with Sentence Structures
Part I. Impersonal nouns at the beginning Part II. Various beginnings Part III. Vary sentence structures Part IV. Vary sentence length

  1. Nouns that indicate emotions
-- Amazement stripped me of all power of speech. -- Disappointment, grief and sleeplessness seized the lonely old man for days after receiving her daughter’s letter from Dover. -- A sudden fit of rage caught him. -- Neither sorrow nor regret followed my passionate outburst.

  2. Nouns that indicate time or period
-- A warm and sunny day Sunday found my whole family going out for an outing at the beach. -- Everyday sees the child stronger and stronger. -- The first half of the twentieth century saw stories about the mysterious power of atom and about the space flight. -- The forty years, 1840-1880, brought almost ten million migrants to America.

  3. Nouns that indicate natural phenomena
-- The violent storm accompanied the rescue party to the site where the wounded panda lay. -- Snow slide drove the mountaineers into the campsite. -- Dense fog prevented us from setting out.

  4. Nouns that indicate actions
-- A peep through the door offered Ms. Hays a horrible scene of a dead woman in the sofa bed. -- Another hour’s ride will bring us to the foot of the hill. -- A moan escaped the patient.
Part I. Insights
Effects of impersonal subjects in English -- personification -- metaphor -- vividness -- conciseness -- objectiveness Provide variation in sentence structures.
Part II. Various beginnings
(Read and analyze Winston Churchill?another life)

Overwhelmed by the disaster…(a participle) Delighted with anything that distracted… From the day forward… (a preposition) Painting in oils turned out to be…(a gerund) Life and love and hope…(abstract nouns) But in the end…(a conjunction)

Various beginnings

  7. Politically barren they have been …(a adverb)
  8. Shrewd and powerful, he had enormous influence upon the kings of France… (adjectives)
  9. An expert in English learning, his books gained much popularity among students…(appositive)
  10. To find the ultimate meaning of life, he spent a whole year in the jungle. (an infinitive form of the verb)
Skill: 1 Restart the sentence by “It is + V.ed”
People agree that the American education system is in deep trouble. --It is generally agreed that …
Skill: 2 Restart the sentence by “There is +”
People have recognized of the importance of scientific study of Africa’s wild lands and their ecology. --Then, there has been a recognition of the importance of …
Skill 3
Replace “if clause ” with “a hidden condition”
If you carefully compare the two teaching methods, you will find the former is superior. --Careful comparison of the two teaching methods will show the superiority of the former.
Skill 4
Replace “because ” with other sentence patterns
Because one can’t know what kind of knowledge will be more useful in the future, so he may not make an intelligent choice in taking school course. --The inability to predict what kind of knowledge will be more useful in the future prevents a person from making an intelligent choice in taking school course. (present a hidden reason without “because”)
Skill 5
Replace “when ” clause with a noun phrase
When our teacher had left, the heated discussion then ended. --The departure of our teacher brought the heated discussion to an end. (“When” does not merely suggest “at certain time”.)
Part III. Vary sentence structures
And… /But…/or… Not only, but also… Because… If… Although… Which…/that… (common in students’ writings) So…that…/ So, … First… second… third For one thing…, for another… On the one hand…, on the other hand… In order to… As a result…
Part III. Vary structures ?by using inverted sentences



Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. From that science will come the realization that despite technology, man does not exercise dominion over nature. Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
Functions of appositives
To conclude e.g.Instead she spends her evening watching TV and tidying her closets?occupations at which no particular expertise is expected.

To explain e.g. It’s well understood that technological innovation always requires the discarding of the “old model”? the “old-model” in this case being not just our old typewriter, but my wife, my critic, my closest reader.

Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using post modifiers

There is an almost infinite variety of magazine available to satisfy the rich variety of interests and tastes. It takes years of constant academic toil to reach a level of sophistication essential to function effectively in today’s very complex world.

