Test One Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tolls and technology can tell us about the group's history and ways of life. Similarly, research into the material culture of music can help us to understand the music-culture. The most vivid body of "things" in it, of course, are musical instruments. We cannot hear for ourselves the actual sound of any musical performance before the 1870s when the phonograph(留声机)was invented, so we rely on instruments for important information about music-cultures in the remote past and their development. Here we have two kinds of evidence: instruments well preserved and instruments pictured in art. Through the study of instruments, as well as paintings, written documents, and so on, we can explore the movement of music from the Near East to China over a thousand years ago, or we can outline the spread of Near Eastern influence to Europe that resulted in the development of most of the instruments on the symphony orchestra. Sheet music or printed music, too is material culture. Scholars once defined folk music-cultures as those in which people learn and sing music by ear rather than from print, but research shows mutual influence among oral and written sources during the past few centuries in Europe, Britain, and America, printed versions limit variety because they tend to standardize any song, yet they stimulate people to create new and different song. Besides, the ability to read music notation(乐谱)has a far-reaching effect on musicians and, when it becomes widespread, on the music-culture as whole. One more important part for music's material culture should be singled out: the influence of the electronic media-radio, record player, tape recorder, television, and videocassette, with the future promising talking and singing computers and other developments. This is all part of the "information revolution," a twentieth-century phenomenon as important as the industrial revolution was in the nineteenth. These electronic media are not just limited to modern nations; they have affected music-music-cultures all over the globe.
  21. Research into the material culture of a nation is of great importance because . A) it helps produce new cultural tools and technology B) it can reflect the development of the nation C) it helps understand the nation's past and present D) it can demonstrate the nation's civilization
  22. It can be learned from this passage that . A) the existence of the symphony was attributed to the spread of Near Eastern and Chinese music. B) Near Eastern music had an influence on the development of the instruments in the symphony orchestra C) the development of the symphony shows the mutual influence of Eastern and Western music D) the musical instruments in the symphony orchestra were developed on the basis of Near Eastern music
  23. According to the author, music notation is important because . A) it has a great effect on the music-culture as more and more people are able to read it B) it tends to standardize folk songs when it is used by folk musicians C) it is the printed version of standardized folk music D) it encourages people to popularize printed versions of songs
  24. It can be concluded from the passage that the introduction of electronic media into the world of music .
A) has brought about an information revolution B) has speeded up the arrival of a new generation of computes C) has given rise to new forms of music culture D) has led to the transformation of traditional musical instruments
  25. Which of the following best summarizes the main idea of the passage? A) Musical instruments developed through the years will sooner or later be replaced by computers. B) Music cannot be passed on to future generation unless it is recorded. C) Folk songs cannot be spread far unless they are printed on music sheets. D) The development of music culture is highly dependent on its material aspect. The question of whether war is inevitable is one, which has concerned many of the world's great writers. Before considering this question, it will be useful to introduce some related concepts. Conflict, defined as opposition among social entities directed against one another, is distinguished from competition, defined as opposition among social entities independently striving for something, which is in inadequate supply. Competitors may not be aware of one another, while the parties to a conflict are. Conflict and competition are both categories of opposition, which has been defined as a process by which social entities function in the disservice of one another. Opposition is thus contrasted with cooperation, the process by which social entities function in the service of one another. These definitions are necessary because it is important to emphasize that competition between individuals or groups is inevitable in a world of limited resources, but conflict is not. Conflict, nevertheless, is very likely to occur, and is probably an essential and desirable element of human societies. Many authors have argued for the inevitability of war from the premise that in the struggle for existence among animal species, only the fittest survive. In general, however, this struggle in nature is competition, not conflict. Social animals, such as monkeys and cattle, fight to win or maintain leadership of the group. The struggle for existence occurs not in such fights, but in the competition for limited feeding areas and for the occupancy 占有) areas free from meat-eating animals. Those who ( of fail in this competition starve to death or become victims to other species. This struggle for existence does not resemble human war, but rather the competition of individuals for jobs, markets, and materials. The essence of the struggle is the competition for the necessities of life that are insufficient to satisfy all. Among nations there is competition in developing resources, trades, skills, and a satisfactory way of life. The successful nations grow and prosper 繁荣) the unsuccessful decline. While it is true that ( ; this competition may induce effort to expand territory at the expense of others, and thus lead to conflict, it cannot be said that war-like conflict among nations is inevitable, although competition is.
  26. In the first paragraph, the author gives the definitions of some terms in order to . A) argue for the similarities between animal societies and human societies B) smooth out the conflicts in human societies C) distinguish between tow kinds of opposition D) summarize the characteristic features of opposition and cooperation
