George Bernard Shaw (1856-19
  50)
George Bernard Shaw (1856-19
  50) was born in Dublin, the son of a civil servant. His education was irregular, due to his dislike of any organized training. After working in an estate agent's office for a while he moved to London as a young man (18
  76), where he established himself as a leading music and theatre critic in the eighties and nineties and became a prominent member of the Fabian Society (explanation), for which he composed many pamphlets. He began his literary career as a novelist; as a fervent advocate of the new theatre of Ibsen (The Quintessence of Ibsenism, 18
  91) he decided to write plays in order to illustrate his criticism of the English stage. His earliest dramas were called appropriately Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant (18
  98).
Among these, Widower's Houses and Mrs. Warren's Profession savagely attack social hypocrisy, while in plays such as Arms and the Man and The Man of Destiny the criticism is less fierce. Shaw's radical rationalism, his utter disregard of conventions, his keen dialectic interest and verbal wit often turn the stage into a forum of ideas, and nowhere more openly than in the famous discourses on the Life Force, ?Don Juan in Hell?, the third act of the dramatization of woman's love chase of man, Man and Superman (19
  03).
In the plays of his later period discussion sometimes drowns the drama, in Back to Methuselah (19
  21), although in the same period he worked on his masterpiece Saint Joan (19
  23), in which he rewrites the wellknown story of the French maiden and extends it from the Middle Ages to the present.
fc1 her important plays by Shaw are Caesar and Cleopatra (19
  01), a historical play filled with allusions to modern times, and Androcles and the Lion (19
  12), in which he exercised a kind of retrospective history and from modern movements drew deductions for the Christian era. In Major Barbara (19
  05), one of Shaw's most successful ?discussion? plays, the audience's attention is held by the power of the witty argumentation that man can achieve aesthetic salvation only through political activity, not as an individual.
The Doctor's Dilemma (19
  06), facetiously classified as a tragedy by Shaw, is really a comedy the humour of which is directed at the medical profession. Candida (18
  98), with social attitudes toward sex relations as objects of his satire, and Pygmalion (19
  12), a witty study of phonetics as well as a clever treatment of middle-class morality and class distinction, proved some of Shaw's greatest successes on the stage. It is a combination of the dramatic, the comic, and the social corrective that gives Shaw's comedies their special flavour. Shaw's complete works appeared in thirty-six volumes between 1930 and 1950, the year of his death.
The origin of the name: Pygmalion
Pygmalion , King of Cyprus , was a famous sculptor . He made an ivory image of a woman so lovely that he fell in love with it.Every day he tried to make Galatea up in gold and purple,for that was the name he had given to this mistress of his heart . He embraced and kissed it , but it remained a statue . In despair he went to Aphrodite's shrine for help.Offering rich sacrifice and sending up a passionate prayer, he begged the goddess to give him a wife as graceful as Galatea.Back home,he went straight up to the statue.Even as he gazed at it a change came over it.A faint colour appeared on its cheeks,a gleam shone from its eyes and its lips opened into a sweet smile.Pygmalion stood speechless when Ualatea began to move towards him.She was simple and sweet and alive!Soon the room was ringing with her sliver voice.The work of his own hands became his wife .
塞浦路斯的国王皮格马利翁是一位有名的雕塑家。 塞浦路斯的国王皮格马利翁是一位有名的雕塑家。他塑 造了一位异常可爱的象牙少女雕像以致于爱上了它。 造了一位异常可爱的象牙少女雕像以致于爱上了它。每 天他都给盖拉蒂穿上金、紫色相间的长袍。 天他都给盖拉蒂穿上金、紫色相间的长袍。盖拉蒂是他 给心上人所起的名字。他拥抱它、亲吻它, 给心上人所起的名字。他拥抱它、亲吻它,但是它始终 是一尊雕像。绝望中, 是一尊雕像。绝望中,他来到阿芙罗狄蒂的神殿寻求帮 他献上丰盛的祭祀品,并且深情地祷告, 助。他献上丰盛的祭祀品,并且深情地祷告,祈求这位 女神赐给他一位如同盖拉蒂一样举止优雅的妻子。 女神赐给他一位如同盖拉蒂一样举止优雅的妻子。回家 他径直来到雕像旁。就在他凝视它的时候, 后,他径直来到雕像旁。就在他凝视它的时候,雕像开 始有了变化。它的脸颊开始呈现出微弱的血色, 始有了变化。它的脸颊开始呈现出微弱的血色,它的眼 睛释放出光芒,它的唇轻轻开启,现出甜蜜的微笑。 睛释放出光芒,它的唇轻轻开启,现出甜蜜的微笑。盖 拉蒂走向他的时候,皮格马利翁站在那儿,说不出话来。 拉蒂走向他的时候,皮格马利翁站在那儿,说不出话来。 她单纯、温柔、充满活力! 她单纯、温柔、充满活力!不久屋子里响起她银铃般悦 耳的声音。他的雕塑成了他的妻子。 耳的声音。他的雕塑成了他的妻子。
