Grammar (
  4) Tenses
Tenses
Discuss with your partners.

  1. Do you know how many tenses in English?
  2. What are they?
动词时态 讲与练
各种时态一览表
现在时 一 般 进 行 完 成
do 1 does
过去时
将来时
2 will do shall 8
过去将来时
should do
would am 9 should 3 was 6 shall is doing be doing doing will be doing are would were have 4 7 shall 10 should done had done have done have done has will would should have been would doing
did
完 have 5 shall have been 成 been doinghad been doing doing 进 has will 行
Who is she? She is Li Yuchun. What is she doing? She is singing.
What is he doing?
He is playing basketball.
What is she doing?
She is watching TV.
I am playing computer.
She is singing.
请 归 纳 什 么 是
They are dancing. He is swimming.
现 在 进 行 时

  3.现在进行时 现在进行时am / is / are doing 现在进行时 一、表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与now , at 表示现在或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与 present 等连用。
  1.We are having (have) an English class now.

  2. Is the baby sleeping (sleep) next door?
  3. At present the environment is being polluted (pollute) seriously . 二、少数动词如 come , go , arrive , begin , leave , return , start , stay 等,可以用进行时(也可以用一般现在时)表示按计 可以用进行时(也可以用一般现在时) 划即将发生的动作。 划即将发生的动作。

  1. I am leaving (leave) for Bejing tomorrow .
  2. Sally is staying (stay) in her aunt’s home when she is in Britain .
连用,表示不满或赞扬。 三、常与always 连用,表示不满或赞扬。 常与
  1.She is always asking (ask) such silly questions .
  2. They are always helping (help) others.
但是并不是有always 就总是用进行时,请看: 就总是用进行时,请看: 但是并不是有 always enjoyed (enjoy) laughing ,
  1. People have and there always (be) humour .
  1. When Crystal is the host of Academy Award , he always (keep) a toothbrush in his pockets for good luck . keeps
注意! 注意!
表示感觉、情感、心理状态的动词如 表示感觉、情感、心理状态的动词如smell , taste , sound ,look , feel , need hear ,like ,love, hate , know , want , wish , forget 等及 表示 等及be表示 表示“ 不能用于进行时。 “是”、have 表示“有”时,不能用于进行时。 不能说: 不能说:
  1.We are wanting to take part in the lecture .
  2. The food is tasting nice .
  3.Kate is knowing the answers.

  4.现在完成时 现在完成时
have / has done
一、表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果, 表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果, 句中没有具体时间,常与already , never ,ever , yet , 句中没有具体时间,常与 just , recently , so far 等连用 。
  1.She has already come (come) here . been (be) in a palace .
  2. We have never
  3. He has gone (go) to Fuzhou .(去了还没回来 去了还没回来) 去了还没回来
  4. He has been (be) to Fuzhou .(去过已经回来了) (去过已经回来了)
条件状语从句中, 二、在时间 / 条件状语从句中,表示将来某时以 完成的动作。 完成的动作。
I will go with you when I the clothes . have washed (wash)

  1.So far, Crystal has hosted (host ) the show eight times .
  2.Wehave studied (study) English for seven years (since 1999 ) .
三、表示过去开始的动作持续到现在,也许还继续持续下去,常和 表示过去开始的动作持续到现在,也许还继续持续下去, since ,for 表示一段时间的状语,或so far , now , recently ,lately 表示一段时间的状语, 等词连用。 等词连用。
注意1 注意1
短暂性动词( 短暂性动词(如:come ,go ,return , die , join , marry , buy , leave, get, begin , catch , end , finish 等 )可以 用于完成时,但不能与for ,since 构成的短语连用。如: 构成的短语连用。 用于完成时,但不能与 不能说: 不能说:She has come here for two hours . 只能说 :She has been here for two hours . 或者说 : She came here two hours ago .
注意2 注意2since 引导的从句只能用一般过去时,主句要 引导的从句只能用一般过去时,
用现在完成时。 用现在完成时。如: We have been (be) friends ever since we (meet ) at school . met
注意3 注意3
It’s the first / second time that I have been to a foreign country.
这个句型常用现在完成时。 这个句型常用现在完成时。
从句中的短暂性动词可翻译为“ 短暂性动词可翻译为 注意5 注意5since 从句中的短暂性动词可翻译为“自从做某 事以来已经多久了” 延续性动词则应译为 事以来已经多久了”,但延续性动词则应译为 不做某多久了” “不做某多久了”
你会翻译吗? 你会翻译吗?
1.It’s a long time since he joined the army . 他参军已经很久了。(他还在部队) 。(他还在部队 他参军已经很久了。(他还在部队)
  2. It’s a long time since he was in the army . 他不在部队已经很久了。 不在部队已经很久了
  3.It’s four years since my father worked in that factory . 我爸爸不在那工厂工作有四年了。 不在那工厂工作有四年了 我爸爸不在那工厂工作有四年了。
  4. It’s four years since my father started work in
that factory .
我爸爸在那家工厂工作有四年了。 我爸爸在那家工厂工作有四年了。