  27. According to the author, competition differs from conflict in that . A) it results in war in most cases B) it induces efforts to expand territory C) it is a kind of opposition among social entities D) it is essentially a struggle for existence
  28. The phrase "function in the disservice of one another" (Para.1, Line
  7) most probably means
"". A) betray each other B) harm one another C) help to collaborate with each other D) benefit one another
  29. The author indicates in the passage that conflict . A) is an inevitable struggle resulting from competition B) reflects the struggle among social animals C) is an opposition among individual social entities D) can be avoided
  30. The passage is probably intended to answer the question "". A) Is war inevitable? B) Why is there conflict and competition? C) Is conflict desirable? D) Can competition lead to conflict? As Dr. Samuel Johnson said in a different era about ladies preaching, the surprising thing about computers is not that they think less well than a man, but that they think at all. The early electronic computer did not have much going for it except a marvelous memory and some good math skills. But today the best models can be wired up to learn by experience, follow an argument, ask proper questions and write poetry and music. They can also carry on somewhat puzzling conversations. Computers imitate life. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes unclear. In another 15 years or so, we will see the computer as a new form of life. The opinion seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But drives can be programmed into the computer's brain just as nature programmed them into our human brains as a part of the equipment for survival. Computers match people in some roles, and when fast decisions are needed in a crisis, they often surpass them. Having evolved when the pace of life was slower, the human brain has an inherent defect that prevents it from absorbing several streams of information simultaneously and acting on them quickly. Throw too many things at the brain at one time and it freezes up. We are still in control, but the capabilities of computers are increasing at a fantastic rate, while raw human intelligence is changing slowly, if as all. Computer power has increased ten times every eight years since 19
  46. In the 1990s, when the sixth generation appears, the reasoning power of an intelligence built out of silicon will begin to match that of the human brain. That does not mean the evolution of intelligence has ended on the earth. Judging by the past, we can expect that a new species will arise out of man, surpassing his achievements as he has surpassed those of his predecessor. Only a carbon chemistry enthusiast would assume that the new species must be man's flesh-and-blood descendants. The new kind of intelligent life is more likely to be made of silicon.
  31. What do you suppose was the attitude of Dr. Samuel Johnson towards ladies preaching? A) He believed that ladies were born worse preachers than men. B) He was pleased that ladies could preach, though not as well as men. C) He disapproved of ladies preaching. D) He encouraged ladies to preach.
  32. Today, computers are still inferior to man in terms of . A) decision making B) drives and feelings
C) growth of reasoning power D) information absorption
  33. In terms of making quick decisions, the human brain cannot be compared with the computer because . A) in the long process of evolution the slow pace of life didn't require such ability of the human brain. B) the human brain is influenced by other factors such as motivation and emotion C) the human brain may sometimes freeze up in a dangerous situation D) computers imitate life while the human brain does not imitate computers
  34. Though he thinks highly of the development of computer science, the author doesn't mean that . A) computers are likely to become a new form of intelligent life. B) human beings have lost control of computers C) the intelligence of computers will eventually surpass that of human beings. D) the evolution of intelligence will probably depend on that of electronic brains.
  35. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Future man will be made of silicon instead of flesh and blood. B) Some day it will be difficult to tell a computer from a man. C) The reasoning power of computers ahs already surpassed that of man. D) Future intelligent life may not necessarily be made of organic matter. Video recorders and photocopiers, even ticket machines on the railways, often seem unnecessarily difficult to use Last December I bought myself a video cassette recorder (VCR) described as "simple to use". In the first three weeks I failed repeatedly to program the machine to record from the TV, and after months of practice I still made mistakes. I am not alone. According to a survey last year by Ferguson, the British manufacturer, more than one in four VCR owners never use the timer(定时器) on their machines to record a programme: they don't use it because they've found it far too hard to operate. So why do manufacturers keep on designing and producing VCRS that are awkward to use if the problems are so obvious? First, the problems we notice are not obvious to technically minded (有技术 思想的) designers with years of experience and trained to understand how appliances work. Secondly, designers tend to add one or two features as a time to each model, whereas you or I face all a machine's features at once. Thirdly, although finding problems in a finished product is easy, it is too late by then to do anything about the design. Finally, if manufacturers can get away with selling products that are difficult to use, it is not worth the effort of any one of them to make improvements. Some manufacturers say they concentrate on providing a wide range of features rather than on making the machines easy to use. But that gives rise to the question, "Why can't you have features that are easy to use?" The answer is you can. Good design practice is a mixture of specific procedures and general principles. For a start, designers should build an original model of the machine and try it out on typical members of the public-not on colleagues in the development laboratory. Simple public trials would quickly reveal many design mistakes. In an ideal world, there would be some ways of controlling quality such as that the VCR must be redesigned repeatedly until, say, 90 per cent of users can w
  •  
 

