n private languages since each one of us necessarily has one. Considering these facts, the possibilities for breakdowns in communication seem infinite in number. However, we do communicate successfully from time to time. And we do learn to speak languages. But learning to speak languages seems to be a very mysterious process. For a long time, people thought that we learned a language only by imitation and association. For example, a baby touches a hot pot and starts to cry. The mother says, "Hot, hot!" And the baby, when it stops crying, imitates the mother and says, " Hot, hot!" However, Noam Chomsky, a famous expert in language, pointed out that although children do learn some words by imitation and association, they also combine words to make meaningful sentences in ways that are unique, unlearned and creative. Because young children can make sentences they have never heard before, Chomsky suggested that human infants are born with the ability to learn language. Chomsky meant that underneath all the differences between public and private languages, there is a universal language mechanism that makes it possible for us, as infants, to learn any language in the world. This theory explains the potential that human infants have for learning language. But it does not really explain how children come to use language in particular ways. Questions 30 to 32 are based on the passage you have just heard. Question
  30. Why does the speaker say there are great possibilities for communication breakdowns? There are numerous public and private languages. Question
  31. What is Chomsky's point on the ability to learn a language? Human infants are born with the ability to learn language and the potential to learn any language in the world. Question
  32. What does Chomsky' theory fail to explain according s to the speaker? It does not really explain how children come to use language in particular ways. 四级听力 Passage Three When US spacewoman Joan Higginbotham is not flying and working in space, she might be found somewhere on earth giving a speech. Higginbotham, who grew up in Chicago and became an engineer before joining NASA, that is the National Air and Space Administration, gives about a dozen speeches a year. Each speech is different because she tailors her remarks to each audience. Through interviews and E-mails, she finds out in advance her listeners' educational level and what information they want to know. On the subject of space walks, for example, audiences vary in their interests and how much complexity they can comprehend. To elementary school children, Higginbotham may discuss a problem that many kids want to know about. "How do spacemen in a spacesuit eat, drink, and go to the bathroom?" Her answer is "the spacesuit is really a small spacecraft with room for food and water-containers, and a waste-collection system." To a high school audience, she might satisfy a curiosity that often arises in her pre-speech interviews with students who obviously have seen many science fiction movies. "Do spacemen carry weapons in case they encounter enemies in space?" Her answer is "No". To scientists, she might provide technical details on such topics as the design of spacesuits that protects spacemen from the deadly temperature extremes of space. Just as elaborate preparation is required for success in space, Higginbotham says that it ' s important for speakers to learn as much as possible about their listeners before a speech because every audience is different.
  33. What did Joan Higginbotham do before joining in NASA?
  34. How does Higginbotham prepare her speech on space walks?
  35. What does the high school audience want to know about space travel? Compound Dictation: (31'43' '-33'55' ') Crime is increasing worldwide. There is every reason to believe the trend will continue through the next few decades. Crime rates have always been high in multi-cultural industrialized societies such as the United States. But a new phenomenon has appeared on the world scene: rapidly rising crime rates in nations that previously reported few offences. Street crimes such as robbery, rape, murder and auto theft are clearly rising, particularly in Eastern European countries, such as Hungary, and in Western European nations, such as the Untied Kingdom. What is driving this crime explosion? There are no simple answers. Still, there are certain conditions associated with rising crime. Increasing heterogeneity of population, greater cultural pluralism, higher immigration, democratization of governments, changing national borders, greater economic growth and the lack of accepted social ideas of right and wrong. These conditions are increasingly observable around the world. For instance, cultures that were previously isolated and homogenous, such as Japan, Denmark and Greece, are now facing the sort of cultural variety that has been common in America for most of its 8
历届英语四级听力原题或原文(2007-20
  09) 历届英语四级听力原题或原文
history. Multiculturalism can be a rewarding, enriching experience, but it can also lead to a clash of values. Heterogeneity in societies will be the rule in the 21st century, and failure to recognize and plan for such diversity can lead to serious crime problems. 本文来自: 恒星英语学习网(www.Hxen.com) 详细出处参考: http://www.hxen.com/englishlistening/cet4/zhenti/2009-02-04/6751 2_
  3.html Conversation One W: Bob, do you know who I saw the other day? Old Jake, looking terribly depressed. Did he get pensioned off at last? M: Yes. They made him retire after 50 years at sea. He is pretty upset about it, but what can you do? He really is pasted. W: He is all alone, isn't he? M: Yes, his wife has been dead for years. They had one daughter, Dories. But she went off to town as soon as she left school. And he hasn't heard from her since. I hear she is making good money as a model. W: Maybe someone could get in touch with her. Get her to come back for a while to help? M: I don't suppose she come. She never got on with her father. He is bit of a tough character and she is rather selfish. Oh, I expect old Jake will get by. He is healthy at least, comes into a clinic for a check regularly. W: Are you his doctor? M: No, my partner doctor Johnson is. W: That bad-tempered old thing? M: Oh, he isn't bad-tempered. He just looks it. He is an excellent doctor, taught me a lot, and he has a very nice family. His wife invites me over there to supper every week. Very pleasant. W: yes. I teach their daughter Pen at school. She is a bit careless and lazy about her school work, but a bright little thing and very popular with her age group. Questions 19 to 22 are based on the conversation you've just heard.