(Adjective is the most flexible to extend a sentence.)
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using post modifiers

  3. A national economy free of the burden of debt, populated by educated citizens ready to work and to care for their neighbors must be our goal.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using insertions

He (or she) looks at people in a similar way, for the man an attractive girl?and for the woman an attractive man?are the prizes they are after. (a highly desirable possession)

  2. At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of this century, a man had to be aggressive and ambitious? today he has to be social and tolerant?in order to be attractive “package”.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using insertions

  3. Of course the importance of this distinction is popularly, if somewhat obscurely, recognized.
  4. It will put enormous pressure on world supplies, making it difficult, if not impossible, to avoid hunger and starvation on a massive scale.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using passive voice
Which sentence do you prefer?
  1. The death of his mother was followed two months later by the loss of his and Clementine’s beloved threeyear-old daughter, Marigold. -- His mother died, and two months later he lost his and Clementine’s beloved three-year-old daughter, Marigold.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using passive voice

  2. However, very little control can be exercised over the media used to generate information that comes to you from the outside.
  3. However, there are signs that much more serious efforts may be mustered in the reasonably near future. (called together, summoned up)
In-class activities
?String words and expressions into sentences
Who was he? Marlon Brando
Part IV. Vary sentence length

In the daily life we have noticed many men and women seek something that is neither food, nor clothing, not shelter, something that is totally useless in their environment. They seek personality.
Part IV. Vary sentence length

  2. And what of love? (a short sentence) You cannot hope to find love by experimenting biologically; you don’t build love by creating a living situation designed to test it; you don’t create love by setting up a forced proximity. (a long one) Love is. (a short one) (being close/intimate to each other )
Part IV. Vary sentence length

It didn’t occur to me to offer to split the bill. In those days, life was simple. And wonderful men paid.
(Cindy Blake)
Part IV. Vary sentence length
Work has ceased to be a moral and religious obligation in the sense of the middle-class attitude of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (long) Something new has emerged. (short) Everincreasing production, the drive to make bigger and better things, have become aims in themselves, new ideals. (long) Work has become alienated from the working person.(short)
(Following a long sentence is a short one. From the perspective of visual effect, a short sentence like these can easily catch attention.)
Preview Sentence Combining Skills
Use prepositions, particles, gerunds, and infinitives…
* Analyzing what difficulties you have in producing long sentences?
* A book for capable writers
College Writing Skills with Readings Fifth Edition (2006/
  7) /6th Edition
Author: John Langan Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press
Assigned readings
Book One Section Two Paragraphs Unit 1-5 Narrating an event?Explaining a process; Analyze the samples
The 4rd topic for essay writing
My opinion toward “simplifying Chinese characters” Do some research on the issue Consult resources about knowledge of Chinese characters Observe the simplified characters in our daily life
The 4th topic for essay writing
Make an analysis of the heatedly discussed issue Understand why some scholars claim so Clearly state your position in the heated discussion Sufficiently support your point of view
Background information
The simplification of the Chinese characters dated back into late Qing Dynasty and became a hot issue during the New Culture Movement. With the forceful invasion and influence of the western culture, the fierce condemnation on the traditional Chinese was accepted by many radical intellectuals. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese writer, even stated that, “if Chinese characters are not destroyed, China will die.” They appealed for Romanization of Chinese with the aim of popular education.
Background information
And such a strong wish was tried to realize in the 1950s and 1960s. Since the two-step plan (traditional Chinese?simplified Chinese? Romanization of Chinese) of the thorough change didn’t carry out, the Chinese characters remained its square form. In 1977, the second-round simplified characters were promulgated, but poorly received.
Background information about “the
reformation of Chinese characters ”
According to the recent report on this topic, the new wave of reformation is actually an extension of the second round. For several months, the commentaries flooded with the opinions of authorities and populace, of critics and the ordinary people. And they take different, sometimes even conflicting, attitudes towards the reformation.



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