英语学术论文常用句型 Beginning
  1. In this paper, we focus on the need for
  2. This paper proceeds as follow.
  3. The structure of the paper is as follows.
  4. In this paper, we shall first briefly introduce fuzzy sets and related concepts
  5. To begin with we will provide a brief background on the Introduction
  1. This will be followed by a description of the fuzzy nature of the pr oblem and a detailed presentation of how the required membership functio ns are defined.
  2. Details on xx and xx are discussed in later sections.
  3. In the next section, after a statement of the basic problem, various situations involving possibility knowledge are investigated: first, an entirel y possibility model is proposed; then the cases of a fuzzy service time w ith stochastic arrivals and non fuzzy service rule is studied; lastly, fuzzy service rule are considered. Review
  1. This review is followed by an introduction.
  2. A brief summary of some of the relevant concepts in xxx and xxx is presented in Section
  2.
  3. In the next section, a brief review of the .... is given.
  4. In the next section, a short review of ... is given with special regar d to ...
  5. Section 2 reviews relevant research related to xx.
  6. Section
  1.1 briefly surveys the motivation for a methodology of acti on, while
  1.2 looks at the difficulties posed by the complexity of systems and outlines the need for development of possibility methods. Body
  1. Section 1 defines the notion of robustness, and argues for its import ance.
  2. Section 1 devoted to the basic aspects of the FLC decision making logic.
  3. Section 2 gives the background of the problem which includes xxx
  4. Section 2 discusses some problems with and approaches to, natural l anguage understanding.

  5. Section 2 explains how flexibility which often ... can be expressed i n terms of fuzzy time window
  6. Section 3 discusses the aspects of fuzzy set theory that are used in the ...
  7. Section 3 describes the system itself in a general way, including the ….. and also discusses how to evaluate system performance.
  8. Section 3 describes a new measure of xx.
  9. Section 3 demonstrates the use of fuzzy possibility theory in the an alysis of xx.
  10. Section 3 is a fine description of fuzzy formulation of human deci sion.
  11. Section 3, is developed to the modeling and processing of fuzzy d ecision rules
  12. The main idea of the FLC is described in Section 3 while Section 4 describes the xx strategies.
  13. Section 3 and 4 show experimental studies for verifying the propos ed model.
  14. Section 4 discusses a previous fuzzy set based approach to cost va riance investigation.
  15. Section 4 gives a specific example of xxx.
  16. Section 4 is the experimental study to make a fuzzy model of me mory process.
  17. Section 4 contains a discussion of the implication of the results of Section 2 and
  3.
  18. Section 4 applies this fuzzy measure to the analysis of xx and illu strate its use on experimental data.
  19. Section 5 presents the primary results of the paper: a fuzzy set mo del ..
  20. Section 5 contains some conclusions plus some ideas for further w ork.
  21. Section 6 illustrates the model with an example.
  22. Various ways of justification and the reasons for their choice are d iscussed very briefly in Section
  2.
  23. In Section 2 are presented the block diagram expression of a whol e model of human DM system
  24. In Section 2 we shall list a collection of basic assumptions which a ... scheme must satisfy.
  25. In Section 2 of this paper, we present representation and uniquenes s theorems for the fundamental measurement of fuzziness when the domai n of discourse is order dense.
  26. In Section 3, we describe the preliminary results of an empirical st udy currently in progress to verify the measurement model and to constru ct membership functions.

  27. In Section 5 is analyzed the inference process through the two kin ds of inference experiments... This Section
  1. In this section, the characteristics and environment under which MR P is designed are described.
  2. We will provide in this section basic terminologies and notations w hich are necessary for the understanding of subsequent results.Next Sectio n
  2. The next section describes the mathematics that goes into the comp uter implementation of such fuzzy logic statements.
  3. However, it is cumbersome for this purpose and in practical applicat ions the formulae were rearranged and simplified as discussed in the next section.
  4. The three components will be described in the next two section, an d an example of xx analysis of a computer information system will then illustrate their use.
  5. We can interpret the results of Experiments I and II as in the follo wing sections.
  6. The next section summarizes the method in a from that is useful fo r arguments based on xx Summary
  1. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research considerati on in section
  5.
  2. Section 5 summarizes the results of this investigation.
  3. Section 5 gives the conclusions and future directions of research.
  4. Section 7 provides a summary and a discussion of some extensions of the paper.
  5. Finally, conclusions and future work are summarized
  6. The basic questions posed above are then discussed and conclusions are drawn.
  7. Section 7 is the conclusion of the paper. Chapter
  0. Abstract
  1. A basic problem in the design of xx is presented by the choice of a xx rate for the measurement of experimental variables.
  2. This paper examines a new measure of xx in xx based on fuzzy m athematics which overcomes the difficulties found in other xx measures.
  3. This paper describes a system for the analysis of the xx.
  4. The method involves the construction of xx from fuzzy relations.
  5. The procedure is useful in analyzing how groups reach a decision.

