Tenses
时 态
什么叫时态? 一. 什么叫时态?
在英语中, 发生在不同时间的谓语动作或状态要用不 同的谓语动词形式表示;有时候,发生在同一时间的谓语动 作或状态,由于说话者所强调的方面不同,也要用不同的谓 语动词形式表示. 这里所说的不同的谓语动词形式就是我 们常说的不同的谓语时态.
二. 时态跟时间状语有关

  1. 一般现在时 (often / always / sometimes / usually / occasionally every morning …)
构成法: is/am/are, do/does
Children usually pick up foreign languages very quickly. Every day she is the last to leave the office.

  2. 一般过去时 (often / always / occasionally / 5 days ago / last week / the year before last / on July 1, 1986…)
构成法: 动词过去式
Often I did not see Papa until the evening. He always went to work on foot. I was born in July, 19
  87.
  3. 一般将来时 (in future / in the future / from now on / soon / in 5 years / next year / in the 22nd century…)
构成法: will/shall + 动词原形
In future, we’ll pay more attention to the protection of our environment. My father will be back home in a few days.
(“is/am/are to + 动词原形” 或 “is/am/are going to + 动词原形”

  4. 过去将来时 (soon / in a few days / the next week …)
构成法: would/should + 动词原形
John told me that he would go abroad the next day. The government promised that help would come soon.
  5. 现在进行时 (now / at the moment/at present …)
构成法: is/am/are + 动词现在分词
She is feeding the baby right now.
  6. 过去进行时 (then / at 10 yesterday morning / this time yesterday / at that time …)
构成法: was/were + 动词现在分词
What were you doing this time yesterday evening?

  7. 将来进行时 (this time tomorrow / at 8 next Monday / when your plane lands at the airport of Shanghai …)
构成法: will/shall be + 动词现在分词
When your plane lands at the airport of Shanghai, we will still be sleeping.
  8. 现在完成时 (for ten years / since five years ago / since they got married / so far / in the past few days / in the last 3 years / in recent years …)
构成法: has/have + 动词过去分词
So far, nothing has been done to stop polluting the river. Things have changed in recent weeks. Mum has been ill for several days.

  9. 过去完成时 (for many years / since he was born / by 2000 / by the time World War II broke out / a few years before …)
构成法: had + 动词过去分词
By six o’clock, they had worked twelve hours. By the time he came back, I had gone to bed. When he woke up, everything had changed.
  10. 将来完成时 (by the end of this year / by the time I graduate from college … )
构成法: will/shall have + 动词过去分词
By the time I graduate from college, I shall have stayed in Wuhan for four years.

  11. 现在完成进行时 (for two hours / since 5 o’clock this morning …)
构成法: has/have been + 动词现在分词
I have been waiting for you since 5 o’clock this morning.
  12. 过去完成进行时 (for a long time / since 1999…)
构成法: had been + 动词现在分词
How long had it been raining before you shut the window?
三. 几种容易用错的时态用法比较
在英语实际应用中,并非都会出现前面提到的时间状 在英语实际应用中 并非都会出现前面提到的时间状 语帮你决定谓语用什么时态.高考对谓语时态的考查主要 语帮你决定谓语用什么时态 高考对谓语时态的考查主要 是通过语境来进行的.下面我们来分析 下面我们来分析、 是通过语境来进行的 下面我们来分析、比较几种容易用 错的时态. 错的时态
  1. 一般过去时与过去进行时的用法比较 Yesterday afternoon, he painted me a picture in oils. Now let me show it to you. (强调paint这一动作过去已做过.即:画已画好.) Yesterday afternoon, he was painting me a picture. Now I ‘m going to see whether he has finished it. (强调paint这一动作过去在进行,但未交代是否已做完)
Why didn’t you answer my phone call last night ? C Sorry, but I a bath. A. took B. had taken C. was taking D. was going to take
  2. 一般现在时与现在进行时用法比较 Jane washes her own clothes. (指通常衣服都是她自己洗) Jane is washing her own clothes in the bathroom. (强调暂时性,未完成,且未交代平时衣服是否自己洗) The manager is kind to us all. (指经理的一贯态度) The manager is being kind to us all now. (强调暂时性态度, 表示平时对我们大家并不善良)

  3. 一般过去时与过去完成时用法比较 客人们昨天已经离开上海. The guests left Shanghai yesterday. (说明left发生在昨天) 他说客人们已经离开上海. He said the guests had left Shanghai. (强调had left发生在said之前,即:过去的过去) All the guests had left Shanghai by yesterday. (既然是截止到昨天,那就说明是在包括昨天在内的以前 已经陆续 “离开”)

  4. 一般过去时与现在完成时用法比较 have lost Oh, my God! I can’t get in. I my key. But I don’t know when and where I it. lost have lost / lost / had lost / must lose
(前一个空用现在完成时强调 “丢失”对现在造成的影响 没有找到,无法进门;后一句则强调 “丢失”是在过去何时 何地发生的.) .)
四. 时态的替代

  1. 在时间状语从句和条件状语从句中,要用一般时代替将 来时,即:用一般现在时代替一般将来时, 用一般过去时 代替过去将来时, 用现在进行时代替将来进行时, 用现 在完成时代替将来完成时.
Take the umbrella with you in case it rains. Don’t allow him to watch TV unless he has finished his homework. OK. If he is watching TV but hasn’t finished his homework, I’ll turn off the TV. 时间状语从句引导词: the moment, as soon as, when, before, after, until 条件状语从句引导词: once, in case, on condition that, if, unless, as long as

  2. no matter加疑问词以及疑问词与ever构成的合成词引 出的从句中,要用一般现在时代替一般将来时. Wherever you go, you will get a warm welcome.
  3. 有部分动词(主要是短暂性动作动词)可以用进行时代替 将来时,即:用现在进行时代替一般将来时,用过去进行时 代替过去将来时. (也可用将来时)
Are you doing anything special this evening ? =Are you going to do anything special this evening? I’m afraid he’s dying soon. =I’m afraid he’ll die soon. I was told that she was leaving for New York the next day. = I was told she would leave for New York the next day.

  4. 在以下短语后面的从句中常用一般现在时代替一般将 来时: make sure, make certain, see to it, be sure等. Please see to it that all the windows are closed before leaving the lab.
  5.凡是按预定时间表将要发生的动作也可用一般现在时代 替一般将来时, 例如:汽车、火车、轮船、飞机、上下课 等. (也可用一般将来时) His plane takes off at 11:
  30. Let’s hurry and see him off.
  6. 含有always的谓语用现在进行时代替一般现在时,表示 反感、反对、赞扬、欣赏等感情色彩. She is always throwing her things around.
五.两个特殊句型的时态 两个特殊句型的时态

  1. 在先行词被形容词最高级修饰的定语从句中,要用完成 时. He is the cleverest student I have ever taught. She thought that was the best film she had ever seen.
  2. 在先行词是 the first/second time 的定语从句中, 也要 用完成时. This is the third time I have visited the museum. That was the second time he had been there.
六. 值得注意的两点

  1. 一般来说,只有延续性动作动词才有进行时态(包括现在 进行时、过去进行时、将来进行时、现在完成进行时、 过去完成进行时),如果短暂性动作动词、终止性动词和 状态动词用在进行时态中,则不表示动作正在进行,而是 表示将来或别的含义. I was told that she was leaving for New York the next day. The manager is being kind to us all now. (强调暂时性态度, 表示平时对我们大家并不善良)
  2. 只有延续性动作动词和状态动词才可以与表示一段时间 的状语(如: for 3 days, since last November)连用. She has caught a bad cold for a couple of days. has had
 

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