一、汉译英扫雷 虚拟、倒装、 虚拟、倒装、时态和语态 考点透析
  1.虚拟语气 虚拟语气
  1) if 虚拟条件句
  2) wish后的虚拟语气 后的虚拟语气

  3)表示建议、主张、命令等概念的词语后的虚拟语气 表示建议、主张、
  4)熟悉常见的能引出虚拟语气的词语以及一些特殊的虚拟语气句

非真实条件句
if从句 过去 与过去相反 现在 与现在相反 将来 与将来相反 was /were did had been /done am, is, are do, does were did do, does should be /do were to do 主句 was /were did would ( should / could /might) have been /done am, is, are do, does would ( should / could /might) be /do will /shall do would ( should / could /might) be /do
e.g. If the whole operation had not been planned beforehand,a great deal of time and money , would have been lost. .
如果整个运作过程不是已经提前规划好了的话, 如果整个运作过程不是已经提前规划好了的话,就会损失掉大量的时 间和金钱了。 间和金钱了。 需要注意的是,有时候主从句所指的时间概念会有不一致的情况, 需要注意的是,有时候主从句所指的时间概念会有不一致的情况, 比如条件句是表示对过去的假设, 比如条件句是表示对过去的假设,而主句是表示对现在事实或将来可能 造成的影响。 造成的影响。
e.g.: : If l hadn't stood under the ladder to catch you when you fell,you couldn't be smiling like , this now
如果你摔下来时我没有站在梯子下面接住你, 如果你摔下来时我没有站在梯子下面接住你,你现在就不可能像现在这 样笑了。 样笑了。
If she had returned an hour earlier, , Mary (就不会被大雨淋了 就不会被大雨淋了) 就不会被大雨淋了 Key: would not have been caught by / in the heavy rain
  2)wish后的虚拟语气 后的虚拟语气 wish后面的宾语从句常用虚拟语气,表示的是某种无法实现 后面的宾语从句常用虚拟语气, 后面的宾语从句常用虚拟语气 的愿望,说话人常用它来表示对实际情况的不满、不情愿、 的愿望,说话人常用它来表示对实际情况的不满、不情愿、不 接受、遗憾、后悔等感情。 接受、遗憾、后悔等感情。宾语从句的谓语动词主要有三种形 式: were / did 现在的愿望 had + done 过去的愿望 would/ / should/ / could/might have 十 done / 表示对将来的愿望, 表示对将来的愿望, would/should/could/might 十 do / / /
e.g.: : I wish I were as tall as you. He wished he hadn't said that. I wish it would rain tomorrow. I didn't go to the party last night,but I do , wish I had been there。 。 昨晚我没去舞会, 昨晚我没去舞会,但是我真的很希望我去 了。

  3)表示建议、主张、命令、请求等概念的词语后的虚拟语气 表示建议、主张、
这类词语由于本身隐含说话人的主观愿望, 这类词语由于本身隐含说话人的主观愿望,所以后面接的 主语从句、 主语从句、 宾语从句、 宾语从句、 同位语从句的谓语动词往往采用
( should) + do /be done 常见的这类词语包括: 动词 动词相应的名词 形容词: 形容词:It is + adj. +that…
v. advise agree decide determine indicate insist prefer propose require resolve stipulate
adj. advisable agreeable decided determined indicative insistent preferable proposed required resolved
n. advice agreement decision determination indication insistence preference proposal requirement resolution stipulation
v. desire demand request recommend instruct order direct suggest pity shame
adj. desirable demanded requested recommendable instructive
n. desire demand request recommendation instruction order suggestion pity shame
suggested
adj. appropriate incredible essential imperative important necessary obligatory urgent vital
n.
adj. impossible proper
importance necessity
The law requires that everyone should have his car checked at least once a year. He urges that the restrictions should be lifted. My proposal is that the meeting should be postponed till a later time. His advice that John should wait until next week is quite reasonable. It is important that the applicant should state his reasons for wishing to work for our company. It is imperative that these safety rules be obeyed by everyone.
所有人必须遵守这些安全规则

  4)熟悉常见的能引出虚拟语气的词语以及一些特殊的虚拟语气句型 熟悉常见的能引出虚拟语气的词语以及一些特殊的虚拟语气句型
除了if以外,还有一些词语也经常用于引出虚拟语气, 除了 以外,还有一些词语也经常用于引出虚拟语气,如 以外
lest for fear that 唯恐、免得、为了不使 唯恐、免得、为了不使…… e.g. Lest the wall should collapse, they evacuated the building. The officer forbade the use of artillery lest the city’s industry be damaged. but for (要不是因为 要不是因为) 要不是因为 e.g.: But for your kindly help,I couldn't have done that job so well. , . 要不是有你的热心帮助,我不可能把工作做得那么好。 要不是有你的热心帮助,我不可能把工作做得那么好。 in case (以防 以防) 以防 otherwise without
另外,考生还要掌握一些特殊的虚拟句式, 另外,考生还要掌握一些特殊的虚拟句式,常见的包括:

