Variation
with Sentence Structures
Variation
Part I. Impersonal nouns at the beginning Part II. Various beginnings Part III. Vary sentence structures Part IV. Vary sentence length

  1. Nouns that indicate emotions
-- Amazement stripped me of all power of speech. -- Disappointment, grief and sleeplessness seized the lonely old man for days after receiving her daughter’s letter from Dover. -- A sudden fit of rage caught him. -- Neither sorrow nor regret followed my passionate outburst.

  2. Nouns that indicate time or period
-- A warm and sunny day Sunday found my whole family going out for an outing at the beach. -- Everyday sees the child stronger and stronger. -- The first half of the twentieth century saw stories about the mysterious power of atom and about the space flight. -- The forty years, 1840-1880, brought almost ten million migrants to America.

  3. Nouns that indicate natural phenomena
-- The violent storm accompanied the rescue party to the site where the wounded panda lay. -- Snow slide drove the mountaineers into the campsite. -- Dense fog prevented us from setting out.

  4. Nouns that indicate actions
-- A peep through the door offered Ms. Hays a horrible scene of a dead woman in the sofa bed. -- Another hour’s ride will bring us to the foot of the hill. -- A moan escaped the patient.
Part I. Insights
Effects of impersonal subjects in English -- personification -- metaphor -- vividness -- conciseness -- objectiveness Provide variation in sentence structures.
Part II. Various beginnings
(Read and analyze Winston Churchill?another life)

  1.
  2.
  3.
Overwhelmed by the disaster…(a participle) Delighted with anything that distracted… From the day forward… (a preposition) Painting in oils turned out to be…(a gerund) Life and love and hope…(abstract nouns) But in the end…(a conjunction)

  4.
  5.
  6.
Various beginnings

  7. Politically barren they have been …(a adverb)
  8. Shrewd and powerful, he had enormous influence upon the kings of France… (adjectives)
  9. An expert in English learning, his books gained much popularity among students…(appositive)
  10. To find the ultimate meaning of life, he spent a whole year in the jungle. (an infinitive form of the verb)
Skill: 1 Restart the sentence by “It is + V.ed”
People agree that the American education system is in deep trouble. --It is generally agreed that …
Skill: 2 Restart the sentence by “There is +”
People have recognized of the importance of scientific study of Africa’s wild lands and their ecology. --Then, there has been a recognition of the importance of …
Skill 3
Replace “if clause ” with “a hidden condition”
If you carefully compare the two teaching methods, you will find the former is superior. --Careful comparison of the two teaching methods will show the superiority of the former.
Skill 4
Replace “because ” with other sentence patterns
Because one can’t know what kind of knowledge will be more useful in the future, so he may not make an intelligent choice in taking school course. --The inability to predict what kind of knowledge will be more useful in the future prevents a person from making an intelligent choice in taking school course. (present a hidden reason without “because”)
Skill 5
Replace “when ” clause with a noun phrase
When our teacher had left, the heated discussion then ended. --The departure of our teacher brought the heated discussion to an end. (“When” does not merely suggest “at certain time”.)
Part III. Vary sentence structures
And… /But…/or… Not only, but also… Because… If… Although… Which…/that… (common in students’ writings) So…that…/ So, … First… second… third For one thing…, for another… On the one hand…, on the other hand… In order to… As a result…
Part III. Vary structures ?by using inverted sentences

  1.

  2.

  3.
Adding to societal changes today is an enormous stockpile of information. From that science will come the realization that despite technology, man does not exercise dominion over nature. Less important than ever is developing a meaningful philosophy of life.
Functions of appositives
To conclude e.g.Instead she spends her evening watching TV and tidying her closets?occupations at which no particular expertise is expected.

  1.
To explain e.g. It’s well understood that technological innovation always requires the discarding of the “old model”? the “old-model” in this case being not just our old typewriter, but my wife, my critic, my closest reader.

  2.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using post modifiers

  1.
There is an almost infinite variety of magazine available to satisfy the rich variety of interests and tastes. It takes years of constant academic toil to reach a level of sophistication essential to function effectively in today’s very complex world.