  5.现在完成进行时 现在完成进行时 have/has been doing
表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在, 表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,而且 很可能还要延续下去。它与现在完成时的区别在于: 很可能还要延续下去。它与现在完成时的区别在于:它 强调动作的延续性,在没有时间状语时, 强调动作的延续性,在没有时间状语时,它表示动作 延续性动词)仍在进行, (延续性动词)仍在进行,而现在完成时则表示动作已 经结束。 经结束。
  1. Look out ! Jimhas been painting (paint) the door .(强 (
调油漆未干) 调油漆未干)
  2. Jim has painted (paint) the door . (油漆可能已干了 油漆可能已干了) 油漆可能已干了 (wait) for him for an hour but he still
  3. I have been waiting hasn’t come .
EXERCISES
( B )
  1.A: Are the Browns still in Australia ? B: . It’s years since they lived there . A. Yes B. No C. I’m not sure . D. Of course ( C )2.When tomorrow , I will serve tea to him . 2 A. he will come B. does he come C. he comes D . will he come ( A)
  3.The police searching our neighbor’s house . What do you suppose ? A. are ; has happened B. is ; is happening C. is ; would happen D. were ; did happen ( A )
  4.If you him , please go to his home early . A. will help B. helps C. help D. don’t help ( C )
  5. Why tired ? I the house the whole morning . A. are you ; have cleaned B. do you ; was cleaning C. do you look ; have been cleaning D. are you looking ; am cleaning

  6.过去进行时 过去进行时was / were doing 过去进行时
一、表示过去某一时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。 表示过去某一时刻或某一阶段正在进行的动作。
  1. What was she doing(do) this time yesterday ? She was practising (practise) gym.
  2. In 2000 they were studying (study) in a university . 用于故事中情节、场面的描写。 二、用于故事中情节、场面的描写。
  1. One morning , a hunter was walking ( walk) through a forest when he met a bear .
  2. All the students were busy this afternoon . Some were sweeping (sweep) the floor . Some were carrying (carry) water . Others were cleaning (clean) the desks and the doors .
三、有些表示“移动”的动词:go , come , 有些表示“移动”的动词: leave , arrive , set out , take off 等,的过去进 行式常表示过去将来时。 行式常表示过去将来时。 (leave) for
  1. John told us they were leaving
London the next week and that they were coming (come) to say goodbye that evening .
四、比较一般过去时和过去进行时: 比较一般过去时和过去进行时
  1. He was writing a letter yesterday evening .
  2.He wrote a letter yesterday evening . 你知道这两句的意思有什么区别吗? 你知道这两句的意思有什么区别吗?
  1、他昨晚一直在写信。(可能还没写完) 。(可能还没写完 、他昨晚一直在写信。(可能还没写完)
  2、他昨晚写了一封信。(写完了) 。(写完了 、他昨晚写了一封信。(写完了)
Exercises are walking in
  1. A: Look , where are you going ? You
the wrong direction. B: Oh , I . A. didn’t notice B. wasn’t noticing C. haven’t noticed D. am not noticing
  2. A: You needn’t have paid for it . B: You are right . Nobody the tickets . A. was collecting . B. collected C. had collected D . will collect
  3. A: Ouch ! You are standing on my foot . to B: I’m sorry , but I A. don’t mean B. haven’t mean C. am not meaning D. didn’t mean
用正确时态填空: 用正确时态填空:
  1. He went (go) towards the fire, which still was s (smoke). was smoking
  2. While my father was looking (look) through the evening paper, he suddenly let (let) out a cry of surprise.
  3. When I entered (enter) the room, he didn't see (not see) me. For he was reading (read) something with great interest.
  4. When we arrived (arrive) at the village, it was arrived was getting getting (get) dark, and the wind was blowing was blowing (blow) hard. didn't know
  5. I didn’t know (not know) you were waiting were waiting (wait) for me here.