相关内容

英语上课教材 Test One

   Test One Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes) Material culture refers to the touchable, material "things"-physical objects that can be seen, held, felt, used-that a culture produces. Examining a culture's tolls and technology can te ...

电大大学英语B(Test 5)

   Test 5 第一部分:交际用语( 小题; 第一部分:交际用语(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分) 个未完成的对话, 个选项, 此部分共有 10 个未完成的对话,针对每个对话中未完成的部分有 4 个选项,请从 A、 、 B、C、D 四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并用铅笔将答案题卡上的相应字母 、 、 四个选项中选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项, 涂黑。示例[A] [B] [C] [D] 涂黑。示例 1. ? How was your trip to London, Jan ...

大学英语B模拟试题 Test4

   大学英语(B)模拟试题 大学英语 模拟试题 Test 4 第一部分:交际用语( 小题; 第一部分:交际用语(共 10 小题;每小题 1 分,满分 10 分) 1. Please help yourself to the seafood. 请吃点海鲜。 A. No, I can’t C. Well, seafood don’t suit her. 2. B. Sorry, I can’t help D. Thanks, but I don’t like the seafood. 对不起,我不吃 ...

七年级英语上册Unit One

   七年级英语上册Unit One Getting to Know You 兴国县教师进修学校兰晓红 2011年4月 ...

大学英语精读 第四册 Unit One

   Unit One:Big Bucks the Easy Way Text Two college-age boys, unaware that making money usually involves hard work, are tempted by an advertisement that promises them an easy way to earn a lot of money. The boys soon learn that if something seems to g ...

大学英语基础教程(北大修订版)教案第二册Unit One

   Unit One Teaching Objectives: By the end of this unit, the students will be expected to be able to 1. talk about some animals and the relationship between environment and creatures; 2. use about 30 new words and 8 new phrases and expressions in bri ...

高级英语第一册辅导 练习题 Advanced English. Unit One

   高级英语第一册辅导 Advanced English Unit 1 The Middle Eastern Bazaar 课文侯习题答案 Ⅶ. 1)glare 指刺眼的光;brightness 指光源发出的强烈稳定的光, 强调光 的强度。 2)din 指连续不断的噪音,听了很使人心烦意乱;sound 指人们感觉到 的各种各样的声音,包括高亢的,轻柔的,悦耳的,难听的;noise 指所有强烈的、混乱的或令人不快的 sounds。 3)quiet 或 silent 指没有声音;而 音被压低或吸收而 ...

英语honest

   英语词汇 honest['nist] 诚实的,正直的诚实与正直的一个勇敢的勇敢的与忠诚的,忠心的 忠诚的人英明的,明智 的,聪明的英明(明智)又聪明的新手]聪明的,漂亮的,敏捷的聪明又漂亮的女友敏捷的 身手救聪明又漂亮的新媳妇聪明又漂亮的新媳妇英俊的, 大方的, 美观的英俊的小伙]争论, 辩论争论 解答,解决办法,解决方案 解决办法(解决方案) 古典的,古典文学的古典的 歌曲古典文学的作品]喜爱的,多情的,喜欢的多情的小女孩]火柴火柴 mirror['mir] 镜子镜子 油煎,油炸油炸(油煎 ...