皮格马利翁(Pygmalion)是古希腊神话中的塞浦路斯国王。 是古希腊神话中的塞浦路斯国王。 皮格马利翁 是古希腊神话中的塞浦路斯国王 相传,他性情非常孤僻,喜欢一人独居,擅长雕刻。 相传,他性情非常孤僻,喜欢一人独居,擅长雕刻。他用 象牙雕刻了一座他的理想中的女性的美女像。 象牙雕刻了一座他的理想中的女性的美女像。他天天与雕 像依伴,把全部热情和希望放在自己雕刻的少女雕像身上, 像依伴,把全部热情和希望放在自己雕刻的少女雕像身上, 少女雕像被他的爱和痴情所感动,从架子上走下来, 少女雕像被他的爱和痴情所感动,从架子上走下来,变成 了真人。皮格马利翁娶了少女为妻。 了真人。皮格马利翁娶了少女为妻。 英国大文豪萧伯纳以上面这段传说为原型创作了同名 社会讽刺剧, 社会讽刺剧,通过描写教授如何训练一名贫苦卖花女并最 终成功被上流社会所认可的故事, 终成功被上流社会所认可的故事,抨击当时英国的腐朽保 守的等级意识。而后来的好莱坞据此翻拍的《窈窕淑女》 守的等级意识。而后来的好莱坞据此翻拍的《窈窕淑女》, 则被普别认为没有很好的表现出原著中的讽刺元素。 则被普别认为没有很好的表现出原著中的讽刺元素。但是 不是因此就足以作为否定库克和赫本版本的理由
Introduction to the play
Pygmalion (19
  13) is a play by George Bernard Shaw based on the Greek myth of the same name. It tells the story of Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics (based on phonetician Henry Sweet), who makes a bet with his friend Colonel Pickering that he can successfully pass off a Cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, as a refined society lady by teaching her how to speak with an upper class accent and training her in etiquette. In the process, Higgins and Doolittle grow close, but she ultimately rejects his domineering ways and declares she will marry Freddy Eynsford-Hill ? a young, poor, gentleman. This play is based on Pygmalion, a sculptor from Greek Mythology who was a known misogynist ? a trait somewhat shared by Prof Higgins in this play.
? Shaw wrote the lead role of Eliza Doolittle for Mrs Patrick Campbell (though at 49 she was considered by some to be too old for the role). Owing to delays in mounting a London production and Mrs. Campbell's injury in a car accident, the first English presentation did not take place until some time after Pygmalion premiered at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna on October 16, 1913, in a German translation by Shaw. The first production in English finally opened at His Majesty's Theatre, London on April 11, 1914 and starred Mrs Campbell as Eliza and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Henry Higgins; it was directed by Shaw himself. ? The Pygmalion myth was a popular subject for Victorian era English playwrights, including one of Shaw's influences, W. S. Gilbert, who wrote a successful play based on the story in 1871, called Pygmalion and Galatea. Shaw also would have been familiar with the burlesque version, Galatea, or Pygmalion Reversed.
Act Three Mrs. Higgins' drawing room. Henry tells his mother he has a young 'common' whom he has been teaching. Mrs Higgins is not very impressed with her son's attempts to win her approval because it is her 'at home' day, in which she is entertaining visitors. The visitors are the Eynsford-Hills. Henry is rude to them on their arrival. Eliza enters and soon falls into talking about the weather and her family. The humor stems from the knowledge the audience have of Eliza, of which the Eynsford-Hills are curiously ignorant. When she is leaving, Freddy Eynsford-Hill asks her if she is going to walk across the park, to which she replies; " Walk! Not bloody likely..." (This is the most famous line from the play, and, for many years after, to use the word 'bloody' was known as a Pygmalion.) After she and the Eynsford-Hills leave, Henry asks for his mother's opinion. She says the girl is not presentable, and she is very concerned about what will happen to the girl; but neither Higgins nor Pickering understand her, and leave feeling confident and excited about how Eliza will get on. This leaves Mrs Higgins feeling exasperated, and she says "Men! Men!! Men!!!"
Summary of Act III
The Fabian Society is a British intellectual socialist movement, whose purpose is to advance the principles of Social democracy via gradualist and reformist, rather than revolutionary means. It is best known for its initial ground-breaking work beginning late in the 19th century and continuing up to World War I. The society laid many of the foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, especially India.
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