  1) if only 要是 要是……就好了 但愿 就好了; 就好了 但愿……, , 与现在相反??用过去时 与现在相反 用过去时 与过去相反??用过去完成时 与过去相反 用过去完成时 Would+ do 表示愿望难以实现、遗憾或不满 表示愿望难以实现、 If only he didn’t drive so fast! If only he had remembered to buy some fruit. If only the rain would stop! If only I had more money, I could buy the new clothes.

  2) would rather /would sooner / would ( just) as soon + that 宁愿
与现在或将来相反, 与现在或将来相反,动词用过去时 与过去相反, 与过去相反,动词用过去完成时 I would rather you didn’t call tomorrow afternoon. I shall be entertaining visitors. My parents would rather we lived in the country than in the city. Mother is so upset. I’d rather you hadn’t told her about the matter. I would rather you went home now.

  3) It is ( about /high) time + that 该是……的时候了 的时候了
that从句中用一般过去时 从句中用一般过去时 It is time we stopped. It’s about time you had your hair cut. It’s high time he found himself a regular job.

  4) as if /as though 与现在相反??用过去时 与现在相反 用过去时 与过去相反??用过去完成时 与过去相反 用过去完成时 He felt as if he alone were responsible for what had happened. She spoke to me as if I were deaf. This tool operates /operated as though it had been repaired.

  2. 倒装
倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒装, 倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒装,全部倒装是指将 主谓完全倒装, 主谓完全倒装,部分倒装是指将助动词提前构成倒 汉译英中主要考查的是部分倒装。 装。汉译英中主要考查的是部分倒装。部分倒装主 要应用于以下几种情况: 要应用于以下几种情况:

  1)由否定词或短语提前引起部分倒装 由否定词或短语提前引起部分倒装
常见的能引起倒装的否定词或短语有: 常见的能引起倒装的否定词或短语有:
no,not,never,neither,nor, seldom, , , , , , hardly,scarcely,rarely,barely,little, , , , , , few, ,
by no means in no way in no case on no account under no circumstances hardly/ scarcely …when no sooner…than not only…but also not until
e.g.: :
Hardly had he arrived the railway station,When , the train left. .
他刚一到车站火车就开了。 他刚一到车站火车就开了。
Not until he had finished his mission did he realize that he was seriously ill.
直到他完成使命,他才意识到自己已经病得很重了。 直到他完成使命,他才意识到自己已经病得很重了。

  2)由“only+状语”提前引起部分倒装 由 状语” 状语
状语” “only+状语”位于句首时,句子要求部分倒装。 状语 位于句首时,句子要求部分倒装。
e.g.: Only in this way can this problem be solved in a short time. .
只有这样该问题才能够在短期内得以解决。 只有这样该问题才能够在短期内得以解决。

  3)as引导让步状语从句时需要部分倒装 引导让步状语从句时需要部分倒装
as引导让步状语从句时,需将as所在句子的表语部分提前,引起部分倒装 引导让步状语从句时,需将 所在句子的表语部分提前 引起部分倒装。 所在句子的表语部分提前, 引导让步状语从句时 e.g.: e.g.:
Young as he is,he has been a teacher for three years. ,
虽然他还年轻,可他已经当了三年老师了。 虽然他还年轻,可他已经当了三年老师了。

  4)so…that从句中“so…”提前引起部分倒装 从句中“ 从句中 提前引起部分倒装
如此……以至于 句型中,如果“so…’’位于句首,其所在的主句要求部分倒 以至于)句型中 位于句首, 在so…that(如此 如此 以至于 句型中,如果“
装。
e.g.: :
So beautiful is the scenery of the place that every year hundreds of visitors come here. .
该地的风景如此美丽,以至于每年都有成百上千的游客来到这里。 该地的风景如此美丽,以至于每年都有成百上千的游客来到这里。

  5)if条件句的倒装 条件句的倒装 if引出的条件句 经常是虚拟条件句 可将 引出的条件句(经常是虚拟条件句 可将should等 引出的条件句 经常是虚拟条件句)可将 等 助动词提前, 省略, 助动词提前,将if省略,构成部分倒装。 省略 构成部分倒装。 e.g.: : Had (if) I come earlier,I wouldn't have missed , that wonderful speech. . 如果我早点来的话, 如果我早点来的话,我就不会错过那场精彩的演讲 了。 e.g. Not only(他向我收费过高 ,but he 他向我收费过高), 他向我收费过高 didn't do a good repair job either. . Key: did he charge me too much / did he overcharge me