  7.过去完成时 had done 过去完成时
件 、 过去 时刻 经发 动 、状态, “过去 过去”,可译 “ 状态, ”。 by , before , when 语。 经 时间状

  1. By the end of last week we had studied (study) five books .
  2. I had reached (reach) the station before six o’clock .
  3. You had been (be) in this school for a years before / when I came here .
二、hope , wish , expect , think , intend , mean , suppose 等的过去完成时的含义是指“过去没有实现的 等的过去完成时的含义是指“ 愿望、打算、计划“ 也表示”失望“ 惋惜“等情绪。 愿望、打算、计划“,也表示”失望“或”惋惜“等情绪。 后面常有but引起的句子作补充说明。 引起的句子作补充说明。 后面常有 引起的句子作补充说明
  1.We had hoped (hope) that you would be able to visit us,but you didn’t . ,
  2.She had thought (think) of adopting an orphan , but was prevented from doing so .
  3.They had meant (mean) to see us off at the air port , but they got there too late

  8.一般将来时
  8.一般将来时
一、will / shall do
表示将要发生的动作或情况: 表示将要发生的动作或情况: be (be) able you
  1.When will to give us an answer ?
  2.when shall I make (make) the copy ?
二、be going to do
表示打算、 表示打算、准备做的事

  1. How are you going to spend (spend) your holidays ?
  2. He is going to be (be) a host after he graduates .
be going to 与 will 的区别
两者经常可以换用, 比较口语化, 两者经常可以换用,但be going to 比较口语化,will 多用于书面 语 : What will / is going to happen now ?
如果是事先经过考虑的就用 be going to , 否则就用 will

  1. She will make (make) you a dress .
  2. She has bought some cloth ; she is going to make (make) you a dress .
三、be to do 表示按计划安排要发生的事或 用来征求对方意见, 用来征求对方意见,也常用于宣传官方的计 划或决定,以及禁止、命令等。 划或决定,以及禁止、命令等。

  1. We are to produce (produce) more electricity this year .
  2. Am I to go (go) on with the work ? = Shall I go on with the work ?
  3.When are they to hand (hand) in their plan ?
be to do 还可以表示
一、想要做的事

  1. I must continue to learn if I am to make (make) further progress .
  2. If we are to succeed(succeed) , we must rely on the masses .
表示即将发生某事, 四、 be about to 表示即将发生某事,因为它本 身带有“即将”之意, 身带有“即将”之意,所以不能与表示将来的时 间状语连用,但常与when 引起的时间状语连用, 引起的时间状语连用, 间状语连用,但常与 表示“即将做某事时突然另一事发生了” 表示“即将做某事时突然另一事发生了”。它也 不带有说话人的主观打算。 不带有说话人的主观打算。
  1.He is about to retire (retire) . 2. We were about to leave (leave) when the telephone rang .

  9.将来进行时 将来进行时will be doing 将来进行时
表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作。 表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作。一般不表示意 常表示已安排好之事,给人一种期待之感。 愿,常表示已安排好之事,给人一种期待之感。
be doing (do) this What Will you time tomorrow ?

  10.将来完成时 will / shall have done 将来完成时
表示到将来某个时候已经完成的动作或已有的结果。 表示到将来某个时候已经完成的动作或已有的结果。
I shall have finished (finish) reading the book by the end of this week .

  1.
 

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