  2.
(Adjective is the most flexible to extend a sentence.)
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using post modifiers

  3. A national economy free of the burden of debt, populated by educated citizens ready to work and to care for their neighbors must be our goal.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using insertions

  1.
He (or she) looks at people in a similar way, for the man an attractive girl?and for the woman an attractive man?are the prizes they are after. (a highly desirable possession)

  2. At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of this century, a man had to be aggressive and ambitious? today he has to be social and tolerant?in order to be attractive “package”.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using insertions

  3. Of course the importance of this distinction is popularly, if somewhat obscurely, recognized.
  4. It will put enormous pressure on world supplies, making it difficult, if not impossible, to avoid hunger and starvation on a massive scale.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using passive voice
Which sentence do you prefer?
  1. The death of his mother was followed two months later by the loss of his and Clementine’s beloved threeyear-old daughter, Marigold. -- His mother died, and two months later he lost his and Clementine’s beloved three-year-old daughter, Marigold.
Part III. Vary sentence structures ?by using passive voice

  2. However, very little control can be exercised over the media used to generate information that comes to you from the outside.
  3. However, there are signs that much more serious efforts may be mustered in the reasonably near future. (called together, summoned up)
In-class activities
?String words and expressions into sentences
Who was he? Marlon Brando
Part IV. Vary sentence length

  1.
In the daily life we have noticed many men and women seek something that is neither food, nor clothing, not shelter, something that is totally useless in their environment. They seek personality.
Part IV. Vary sentence length

  2. And what of love? (a short sentence) You cannot hope to find love by experimenting biologically; you don’t build love by creating a living situation designed to test it; you don’t create love by setting up a forced proximity. (a long one) Love is. (a short one) (being close/intimate to each other )
Part IV. Vary sentence length

  3.
It didn’t occur to me to offer to split the bill. In those days, life was simple. And wonderful men paid.
(Cindy Blake)
Part IV. Vary sentence length
4
Work has ceased to be a moral and religious obligation in the sense of the middle-class attitude of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (long) Something new has emerged. (short) Everincreasing production, the drive to make bigger and better things, have become aims in themselves, new ideals. (long) Work has become alienated from the working person.(short)
(Following a long sentence is a short one. From the perspective of visual effect, a short sentence like these can easily catch attention.)
Preview Sentence Combining Skills
Use prepositions, particles, gerunds, and infinitives…
* Analyzing what difficulties you have in producing long sentences?
* A book for capable writers
College Writing Skills with Readings Fifth Edition (2006/
  7) /6th Edition
Author: John Langan Foreign Language Teaching and Researching Press
Assigned readings
Book One Section Two Paragraphs Unit 1-5 Narrating an event?Explaining a process; Analyze the samples
The 4rd topic for essay writing
My opinion toward “simplifying Chinese characters” Do some research on the issue Consult resources about knowledge of Chinese characters Observe the simplified characters in our daily life
The 4th topic for essay writing
Requirements:
Make an analysis of the heatedly discussed issue Understand why some scholars claim so Clearly state your position in the heated discussion Sufficiently support your point of view
Background information
The simplification of the Chinese characters dated back into late Qing Dynasty and became a hot issue during the New Culture Movement. With the forceful invasion and influence of the western culture, the fierce condemnation on the traditional Chinese was accepted by many radical intellectuals. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese writer, even stated that, “if Chinese characters are not destroyed, China will die.” They appealed for Romanization of Chinese with the aim of popular education.
Background information
And such a strong wish was tried to realize in the 1950s and 1960s. Since the two-step plan (traditional Chinese?simplified Chinese? Romanization of Chinese) of the thorough change didn’t carry out, the Chinese characters remained its square form. In 1977, the second-round simplified characters were promulgated, but poorly received.
Background information about “the
reformation of Chinese characters ”
According to the recent report on this topic, the new wave of reformation is actually an extension of the second round. For several months, the commentaries flooded with the opinions of authorities and populace, of critics and the ordinary people. And they take different, sometimes even conflicting, attitudes towards the reformation.
 

