I prepared myself, in the interests of harmony, to swallow the retort of, "I told you so", but I had no immediate need to do so, for Geoff was not to be beaten so easily. He descended to the bottom of the bank and took three steps into the rice?field. As I watched him, he slowly began to sink. I thought he would step back, but as he tried to lift his right leg, so his left leg sank deeper. He was stuck. I jumped out of the car and ran down the bank. By the time I reached him, he had sunk up to his hips and he was holding his precious camera above his head as though he were expecting any moment to disappear altogether.
这篇范文按时间顺序叙述了外出摄影时发生的一件事的片段。
范文二:
John was never late. Rose screwed up the gold chain in her hand and sat on the corner of the table near the door that he always entered. Then she heard his step on the stairs, and she turned pale for just a moment. Then she had a habit of saying little silent prayers about the simplest everyday things, and now she whispered, "Please God, make him think I am still pretty."
The door opened and John stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty?two - and to be burdened with a family! He needed a new overcoat and his shoes were old and worn.
John stepped inside the door. Then he stood still. His eyes were fixed upon Rose, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor disapproval, nor horror, nor any of the emotions that she had been prepared for. He simply stared at her fixedly with that peculiar expression on his face.
Rose wriggled off the table and went to him.
"John!" she cried, "dont look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I couldnt have lived through Christmas without giving you a present. Itll grow again - you wont mind, will you? I just had to do it. My hair grows very fast, you know. Say ‘Merry Christmas!' John, and lets be happy. You dont know what a nice - what a beautiful, nice gift Ive got for you."
这篇范文按照事情发生的顺序描述了John和Rose之间发生的事。
范文三:
Though I usually go on excursions to the country during the weekend, I had decided to spend the whole of Sunday in the city for a change and to visit the central square and public gardens. It was so early when I left home that the streets were deserted. Without the usual crowds and traffic, everything was strangely quiet.
When, at last, I arrived at the square I was surprised to find so many people there. Some were feeding pigeons and others were sitting peacefully at the foot of a tall statue. I went and sat with them so as to get a better view.
Some time later I made my way to the public gardens. Here there was an entirely different atmosphere. The sun was now bright and warm and the air was filled with gay laughter.
The pond interested me more than anything else for many people had come to sail model boats. There were little yachts with bright red sails, motor boats and wonderful sailing ships. They moved gracefully across the water while their owners waited for them to reach the other side.
At midday, I left the gardens and slowly began walking home. I was not at all sorry that I had not gone to the country for the weekend. There had been much more to see in the city on a Sunday morning than I could ever have imagined.
这篇范文叙述了作者周日上午在城里散步以及感受。
说明文、记叙文和议论文虽然有各自不同的特点,但他们在文章中通常是相互渗透和相互作用的。记叙文方式常用于说明文中,如介绍卫星升空的步骤、讲解飞机模型的制作过程等,以增加文章的生动性。同样,在议论文中我们也可以融合进记叙文的形式,使论点的阐述更清晰、更有力度。对于考生来说,首先是要了解各类文章的特点,其次是要多读各类文章,作为模拟的范例。第三步,也是最关键的一步,就是要勤练笔,经常写文章,在实践中提高自己各类文章的写作能力。

二、作文考试注意事项及常见问题辨析
作文中的第一个问题是审题。当拿到试卷后,考生须认真阅读作文题目和要求,不要匆匆浏览一遍便急急忙忙动笔写,到后来发觉题目理解有误,要另起炉灶就为时已晚了。在考试中此类例子不胜枚举。
认真阅读题目及要求是为了吃透题目含义,并以此作为选择文章类别的基础。让我们来看某年的作文题目: Nowadays it has become fashionable for college students to take a part?time job in their spare time. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this trend.首先,discuss给考生的提示是要求他们讨论,发表看法。粗看上去像是需要采用议论文的形式。但如果考生仔细阅读题目的话,就会发现题目仍属于说明文的范围,因为题目没有要求考生选择立场,对其利或弊进行支持或驳斥,而是列出利与弊两个方面。换句话说,此文的写作要兼顾问题的两个方面,保持平衡,过分地偏依某一面都会与题目要求有出入。
相比较之下,作文题MORE PRESSURE FROM ACADEMIC STUDIES DOES(OR DOES NO)GOOD TO US则明确地要求考生选择一对立面,表示支持或反对。因而,该作文题目属于议论文范畴。如果考生在作文中既赞同又反对这一观点的话,他的内容构思实质上已偏离了题目要求。因此我们可以看出,对题目及要求的斟酌有利于考生确定与题目要求相对应的文章类别。
作文中的第二个问题是文章构思。在确定文章类别后,考生接下来面临如何组织文章内容和结构的问题。这时,考生仍需重新阅读作文项目对文章内容及组织的要求。通常,文章内容及组织要求都印在题目的下面。如:
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state clearly what your view is.
