A 作文
项目简介

  1.测试目的: 按照英语专业英语教学大纲的要求,检查学生在基础阶段末的英语写作能力。

  2.测试要求: 根据所给的题目及具体要求,写一篇200词左右的短文。

  3.测试时间: 35分钟。

  4.测试短文类别: 说明文、议论文或记叙文。

  5.评阅标准: 内容切题完整,条理清楚,意思明确,文章结构严谨,语法正确,语言通顺恰当。
辅 导
一、作文类别
SECTION A 要求考生根据所给的题目和具体要求,在35分钟内完成一篇200词左右的短文。根据题目要求,短文可能属于说明文、议论文或记叙文的范围。因此,对考生来说,首先有必要在平时的学习中了解和熟悉上述三类作文的特点,并经常做针对性练习,这样才能在考试中按要求写作,正常发挥自身的英语写作水平。

  1.说明文
一般来说,解释某一事物或过程的文章属于说明文范畴。如果你打算写一篇文章介绍中国传统节日,在大多数情况下,文章属于说明文类别。在日常生活中,此类文章用途广泛,如描述一场球赛的过程,比较各国传统习俗,解释某一哲学概念,分析某一社会现象的起因、形成、发展,等等。
说明文的写作依照一定的模式。也就是说,人们通常运用一些常见的方式从事说明文写作,使文章条理清晰,符合常规逻辑思维框架。
请看下列范文。
范文一:
There are many theories, all unproved, as to how language began. Most picturesque among them is the "bow?wow" hypothesis, to the effect that men began to speak by imitating the natural sounds they heard, or thought they heard, around them.The barking of a dog would strike the ear of the leader of a small band of primitive humans. It would sound to him like "bow?wow", and as he tried to imitate it, he would convey to the others, by pointing to the dog and repeating "bow?wow", that the creatures that made that particular sound should henceforth be referred to as "bow-wow".
Too simple? Yet, consider how often children spontaneously fasten upon some utterance produced by one of their number, and use it to designate him, pointing to him in derision as they do it.
The scientific name for this process is onomatopoeia, or "name?making". Less scientific but easier to pronounce and spell is "echoic word". You echo what you hear. If the fall of a big tree in the forest sounds to you like "crash", that is what you use to designate that type of sound. The noise produced by a bee may sound like "hum" or "buzz". Words like "click", " bang" all seem to be of echoic origin.
这篇范文通过定义手法解释了语言中常见的象声词现象。
范文二:
When their son Bart Jr. asked if he could go to an overnight party after his junior prom last May, his parents negotiated a no alcohol rule before leaving home. But at 9 the next morning they received a horrifying call that their son was found to have shot himself dead after the partygoers had all left by about 7 a.m.
Shattered and perplexed, the parents searched their minds trying to find some reason for their popular sons suicide. They learned that Bart Jr. did drink some vodka with others and became loud and rowdy at the party. It was two weeks later that Laurie, the mother, came up with a theory - that her sons suicide might have been prompted by Accutane, a drug he had been taking for acne for five months. She recalled a manufacturers pamphlet saying patients should notify their doctors of a family history of depression. "Theres no doubt in our minds," says Laurie, "that had he not been taking Accutane, hed be alive today and await happily his 18th birthday celebration weeks later." The drugs manufacturer Roche, on the other hand, argues that the adolescent population, particularly boys, has a high tendency toward depression. In spite of this, Roche was ordered last fall by authority to revise a consent form Accutane patients now must sign, noting that some Accutane users had experienced sadness and even committed suicide. Now, more studies of the drug have been called for.
这篇范文运用因果分析法讲述了导致Bart Jr.死亡的原因。
范文三:
During the past month, the Star has published several columns and letters addressing the widely publicized parking problem on campus. The main issues are well known: campus construction projects have gobbled up most of the prime parking spots near classroom buildings; dorm residents are bringing cars to campus in increasing numbers each year; and the overall campus population - students, faculty, and staff - has grown faster than the number of available parking spaces.
Most of the proposed solutions to the parking problems fall into two broad categories: those that require more land and those that restrict access to prime parking spaces, usually by giving preferred status to faculty, staff, and seniors. As for the first solution, land is in very short supply on the central campus, and, as others have pointed out, using it for parking seems unwise. The other solution, restricted access to parking, displeases the many students who will be denied space.
I believe that there is a third alternative, one that will save land and keep nearly everybody happy: a multi?level parking facility on the central campus.
这篇范文采用分类法分析校园停车的解决方法。
范文四:
The division of labour according to sexes is clearly delineated. Men are expected to support their families by doing all the work in the fields; by caring for the cattle, horses, oxen, and mules; by making charcoal and cutting wood; and by carrying on all the large transactions in buying and selling. When a Tepoztecan man is at home, his activities consist of providing the household with wood and water, making or repairing furniture or work tools, making repairs on the house, and picking fruit. Politics and local government are also in the hands of the men.
Womens work centres about the care of the family and the house. They cook, clean, wash, iron clothes, do the daily marketing, and care for the children. Many women raise chickens, turkeys, and pigs; and some grow fruit, vegetables, and flowers to supplement the family income. Women do a great deal of buying and selling on a small scale, and they control the family purse. Tepoztecan women are not expected to work in the fields, and Tepoztecans of both sexes look down upon the women of the neighbouring villages who do agricultural work, carry heavy loads of firewood or corn and wear mens hats.
这篇范文用对比法讲述了Tepoztecans的劳动分工。