相关内容

英语写作

   English Writing 中考专题复习 书面表达 by Shen Aihong 中考考什么 2005--2010年河北省中考书面表达 2005--2010年河北省中考书面表达 --2010 试题 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 测试形式 中文提示 英文提示 英文提示 英文提示 英文提示 所属文体及内容 书信: 书信: 介绍新同学和近期活动 说明文: 说明文: 帮助同学学习生活 说明文: 说明文:怎样成为好孩子 说明文: 说明文:上学交通设施 说明文: 说明文:怎样上好 ...

英语写作

   英语写作 浙江师范大学外国语学院 English Writing Fu Anquan Foreign Languages Colleges Zhejiang Normal University 英语写作教学大纲 一,课程性质,目的和对象 英语写作基础是英语专业的一门理论与 实践相结合的课程.目的是培养学生逻 辑思维的能力,养成严谨,规范的英语 写写作习惯,不断提高写作水平,为今 后进一步学习英语打下较为坚实的基础. 其对象是英语专业二年级学生. 二,本课程考查的能力,层次与要求 1,识记能力 ...

杂七杂八【资料】_英语学习_英语写作困境与对策_必备_(整理)

   杂七杂八的资料,一起整理都上传了 历史无声走,潮流滚滚来。(五言律绝?潮流) 闭月偷偷乐,泥牛不进村。(五言律绝?月黄昏) 雾里看花花看月,云中游月月游云。(七言律绝?迷离境) 人遇万难何所惧,心中不灭夜明灯。(七言律诗?心灯不灭) 空山松子悄悄落,黑白盘中局局迷。(七言律绝?烂柯山悟道) 弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 英语写作困境与对策 考生在写作时面临一些困境和问题,主要有以下几点: 一、滔滔不绝"意识流" 有一部分考生在 ...

英语写作

   作文写作技巧 一, 我们从评分标准上可以看到,只要你做到内容切题,文字连贯,文字连贯主要指的句子和句子之间是不是连贯,然后条理 文字连贯主要指的句子和句子之间是不是连贯, 文字连贯主要指的句子和句子之间是不是连贯 清楚, 清楚,只要达到这三点,我们说及格分应当是没有问题的. 如何能达到内容切题?内容切题主要包括主题句的切题 主题句的切题,我们知道四,六级的作文一般是三段式,其实写作文没有必要那么 主题句的切题 长,写 12 句话就可以了,这就我们归纳叫 12 句作文.. , 首先每一段的主题 ...

英语写作

   中考英语写作问题七点拨 写作是一项能够充分考查学生语言综合运用能力的题型,也是中考中失分较多的一题。不少考生在练习英语写作时不得法,又苦于找不到提高的有效途径。纵观近年各地中考英语写作题,题材一般是写人、写事、写物、写景、日记、书信、通知、便条等文体。一般来说,不同的写作题材,它的人物,时间,写作的重点也是不尽相同的,但学生在写作过程中所犯的错误却基本一致。笔者在批阅2007年中考英语作文中发现诸多考生的作文出现了这样那样的问题,我们先看下面考生的作文. 例: 以“Chin ...

英语写作

   假设你是李红,你的一位美国笔友 假设你是李红,你的一位美国笔友Robert写E-mail 写 问及你高考后暑假的安排,请根据以下要点, 问及你高考后暑假的安排,请根据以下要点,写一 词左右的email回复他 可以适当增加细节。 回复他, 封100词左右的 词左右的 回复他 可以适当增加细节。 1. 学开车 2. 参加英语培训课程 3. 去北京看奥 运会 4. 游览北京的名胜 注意: 根据以上内容写一篇短文 根据以上内容写一篇短文, 注意:1.根据以上内容写一篇短文,不要逐句 翻译,可适当增加 ...

初中英语写作

   英语写作专讲 授课教师:戴惠娟 授课班级:九A 授课班级:九A 主要特点 记叙为主 记叙为主 稍加议论 稍加议论 旁带说明 旁带说明 能力要求 书面表达 六 步 法 书面表达六步法 审 抄 改 书面 表达 抓 扩 连 书面表达六步法 一、审题 确定基本要素:5W1H 何 时 何 地 何 人 为 何 如 何 做 了 何 事 书面表达六步法 二、抓要点 确定主要行为 What happened? 书面表达六步法 三、扩展成句 形成基本语义单位 Who did what? 书面表达六步法 四、连句 ...