  3. 时态和语态
英语中一共有16种时态,四级考试汉译英部分重点考查的是一般过去时、 英语中一共有 种时态,四级考试汉译英部分重点考查的是一般过去时、过去进 种时态 行时、将来进行时、现在完成时、将来完成时、过去完成时和完成进行时。 行时、将来进行时、现在完成时、将来完成时、过去完成时和完成进行时。考生在复 习时要注意各个时态的主要用法,翻译时要注意抓住句子中的时间状语 抓住句子中的时间状语, 习时要注意各个时态的主要用法,翻译时要注意抓住句子中的时间状语,判断其是表 示现在、将来还是过去,是短暂时间还是延续性时间?从而确定译文的时态 从而确定译文的时态。 示现在、将来还是过去,是短暂时间还是延续性时间 从而确定译文的时态。
e.g.: : After searching for half an hour,he found that her glasses , had been lying on the table. .
找了半个小时以后,她发现自己的眼镜一直就在桌子上。 找了半个小时以后,她发现自己的眼镜一直就在桌子上。 语态问题虽然很少会单独考查,但也是汉译英涉及的重要知识点之一, 语态问题虽然很少会单独考查,但也是汉译英涉及的重要知识点之一,考生应引 起重视,在考虑句子时态的同时也要考虑应使用何种语态。而且,需要注意的是, 起重视,在考虑句子时态的同时也要考虑应使用何种语态。而且,需要注意的是,语 态问题不仅仅是针对谓语动词,非谓语动词的语态问题也同样重要。 态问题不仅仅是针对谓语动词,非谓语动词的语态问题也同样重要。
e.g.. . Though a skilled worker,(他被公司解雇了 他被公司解雇了)last , 他被公司解雇了 week because of the economic crisis. . Key: he was fired by the company discharged dismissed
专题演练
  1.It annoyed him that no sooner (他刚上 车,就发现忘了带钱了).
  2.It is advisable that(这些项目尽早完工).
  3.By the end of that year,Henry(已收集 了一千多张外国邮票).
  4.(直到所有的证据摆在他面前)did he confess his crime.
  5.If you had not run the red light,(事故 就不会发生了).
  6.A broad scientific census says that(地球 气候正在明显变暖).
  7.Only after the accident (他才让人对他的 车进行了仔细的检查).

  8.John couldn't have known the news,(否 则他早就发出申请了).
  9.I wish (我的家乡四季如春).
  10.If (进入一个装满水的浴缸),some of the water will overflow onto the floor.
  11.Were I in your place,(我会毫不犹豫 地
 

相关内容

英语四级translation

   本文由寒林梦沙贡献 ppt文档可能在WAP端浏览体验不佳。建议您优先选择TXT,或下载源文件到本机查看。 冯舟小组制作 版权没有 盗版不究 英语和汉语是两种差异比较大的语言,英语重形合,汉语重意合。 英语和汉语是两种差异比较大的语言,英语重形合,汉语重意合。有人 把英语句子比喻为“树木丛生、干枝纠缠的树林” 脉络难析, 把英语句子比喻为“树木丛生、干枝纠缠的树林”,脉络难析,主次难 而把汉语句子比喻为“枝干分明的竹林” 脉络清晰,主次易辨。 辨,而把汉语句子比喻为“枝干分明的竹 ...

English Revision---Translation 翻译部分复习--上海市世界外国语中学绝密资料--中考必备--英语满分必备!-

   English RevisionTranslation 我的表弟许诺为我排队买音乐会的票子 我的奶奶躺在太阳下补袜子已经有 2 个半小时了 我整个下午都在填写所得税单,因此我的背出了问题 她上空手道课已经几年了,没有什么好担心的 法国人在广大的农业地区种植诸如小麦和向日葵等农作物 土地延绵不断,而且整座山峰被一排排整齐的葡萄藤覆盖着 作为世界上最受欢迎的旅游地之一,巴黎拥有很多世界闻名的标志性建筑 法国的影响使我们能够在上海找到很多世界顶级设计师的产品 年轻学生参加全球各地举行的展览以深化他 ...

新编大学英语第二册translation1~8整理版

   1. He walks slowly because of his bad leg 2. He came to the meeting despite his serious illness 3. He saw to it that the same mistakes didn't happen again 4. Now that they have known each other a litter better,they get along fine. 5. Then i found m ...