  6. The technique used is to employ a newly developed and versatile x x algorithm.
  7. The usefulness of xx is also considered.
  8. A brief methodology used in xx is discussed.
  9. The analysis is useful in xx and xx problem.
  10. A model is developed for a xx analysis using fuzzy matrices.
  11. Algorithms to combine these estimates and produce a xx are prese nted and justified.
  12. The use of the method is discussed and an example is given.
  13. Results of an experimental applications of this xx analysis procedur e are given to illustrate the proposed technique.
  14. This paper analyses problems in
  15. This paper outlines the functions carried out by ...
  16. This paper includes an illustration of the ...
  17. This paper provides an overview and information useful for approa ching
  18. Emphasis is placed on the construction of a criterion function by which the xx in achieving a hierarchical system of objectives are evaluate d.
  19. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of xx
  20. Our proposed model is verified through experimental study.
  21. The experimental results reveal interesting examples of fuzzy phase s of: xx, xx
  22. The compatibility of a project in terms of cost, and xx are likewis e represented by linguistic variables.
  23. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational proce dure Chapter
  1. Introduction Time
  1. Over the course of the past 30 years, .. has emerged form intuitive
  2. Technological revolutions have recently hit the industrial world
  3. The advent of ... systems for has had a significant impact on the
  4. The development of ... is explored
  5. During the past decade, the theory of fuzzy sets has developed in a variety of directions
  6.The concept of xx was investigated quite intensively in recent years
  7. There has been a turning point in ... methodology in accordance wit h the advent of ...
  8. A major concern in ... today is to continue to improve...
  9. A xx is a latecomer in the part representation arena.
  10. At the time of this writing, there is still no standard way of xx

  11. Although a lot of effort is being spent on improving these weakne sses, the efficient and effective method has yet to be developed.
  12. The pioneer work can be traced to xx [1965].
  13. To date, none of the methods developed is perfect and all are far from ready to be used in commercial systems. Objective / Goal / Purpose
  1. The purpose of the inference engine can be outlined as follows:
  2. The ultimate goal of the xx system is to allow the non experts to utilize the existing knowledge in the area of manual handling of loads, an d to provide intelligent, computer aided instruction for xxx.
  3. The paper concerns the development of a xx
  4. The scope of this research lies in
  5. The main theme of the paper is the application of rule based decisi on making.
  6. These objectives are to be met with such thoroughness and confiden ce as to permit ...
  7. The objectives of the ... operations study are as follows:
  8. The primary purpose/consideration/objective of
  9. The ultimate goal of this concept is to provide
  10. The main objective of such a ... system is to
  11. The aim of this paper is to provide methods to construct such pro bability distribution.
  12. In order to achieve these objectives, an xx must meet the followin g requirements:
  13. In order to take advantage of their similarity
  14. more research is still required before final goal of ... can be comp leted
  15. In this trial, the objective is to generate...
  16. for the sake of concentrating on ... research issues
  17. A major goal of this report is to extend the utilization of a recentl y developed procedure for the xx.
  18. For an illustrative purpose, four well known OR problems are stud ied in presence of fuzzy data: xx.
  19. A major thrust of the paper is to discuss approaches and strategies for structuring ..methods
  20. This illustration points out the need to specify
  21. The ultimate goal is both descriptive and prescriptive.
  22. Chapter
  2. Literature Review
  23. A wealth of information is to be found in the statistics literature, f or example, regarding xx
  24. A considerable amount of research has been done .. during the last
decade
  25. A great number of studies report on the treatment of uncertainties associated with xx.
  26. There is considerable amount of literature on planning
  27. However, these studies do not provide much attention to uncertaint y in xx.
  28. Since then, the subject has been extensively explored and it is still under investigation as well in methodological aspects as in concrete applications.
  29. Many research studies have been carried out on this topic.
  30. Problem of xx draws recently more and more attention of system analysis.
  31. Attempts to resolve this dilemma have resulted in the development of
  32. Many complex processes unfortunately, do not yield to this design procedure and have, therefore, not yet been automated.
  33. Most of the methods developed so far are deterministic and /or pr obabilistic in nature.
  34. The central issue in all these studies is to
  35. The problem of xx has been studied by other investigators, howeve r, these studies have been based upon classical statistical approaches.
  36. Applied ... techniques to
  37. Characterized the ... system as
  38. Developed an algorithm to
  39. Developed a system called ... which
  40. Uses an iterative algorithm to deduce
  41. Emphasized the need to
  42. Identifies six key issues surrounding high technology
  43. A comprehensive study of the... has been undertaken
  44. Much work has been reported recently in these filed
  45. Proposed/Presented/State that/Described/Illustrated/ Indicated/Has shown / showed/Address/Highlights
  46. Point out that the problem of
  47. A study on ...was done / developed by []
  48. Previous work, such as [] and [], deal only with
  49. The approach taken by [] is
  50. The system developed by [] consists
  51. A paper relevant to this research was published by []
  52. []'s model requires consideration of...
  53. []' model draws attention to evolution in human development
  54. []'s model focuses on...
  55. Little research has been conducted in applying ... to
  56. The published information that is relevant to this research...

  57. This study further shows that
  58. Their work is based on the principle of
  59. More history of ... can be found in xx et al. [1979].
  60. Studies have been completed to established
  61. The ...studies indicated that
  62. Though application of xx in the filed of xx has proliferated in rec ent years, effort in analyzing xx, especially xx, is lacking. Problem / Issue / Question
  63. Unfortunately, real-world engineering problems such as manufacturi ng planning do not fit well with this narrowly defined model. They tend to span broad activities and require consideration of multiple aspects.
  64. Remedy / solve / alleviate these problems
  67. ... is a difficult problem, yet to be adequately resolved
  68. Two major problems have yet to be addressed
  69. An unanswered question
  70. This problem in essence involves using x to obtain a solution.
  71. An additional research issue to be tackled is ....
  72. Some important issues in developing a ... system are discussed
  73. The three prime issues can be summarized:
  74. The situation leads to the problem of how to determine the ...
  75. There have been many attempts to
  76. It is expected to be serious barrier to
  77. It offers a simple solution in a limited domain for a complex
 

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