如何摆脱chinese英语

     Jonathan Brody。Jonathan Brody生于美国纽约,长于波士顿。他从高中时开始学习汉语,并在大学继续学习。大三时,他曾到中国学习汉语;毕业之后又来到中国工作,参与“英语作为外语教学”(TESOL)项目教材的编制和教学工作。在过去的16年里,他为报纸、杂志、广播、电视、软件和网络等多种媒体编写了教材。Jonathan Brody是英国利兹大学的教育学硕士,对语言自学方法有深入的研究,目前他是担任过多种高中英语系列教材和TESOL杂志的编辑。   “中国式英语”,也就是我们 ...

高三英语语法辅导stone

   高三英语语法讲座(六) 高三英语语法讲座( Nonfinite Verbs(非谓语动词) 不定式 非谓语动词 过去分词 V.-ing 形式 " 一. 不定式 " 1.不定式的形式:to do 否定式:not to do (1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示 的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在 谓语动作之后,例如 I’m glad to meet you. We plan to pay a visit. " (2)进行时:不定式的进行时所表示的 动作与谓 " 语动词动作同时发生,例如 " T ...

热门内容

初中英语单词背诵记忆法

   初中英语单词背诵记忆法 上学到了初中,大部分学生都认为英语难学, 上学到了初中,大部分学生都认为英语难学,主要原因是英语单 词难记。这是什么原因造成的呢?主要原因有三点: 词难记。这是什么原因造成的呢?主要原因有三点: 一、小学生在读小学时记英语单词没有严格要求记住它们的拼写, 单词的读、写方面是次要的。因为小学生学习英语的目的是培养学生学 习英语的兴趣和初步的英语听说能力。英语课堂上是通过做游戏、搞活 动、听简单的英语歌曲来学习英语。小学要求学生学英语的目的是能听 会说简短的日常用语和用简 ...

看美剧学英语

   英语达人告诉你,如何用美剧真正提升你的英语水平~~~ 来源: Y° 季末。的日志 1. 不是所有的美剧都适合学英语 如果喜欢看如《24 小 时》这样的动作片, 那你基本会讲一口流利的"To""轰""啊"之类的 开枪爆炸声英语.如果你喜欢看如《豪斯医生》这种专业性很强的片子,那你基本会讲一些如 MRI,CT,Tumor 之类的连自己都不明白的江湖郎中英语.如果看的是《越狱》,基本不用举手,别 人就知道你是黑手党的了.不是所有剧都合适的 ...

黑龙江省五校联谊”2010?2011学年度高三上学期期中考试 英语

   “五校联谊”2010?2011 学年度上学期期中考试 班级 高三英语试卷 本试卷分为第 I 卷(选择题)和第Ⅱ卷(非选择题)两部分 满分 150 分 考试时间:120 分钟 第 I 卷(选择题共 115 分) 选择题共 第一部分: 第一部分:听力(共两节。满分 30 分) 第一节(共 5 小题;每小题 1.5 分。满分 7.5 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回 ...

电大英语试卷(二)

   电大英语试卷(二) (20002001) 在本题中,你将听到 9 个简短的对话,在每个对话后还将听到一个有关对话的问题(问 题同时写在试卷上)。对话只放一遍。你必须在录音留出的空白时间内从所给的四个选择中 找出最佳答案,并把答案写在答题纸上。 (9%) 1. Question: Where do you think the dialogue most probably takes place? A. In a restaurant. B. In a hospital. C. In a pol ...

2007高中英语句型总结-新人教整理

   2006 级高中英语句型总结 李阳老师的话 有了骨骼,我们才可以傲然挺立.同样,正是有了句型,英语学习的高楼大厦才能拔地而起!而建 好英语大厦要一步一步打好地基,句型就是大厦的地基和框架.在这些框架上添加各种各样的 材料(单词,短语,口语要素),才能建造大厦.你掌握的句型有多少,就决定了你盖的楼有多高,行 动起来吧!将我们为大家精心挑选的 300 个句型一网打尽! 特别说明 这些都是我们从高中英语课文及《跟李阳老师学中学英语》高中系列中精选出的重点句型. 同时它们也都是高考常考和口语常用的经 ...