What is it about Americans and food? We love to eat, but we feel 1 about it afterward. We say we want only the best, but we strangely enjoy junk food. We're 2 with health and weight loss but face an unprecedented epidemic of obesity(肥胖). Perhaps the 3 to this ambivalence(矛盾情结) lies in our history. The first Europeans came to this continent searching for new spices but went in vain. The first cash crop(经济作物) wasn't eaten but smoked. Then there was Prohibition, intended to prohibit drinking but actually encouraging more 4 ways of doing it. The immigrant experience, too, has been one of inharmony. Do as Romans do means eating what "real Americans" eat, but our nation's food has come to be 5 by imports?pizza, say, or hot dogs. And some of the country's most treasured cooking comes from people who arrived here in shackles. Perhaps it should come as no surprise then that food has been a medium for the nation's defining struggles, whether at the Boston Tea Party or the sitins at southern lunch counters. It is integral to our concepts of health and even morality whether one refrains from alcohol for religious reasons or evades meat for political 6 . But strong opinions have not brought 7 . Americans are ambivalent about what they put in their mouths. We have become 8 of our foods, especially as we learn more about what they contain. The 9 in food is still prosperous in the American consciousness. It's no coincidence, then, that the first Thanksgiving holds the American imagination in such bondage(束缚). It's what we eat?and how we 10 it with friends, family, and strangers?that help define America as a community today. A. answer I. creative B. result J. belief C. share K. suspicious D. guilty L. certainty E. constant M. obsessed F. defined N. identify G. vanish O. ideals H. adapted 答案及解析
  1. D feel 是一个系动词,可以判断此处应填入一个形容词,通过上下文意思,以及后面 介词 about, 可以确定选项为 D 项 guilty, 短语 feel guilty about sth. "对……感到有愧".全句 的意思为"我们很爱吃,但是往往在吃完之后又有负罪感".
  2.M be obsessed with 为固定搭配,原意为"被……附上/缠住/迷住心窍",放在本句表示 "十分重视".全句的意思为"我们很关心健康和减肥,但肥胖却又空前地在蔓延".
  3. A 本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词 to 的搭配,可以推断出正确选项 answer.
  4. I 本句根据 more 和 ways 可以判断出需要填入一个形容词构成比较级,根据上下文, 表示"旨在禁止酗酒的禁酒令,却激发了更多新奇的方法来酗酒",可以确定 I 为正确选项.
  5. F 本题较难.根据 be 和 by 确定应填入一个过去分词.再根据上下文,上文表示"应 该吃典型的美国人吃的食物",下文通过 but 转折,表示实际上"美国的食物已经被诸如比 萨和热狗这样的舶来品所诠释了",因此可以确定 F 为正确选项.
  6.B 政治结果,可根据宗教原因 religious reasons 来推断此处填政治结果.
  7. L 由于横线后面没有宾语,可以确定不是形成 bring 的短语,这样本句所缺的为一名 词,做 bring 的宾语.根据下文解释,"美国人对他们所吃的食物的态度是矛盾的",可以推
出本句意义为"坚定的观点也不是确定不变的".因此可以确定 L 为正确选项.
  8. K 系动词 become 后应填入一个形容词, 和后面介词 of 形成短语 be/become suspicious of "对……感到怀疑".
  9. J 本句缺一个名词作主语,并且根据和介词 in 的搭配,可以推断出正确选项 belief, (have)belief in sth." 相信……".
  10. C 本句是一般现在时, 缺一个动词, 且和 with 搭配, 确定选项为 share, share sth. with sb., "与某人分享某事". Baekeland and Hartmann report that the "short sleepers" had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines. In general, these "short sleeps" appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist(不 动摇) in their opinions, and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or workers full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear "normal" or "acceptable" to their friends and associates. When asked to recall their dreams, the "short sleepers" did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away. The sleep patterns of the "short sleepers" were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人). The "long sleepers" were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the "short sleepers." Many of the "long sleepers" were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.
  1. According to the report,. A) many short sleepers need less sleep by nature B) many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work C) long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day D) many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood
  2. Many "short sleepers" are likely to hold the view that . A) sleep is a withdrawal from the reality B) sleep interferes with their sound judgement C) sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program D) sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles
  3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers . A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life B) often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep C) do not know how to relax properly D) are more unlikely to run into mental problems

  4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might . A) appear disturbed B) become energetic C) feel dissatisfied D) be extremely depressed
  5. Which of the following is Not included in the passage? A) If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened B) The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the sane as those shown by many mental patients C) Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep D) Short sleepers would be better off with more rest 答案:DCBAB 贝克尔和哈特曼报道说,"睡眠少的人"在未进入少年期之前,其正常睡眠时间大致与所 需要的时间差不多.但到了 15 岁左右,由于学校,工作或其它活动的地压力,他们就故意 地减少了夜间睡眠的时间.这些人持有这样的观点:夜间睡眠是一件令人讨厌的事情,打断 了日常事务. 总的说来, 这些"睡眠少的人"表现得雄心勃勃, 积极活跃, 精力充沛, 无意识乐观豁达, 立场坚定,对自己职业的选择胸有成竹.他们往往同时从事几项工作,或者一边上学读书, 一边从事专职或兼职工作. 其中许多人有强烈愿望, 想在朋友和熟人面前表现得"正常"或"合 群". 当让他们回忆梦境时,"睡眠少的人"回忆不起什么来.更有甚者,他们似乎情愿什么都 记不住.类似的情况是他们通常处理心理问题的方式:不承认问题的存在,希望只要忙忙碌 碌,麻烦总会过去的. "睡眠少的人"的睡眠模式与被划入疯子之类精神病患者的睡眠模式十分相似, 只不过没 有那么严重而已. "睡眠多的人"情形则大不相同.贝克尔和哈特曼报道说,这些年轻人从小的,有抱负的 睡眠就一直很长.他们好像注重睡眠,不让睡眠受打搅.偶尔没有所需的 9 个小时夜间卧床 休息,他们便会十分不安.他们比"睡眠少的人"要更能回忆得起梦的内容.许多"睡眠多的 人"腼腆,焦躁,内向,压抑,消极和稍微有点儿沮丧,尤其在社交场合缺乏自信.好几个 人坦言,睡眠是摆脱每天烦恼的一种方式.
 

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