21世纪大学英语读写教程第一册translation

   Unit1 Text A translation 1,:汤姆是一个十分好奇的男孩,他不仅对“是什么”感兴趣。而且也对“为什么”和“怎么样”感兴趣。 Tom, a very curious boy, is interested not only in whats but also in whys and hows. 2:据史密斯教授说,幸福就是你能充分利用的一切。 According to Professor Smith, happiness is the ability to make th ...

高中英语翻译默写ranslation unit 7

   1. 这个作家非常关心别人对他作品的态度。concern 2 公元五世纪罗马帝国灭亡了 see 3 In the fifth century 3 就服务来说, 这家餐馆是令人满意的 concern 4 2001 年中国加入(entry. n.)世贸组织 see 5 20 世纪上半叶这个城市发生过无数的战争与灾难 Concern Expect Place/ time see/ witness sth Sth happen in the place/time Sth concern sth St ...

新世纪大学英语综合教程2课后翻译题(Translation)答案

   Unit 1 1. 在生活中,我们最愚蠢的行为就是太执着于自己的东西,不愿意放弃. In life our stupidest course of action is to cling too much to what we have and refuse to let go. 2.我愿意在 IT 行业工作,但我不知道如何着手. I'm willing to work in the IT industry, but have no idea how to go about it. 3.许多人 ...

英语论文:The Culture Feature of Trademark and the Tactics of Translation

   The Culture Feature of Trademark and the Tactics of Translation [Abstract] The trademark is similar to person's name. It is the symbol of production. And it would become famous along with the commercial intercourse. A lot of international trademark ...

英语四级翻译Translation

   Model Test Papers Compositions 1.You'd better take some more tablets with you(以防在旅行的路上生病). 2.(负责市场营销部的经理最近辞职了) , for he had a conflict with the boss over the marketing strategy. 3.Confused at the instructions on the bottle, (病人向大夫咨询每次服 药的剂量). 4.If ...

英语高考周周练Week One answer to dictation of__ words

   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. Week One: Dictation of Important Words and Phrases 突然大笑 burst into laughter/ burst ou ...

Constellations 星座 英语演讲

   [,kTnstY'lei?Yn] [,kTnstY'lei?Yn] ?Y typical representative charact er constellation special representative interesting Do you know who is the artist of this masterpiece ? sharp wit passionate confident adventurous impulse Vincent Van Gogh Aries Ke ...

热门内容

仁爱版初中英语九年级上第一单元Topic 3课文

   Topic 3 The world has changed for the better. 1a Look, listen and say Maria: What are you reading, Jane? Jane: I am reading a newspaper from Canada. Martin says there is an interesting article. It is about a program that helps homeless people. Mari ...

商务英语

   商务英语:电邮英语的写作技巧 商务英语: 日常要处理许多信件电邮,因而运用英语上不得不留神,以下有一些个人意见,也 参考了一些书本,希望大家有所得益。 A. 文法上 1.切忌主客不分或模糊. 例子: Deciding to rescind the earlier estimate, our report was updated to include $40,000 for new equipment.” 应改为 Deciding to rescind our earlier estimate ...

作为外语的英语变体_中国英语

   (                        《外语与外语教学》大连外国语学院学报) 1998 年第 8 期 ( 总第 110 期) 福 州 大 学 讲    师 林秋云 作为外语的英语变体 : 中国英语 (    目前 ,国内许多学者提出了 “中国英语” China English) 这一说法 ,并对 “中国英语” 这一现象进行了探讨 。如汪榕培 ( 先生在 《中国英语是客观存在》 1991 ,下称汪文 ) , 李文中先 ( 1992 ,下称李文 ) ,贾冠杰 、 生在 《中国英语与中 ...

如何在小学英语教学中渗透

   如何在小学英语教学中渗透“三案?六环节” 如何在小学英语教学中渗透“三案?六环节”? 牛津小学英语 6A Unit6 Holidays Part A 教学设计 赣榆县黄海路小学 安薇 今日的世界已是资讯化的时代,教师的教育思想应以学生为本,在教学中努 力创造最佳环境,寻求最佳办法,以改变陈旧的教学模式和教学办法。具体到小 学英语教育上,教师的教学要特别有利于学生的可持续性成长,为学生的终身成 长奠基。笔者遵循这一思想,在教学中渗透了“三案?六环节”的新理念,设计 了牛津小学英语 6A Uni ...

三年级英语上册Lesson4课件

   UNIT 2 Nice meet to you! Lesson 4 Good morning! Good afternoon! This is … Hello! This is Mickey. Hi! This is Snoopy. Nice meet to you! Nice to meet you, too! This is Miss. /Mr. … Homework: 1 留意有颜色的事物,复习表示颜色的单词, 留意有颜色的事物,复习表示颜色的单词, 遇到没有学过的颜色单词可以通过查字 ...