started off.When he passed three streets,he saw an old wo ...

电大英语一一复习

   His mother is a nurse. 他的母亲是一位护士。 Tell me something about your new office. 给我讲一讲有关你新办公室的事儿吧。 His parents live somewhere about the park. 他的父母住在公园的附近。 There are about 40 pupils in the class. 班里约有四十名学生。 There is a clock above the blackboard. 黑板的上方有一个时 ...

小学六年级英语语法

   各种语法单词汇集 一、人称代词 格式 人称 主格 I we you you he she they 所有格 my our your your his her their 宾格 me us you you him her them 我 我们 你 你们 他 她 他们 二、指示代词 指示代词分类 近指 远指 三、疑问代词 疑问代词 who what where whose which 单数 This(这个 这个) 这个 That(那个) (那个) 复数 These(这些) (这些) Those(那 ...