  19. Why does old Jake look terribly depressed?
  20. What do we learn about Jake's wife?
  21. What does the man say about Jake's daughter?
  22. What does the man say about Jake's doctor? Conversation Two W: Hello, Mr. Summerfield. How are you today? M: Very well. Thank you, Ms. Green. W: What can I do for you? M: Well, unfortunately, there is a problem with the order we received from you yesterday. It seems we haven't seen the right quantity of manuals to support the telephone system. W: Oh, dear, that's bad news. I'm very sorry to hear that, and you don't know how many packs are without manuals? M: No, because we haven't opened every pack. But in several of those that have been opened there are none, no manuals. W: I'm very sorry about this inconvenience, Mr. Summerfield. We'll send out the manuals this afternoon by express mail entirely at our cost, and the manuals should arrive tomorrow or the day after at the latest. M: All of them, right? W: Yes. It maybe that some have them already, but we cannot be sure. So the best thing is to send out the manual for every pack. M: Yes. Yes, I see. That would be great. W: Please accept our apologies for this mix-up. I assure you we will do everything possible to find out why the mistake happened M: Right. Thanks for your swift action. W: Not at all. Thank you and goodbye for now. Do call if there is anything else. M: All right. Thank you. Goodbye, Ms Green. W: Goodbye. Questions 23 to 25 are based on the conversation you've just heard.
  23. What problems are the speakers discussing?
  24. What does the woman promise to do? 9
2009 年 6 月英语四级听力材料
Short Conversations
  11. W: There were more than a hundred people at Kate's birthday party. How come she's got so many friends? M: It's really no surprise. You know she was popular even when she was a child Q: What does the man imply about Kate?
  12. M: They say there'll be a snow-storm tonight, and the cold weather will last quite a few days. W: Oh! We're so lucky, we'll be getting away for a while, and having a holiday in Florida. But let's call right now to confirm our flight. Q: What do we learn about the two speakers?
  13. W: Tony was awarded a medal for rescuing several families from the forest fire. M: I really admire his courage. Q: What do we learn about Tony from the conversation?
  14. M: My washing machine is more than fifteen years old and it has worked just fine until last night. W: You'll never be able to get parts for it, even from Japan. So it might be time to invest a more recent model. Q: What does the woman suggest the man do?
  15. W: I heard about your promotion, you must be thrilled. M: Not really, the new office is huge, but the word load has doubled. Q: What do we learn about the man from the conversation?
  16. W: I can't decide what to do about the party tomorrow. M: You don't have to go if you don't want to, but I'll be glad to give you a ride if you do. Q: What do we learn from the conversation?
  17. M: Now if you have any questions about the contract. I'll be happy to answer them. W: Nothing comes to mind right now, but I'd like to go over all the articles of the contract once more before signing it. Q: What are the speakers doing right now?
  18. M: We are out of paper for the printer. Can you please order some? W: I completed the order form online yesterday and it will be here by noon. I'll let you know when it comes in. Q: What did the woman do? Long Conversation
历届英语四级听力原题或原文(2007-20
  09) 历届英语四级听力原题或原文

  25. What does the man think of the solution? Passage Passage 1 Attracting and feeding wild birds are entertaining activities that have long been enjoyed by people all over the world. Feeding birds has become so popular that prepared feed mixtures are readily available. We feed birds for many reasons. Many pleasant hours can come from watching birds. A hobby often develops into a serious study of their habits. Accurate identification of birds is usually the first goal. But observations that an amateur bird-watcher can make are really limitless. There is, however, responsibility associated with bird feeding, including a disease hazard. Attracting numbers of birds continually to the same spot can be harmful to them, particularly species that pick food from the ground contaminated by the droppings of other birds. In winter feeding efforts are most satisfying to people and are of greatest benefit to birds. During this time when fewer natural foods are available and air temperatures are lower, extra feeding can keep a bird warm and well. Once begun, feeding should never stop during these lean months. If you start a local increase of birds, be prepared to do what may be required to eliminate hazards to those you want to befriend. A constant supply of food should be given until the cold is over and spring has come. If feeding is stopped during severe weather, birds used to relying upon the feeders must starve. Questions 26 to 28 are based on the passage you've just heard. Q26 What does the speaker say about bird watching? Q27 What does the speaker say about birds fed continually on the same spot? Q28 What does the speaker suggest we do in feeding birds in winter? Passage 2 My friend Leo makes up weak and poor excuses whenever there is something he doesn' want to do. Just two weeks ago, he was at my t house when he decided he didn't want to go into work. He called his boss and said he had to get a new set of tires put on his truck. Then he sat down and watched TV with me. Not only had he lied but his excuse wasn't a very convincing one. Another time, he cancelled a date with his girlfriend at the last minute telling her he had to get a new battery for his truck. She was angry and refused to go out with him again until he apologized. Last weekend, Leo offered the poorest excuse yet. He'd promised he'd help me move some furniture, from my parents' house to my new apartment. He was supposed to bring his truck over about 8 o'clock Saturday morning. I waited, and then called and left a message on his machine. About 11:30, he called and said he was sorry but he'd been getting a new set of tires put on his truck. I guess he'd forgotten he used the same excuse when he called his boss from my house. I think I need a new set of friends. I' beginning to get tired m of Leo's excuses. at the last minute? Q31 What favor did the speaker ask Leo to do last weekend? Passage 3 In Hollywood, everybody wants to be rich, famous and beautiful. Nobody wants to be old, unknown and poor. For Hollywood kids, life can be difficult because they grow up such an unreal atmosphere. Their parents are ambitious and the children are part of the parents' ambitions. Parents pay for wasteful grand parties, expen
 

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