  2.议论文
对某一观点支持或反驳、对某一事物或现象进行评论或讨论的文章属于议论文范畴。一般来说,比较典型的议论文是报刊发表的社论、评论员文章、文学批评文章等。在议论文中作者要亮出观点,表明立场,以严谨的逻辑推理来赢得读者的赞同或说服读者。
一篇成功的议论文必须具有以下几个特点: 论点鲜明,推理过程衔接自然,推理顺序编排合理,论证具有逻辑性。
请看下列范文。
范文一:
Are diseases caused by evil spirits? For many centuries it was thought to be so. However, great advances in modern medical science have thrown light on the causes of disease.
Some diseases are congenital by nature. They are caused either by a fault in the chromosomal structure of the fertilized egg or by damage caused to the developing embryo in the womb. For example, during the early months of pregnancy, German measles can lead to abnormalities of the heart and ears. An HIV?positive pregnant woman may pass the virus on to the fetus in the womb.
Other diseases are infectious. An enormous number of living things enter the bodys tissues, grow there and cause disease. Infectious agents act in different ways. Viruses act inside the cells, such as the polio virus. Bacteria, on the other hand, are mainly extracellular.
Nutrition can cause disease as well. The effects of nutrition on health are both direct and indirect as health depends in many ways on the quantity and quality of diet. Large numbers of people suffer from chronic starvation, and devastating famine can result from floods, droughts and poor harvests. Even a diet which is quantitatively sufficient can lead to disease if it is deficient in vitamins. A diet which consistently lacks a sufficient quantity of a particular vitamin is certain in time to give rise to the corresponding vitamin deficiency disease.
It is clear that diseases are not caused by evil spirits, as was believed by ancient people. Modern medical science has enabled people to gain a much deeper understanding of the origins of disease.
作者在文中阐述了自己的观点:疾病的起因不是恶鬼,而是各种因素,如遗传、传染或营养等。
范文二:
It may be argued that the married woman would still find plenty to do about the home nowadays. That may be so, but it is certainly no longer necessary for a woman to spend her whole life cooking, cleaning, mending and sewing. Washing?machines take the drudgery out of laundry, the latest models being entirely automatic and able to wash and dry a large quantity of clothes in a few minutes. Refrigerators have made it possible to store food for long periods and many pre-cooked foods are obtainable in tins. Shopping, instead of being a daily task, can be completed in one day a week. The new man-made fibres are more hardwearing than natural fibres and greatly reduce mending, while good ready-made clothes are cheap and plentiful.
Apart from womens own happiness, the needs of the community must be considered. Modern society cannot well do without the contribution that women can make in the professions and other kinds of work. There is a serious shortage of nurses and teachers, to mention only two of the occupations followed by women. It is extremely wasteful to give years of training at public expense only to have the qualified teacher or nurse marry after a year or two and be lost forever to her profession. The training, it is true, will help her in her duties as a mother, but if she continued to work, her service would be more widely useful. Many factories and shops, too, are largely staffed by women, many of them married. While here the question of training is not so important, industry and trade would be seriously short of staff if married women did not work.
We can see then that there are good reasons for regarding it as desirable that married women should have some occupation outside the home.
范文一开始便摆明观点(已婚妇女有必要参加工作),接下来便逐条列举理由,支持自己的观点。
范文三:
Those out to demolish old buildings often argue that a new factory will bring prosperity to a town and provide employment for its people; a new block of flats will improve living conditions; a new road will create better transport facilities. These arguments are true, but somehow unconvincing. Countless quiet country villages have been spoilt by the addition of modern "improvements" like huge traffic-signs or tall concrete lamps which shed a sickly yellow light. In the same way, buildings which are erected without any thought being given to their surroundings, become prominent landmarks which may change the character of a whole town. They are ugly because they are so out of place.
Nothing can change the look of a town or city so dramatically as the sudden appearance of a block of offices which towers above all the surrounding buildings. For example, before the arrival of this skyscraper, all the buildings in the city stood in special relationship to each other. The most imposing of them was probably the cathedral or the town hall followed by other public buildings. These dominated the city and gave it a definite shape. Suddenly, out of nowhere, the new arrival (which is rarely even a public building) dwarfs everything in sight, and even the most graceful and imposing existing buildings may now be so sadly diminished as to seem slightly ridiculous beside this monster. It rises up above them, demanding attention merely because of its size and not because of any intrinsic worth.
这篇范文的作者一开始表明不同意拆除陈旧房屋的观点,并阐述反对的理由: 即建造的新建筑会破坏原建筑群的整体效果。


  3.记叙文
记叙文最简单的释义是叙述故事或一个事件。它可用于我们平时生活中的各个方面: 记一次有趣的周末、一次郊游或写日记等。从广义上看,记叙文指采用时间顺序连接句子、段落和全文的文章。
请看下列范文。
范文一:
Geoff quietly got out the car, and holding his camera in his arms scrambled down the slope that separated the road from the rice-field. I watched him impatiently. When he was half-way down, all the herons looked up and stared at him. Sensibly, he paused. He took a few steps forward. The birds remained where they were. Another five paces and he might be within range for a distant view. He took a step forward. With one accord the whole flock rose into the air and flapped away to alight in the centre of the field some twenty metres away.
 

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