初中英语写作

   初中英语作文高分秘诀 1. 动笔之前,认真审题 《中考考试说明》指出,书面表达要切中题意。怎样才能切中题意?就是要认真审题,看到 考题后,先不要急于动笔,要仔细看清题目要求的内容。在自己的头脑中构思出一个框架或 画面,确定短文的中心思想,不要匆匆下笔,看懂题意,根据图画、图表、提纲或短文提供 的资料和信息来审题。审题要审格式、体裁、人物关系、故事情节、主体时态、活动时间、 地点等。 2. 围绕中心,拟定提纲 书面表达评分原则有四条: (1)内容要点; (2)运用词汇和结构的数量; (3)运用 ...

英语写作技巧

   初中英语写作技巧 书面表达,首先要抓住所给的提示,然后运用所学词汇、语法及句型,避繁就简,简明 表达要讲的内容。 那么,如何才能做好英语写作题呢?这里介绍五个要诀以供参考。 1. 紧扣中心; 2. 意思连贯; 3. 富于变化; 4. 注意时态; 5. 不“生造”句子。 书面表达是一项能够充分考查学生语言综合运用能力的题型, 一般来说, 书面表达采取 情景作文和控制作文两种形式。情景作文多为看图填词、看图写话、看图作文等形式,后者 指根据所给条件进行写作的形式。 以上两种书面表达形式,都不同于 ...

英语写作句式

   有没有什么高考英语作文万金油句子? 有没有什么高考英语作文万金油句子? 模版 1 Some people believe (argue, recognize, think) that 观点 1. But other people take an opposite side. They firmly believe that 观点 2. As for me, I agree to the former/latter idea. There are a dozen of reasons behi ...

热门内容

英语训练题12

   英语训练题 12 一、听力部分(共两节,共 10 分) 第一节听下面 5 段对话,每段对话后有一个小题,每段对话仅读一遍。 1. What time does the woman usually have breakfast? A. At 8:00. B. At 10:00. C. At 7:00. 2. Where does this conversation take place? A. At a restaurant. B. At a bank. C. At a shop. 3. Wh ...

北京一零一中2008?2009学年度第二学期期中考试初一英语

   北京一零一中 2008?2009 学年度第二学期期中考试 初一英语 三,完型填空 Mike always loves ships. When he was older, he said, "I am going to be a soldier." But his eyes were not very 1 , and he did not get in. Then he said, " I am going to 2 a small boat and I am g ...

大学英语四级机考

   《大学英语》机考完型填空题 大学英语》机考完型填空题 Modern zoos are very different from zoos that were built fifty years 46 . At that time, zoos were places 47 people could go to see animals from many parts of the world. The animals lived in cages that were made 48 concret ...

初三英语中考复习资料-06介词连词

   初三系列复习资料(6)介词,连词考点集汇,讲解和训练 六,介词和连词 【考点直击】 1. 常用介词及其词组的主要用法和意义; 2. 常用动词,形容词与介词,副词的固定搭配及其意义. 3. 并列连词 and, but, or, so 等的主要用法; 4. 常用的从属连词的基本用法 【名师点睛】 1. 介词的功能 介词是一种虚词,用来表示名词或相当于名词的其它词语句中其它词的关 系,不能单独使用.介词可与名词或相当于名词的其它词构成介词短语.介词短 语可在句中作定语,状语,表语和宾语补足语.例如 ...

英语学习_英语语法学习资料(完整版)_必备

   弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 第一讲 名词 1.1 名词的分类 名词可以分为专有名词( Nouns) Nouns) 专有名词是某个( ,专有名词是某个 名词可以分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns) 专有名词是某个(些) , 地方,机构等专有的名称, Beijing, 人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如 Beijing,China 等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽 象概念的名词, book, 普通名词又可 ...