In the second part, support your view with details.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary or suggestion.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
考生必须按照要求来构思文章。
举某一年的作文题目为例:
Every college student would agree that life in college is not the same as it was in the middle school. Now you have been asked by the Students Union to write a passage entitled:
THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEENMY COLLEGE LIFE AND MY MIDDLE SCHOOL LIFE
as part of an introduction programme for new students coming in September.
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state clearly what you think the main difference is between college and middle school life.
In the second part, state which life you prefer and why.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary or suggestion.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
如果只看题目,似乎文章只要求写出中学生活和大学生活的主要区别。然而,仔细阅读题目下方的具体写作要求后,我们就会发现,文章不是要求考生通篇谈论两种学习生活之间的主要区别,而是要求在点出主要区别后,随即讲明喜欢哪种生活以及理由所在。因此,在文章构思阶段,考生如果忽略了具体写作要求,那就极有可能通篇运用COMPARISON AND CONTRAST的手法,而不是列出自己的PREFERENCE及其原因。因此,考生不仅要仔细审题,而且一定要按照具体的写作要求进行文章构思。
写作文时应注意在文章的开头部分点出主题,表明观点。考试中时常出现这样的情况: 考生在作文的第一段中不点明文章的主题或观点;有的甚至到作文结束时也未能阐明本人的观点或看法。这将使作文的水准大打折扣。其次,作文的论述要层次分明,有主有次,逐步展开,自然结尾。考试中常有考生的文章主次不分: 具体例子或次要细节占过多的篇幅,而主要论点则显得过于苍白无力。有的思路较乱,意思重复;有的不能紧扣主题,等等。诸如此类的情况都将使作文的质量受到影响。
考生除了要注重作文内容和组织结构外,还须注意语言的运用。熟练的语言运用能力可使文章锦上添花。然而,一些考生在作文中显示出来的语言能力不令人满意。例如,句子与句子、段落与段落间的衔接、过渡不自然,显得较为生硬。具体体现在连接词的使用上,如however,but,moreover,consequently,in addition,another point,besides,furthermore,on the other hand,in contrast,instead of等不会熟练或恰如其分地使用,或根本不会使用,或没有使用的意识。还有的问题是词汇量贫乏,或常见的词汇不会灵活地运用。
请看下列考生作文*。
题目一:
Nowadays it has become fashionable for college students to take a part-time job in their spare time. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this trend.
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state clearly on both the advantages and disadvantages.
In the second part, support your viewpoint with details or examples.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary or suggestion.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow these instructions will result in a loss of marks.
作文一:
Nowadays it has become fashionable for college students to take a part-time job. Being an university student, I take a part?time job. Im asked to help a boy with his English. Thus, to my opinion, I think, I can go over my English when I am teaching him; moreover, I can earn some money. But on the other hand, it takes me too much time.
In spite of many disadvantages, many students still like to take part?time jobs, and most of college students choose tutors as their jobs. I think they might have the same opinions. Although we have to teach the middle?school students every weekend, we keep it. Because we want to practise ourselves.
In short, we learn something when were working. No matter what jobs we are taking, we enjoy them. Whats more important, we learn some experience.
评语: 内容没有紧扣主题,结论与开头不一致,有的地方意思不明确。
作文二:
Taking a part-time job has become fashionable for college students. The problem is that whether a college student should take such a job. I think it has both advantages and disadvantages.
On the one hand, through a part?time job, you can learn a lot which you couldnt learn from books, e.g. you can learn how to get along with others, how to perform best, etc. Of course, you can earn a lot of money by a part?time job, and spend it on whatever you like. On the other hand, it is certain that a part?time job will take up a lot of your spare time. If you dont have enough time spent on your study, consequently you may have a lot of trouble in your study.
In a word, taking a part-time job has both good and bad aspects. Whether take it or not depends on your individual ability and interest.
评语: 作文开头点明主题,中间展开讨论兼职的利和弊,结尾部分概括总结全文的论点。除个别地方外,语言基本通顺流畅,意思表达明确。
题目二:
Every college student would agree that life in college is not the same as it was in the middle school. Now you have been asked by the Students Union to write a passage entitled:
THE MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEENMY COLLEGE LIFE AND MY MIDDLE SCHOOL LIFE
as part of an introduction programme for new students coming in September.
You are to write in three parts.
In the first part, state clearly what you think the main difference is between college and middle school life.
In the second part, state which life you prefer and why.
In the last part, bring what you have written to a natural conclusion with a summary or suggestion.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the instructions may result in a loss of marks.
作文一:
Whats the main difference between my college life and my middle school life? I think a most important thing is that I have to build up a stronger ability of self?control in my college life than I do in my middle school life. I must look after myself, no one tells you when to change your clothes, what to eat for every meals. All those things must be decided by yourself in college life. But your parents told you when you were in middle school. Moreover, there are lots of subjects that you can choose to study in your college. Which ones and how many subjects youll take are chosen by yourself, but all those have arranged for you in your middle school. So you must be aware of your ability. What are you interested in? Which one will do you good in the future? How many subjects can you manage in a term ? Besides, you must lea
 

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