写作高分指南:雅思写作常用三类关联词汇总
并列(and)关系类 并列(and)关系类 (and) 排序/列举(sequencing/listing) A 排序/列举(sequencing/listing) First of all in the first place to begin with after this/that Following this/that afterwards the first (reason) is First(ly)… after that finally 递进(reinforcing) B 递进(reinforcing) Also besides furthermore In addition more over what’s more 等同(equating) C 等同(equating) In the same way likewise… similarly…….. Accordingly… equally important… not only… but(also) 总结(summarising) D 总结(summarising) In conclusion in summary In short lastly To conclude to sum up finally 举例(referring) E 举例(referring) For example for instance in particular Particularly such as that is to say Namely … a (good) case in point… to illustrate 结果(showing F 结果(showing results) As a result consequently hence so Therefore thereby thus for this reason Leads to cause 选择(or)类 选择(or)类 (or) 推断(inferr (inferring) A 推断(inferring) In other words in that case then (or) else otherwise 替换(giving B 替换(giving alternatives) Alternatively on the other hand then again 重复(restating) C 重复(restating) In other words that is to say to put it simply
转折(but)类 转折(but)类 (but) 比较/对比(contrasting) A 比较/对比(contrasting) Conversely in comparison in contrast to this Instead nevertheless on the contrary On the other hand … whereas… … while/whilst 让步(conceding) B 让步(conceding) Afeter all all the same even if Although/though/even though however still In spite of / despite this/ that nevertheless nonetheless yet
像国外考生一样思考:雅思写作"SEE"原则
在雅思写作中,建议考生应转换思维方式,按照国外考生的思维方式来写文章,下文中我简称为"SEE"原则。 S=Support E=Expression E=Example 也就是说,大家应该把观点开门见山提出来,然后进行一番解释,合适时加上一个例子。 例如:论述犯罪的一个原因时,咱们可以进行如下思路 Sup1: The first and foremost reason lies in economic factors. Exp1: Due to poverty and unemployment, some people have to commit crimes in order to survive, which are the so-called blue collar crimes. Exa1: such as theft, burglary and robbery. 一般要有两个观点,因此进行论述时,应按照 SEE1+SEE2 的思路来走。 希望大家能悟出其中的道理。
名师指点:雅思写作中的英汉表达差异举隅
在雅思写作的教学过程中,有机会批改了大量同学的雅思作文,在这些作文当中,有大量的同学并不了解英汉 两种语言的基本差别,从而以汉语思维直接照搬到英语上来,写出了很多富有“中国特色”的句子,因此,本 文将向同学们简要介绍英汉写作中最核心的表达差异,以期对同学的雅思写作有所帮助。 英语重形合, 英语重形合,汉语重意合 英语是一种非常讲究语法的语言,而语法关系则通过一定的外显形态标记来表现;而中文则不用形态变化,靠 词序、虚词、上下文关系等来表达语法关系。正如王力先生在《中国语法理论》“欧化的语法”一章中说:中国 话里多用意合法,联结成分并非必须;西文多用形合法,联结成分在大多数情况下是必不可少的。” 如: 他正在看这本书。He is reading this book. 他已经看了这本书。He has read this book. 这个例子比较简单,很多同学对此已经比较熟悉了,但是在写作中却经常有同学在这些方面错误不断。
在汉语里,句子和句子之间通过内在的意义而非形式的逻辑关系来连接,因此常常省略连词、代词等成分。 如: 要大力弘扬新时代的雷锋精神! 发展体育运动,增强人民体质! 因此我们可以看出,在汉语中,连接手段是非必须的,人们完全可以通过全句整体来判断出词语前后隐含的关 系。而在英文中,这种隐含的关系必须被“显性”化。如: 他买了台电脑,花了六千块。 就绝对不能写成:He bought a computer, spent 6000 yuan. 而必须写成:He bought a computer which cost him 6000 yuan.或 He spent 6000 yuan on a computer. 他今天没来,妈妈住院了。 就不能写成:He is absent today, mother is ill. 而要写成:He is absent today because his mother is hospitalized. 这种只求“意思”不讲“形式”的句子在汉语里比比皆是,如: 我们换个地方,教室正在上课呢! 现在很饿了,我们去吃食堂! 十块钱一下子就花光了! 如果不考虑英汉的差别,直接按照中文思维写出:We change a place,the classroom is having a class./ Now is hungry, we go to eat the dining hall./Ten yuan spends finished. 之类则要闹出大笑话来。 英语前重心, 英语前重心,汉语后重心 先来看一个例子,一封来自学员的 E-mail: Dear Kevin, Though I know you are busy, will you give me some minutes, I had to go to work as long as I finished the class today, so I am off duty until now because the problem of double roles made me so boring and tired ,I work in a hospital and it is also teaching hospital ,and I will be a player to attend teaching competition,too much things I have to face and even these days I had to stay up all night. will you do me a favour that tell me how to balance the problem between work and study?Latter I will email the homework to you which you gave me this afternoon . yours truly XXX 这是一封非常典型的中式思维的信件。中式的思维是按照自然顺序展开论述,如:按照时间先后,先说先发生 的,后说后发生的;按照逻辑关系,则按照事物发展的先后逻辑顺序展开,先说前提、原因、条件、方式、手 段等,后说结果。而英文则按照重点顺序展开论述,把重要的观点、态度、结论等交代清楚,开门见山,然后 再展开叙述次要信息,如理由、条件、事实、例证等等。即:英文将语意的中心要放在前面,然后娓娓道来, 分解叙事。了解这一点,对于同学们展开雅思作文的段落非常有用。
回过头来看这封 E-mail,如果一个外国人看到,肯定一头雾水,因为他不知道你这封信的重点是什么,因为信 件的开头大段讲述个人的情况、经历等等,而直到最后才提出问题。如果按照英语的思维,应该开门见山的向 收信人提出问题,然后再展开细节进行叙述。 英文先结果,后原因。
  1. 英文先结果,后原因。 因为我爱他而不是恨他,所以我才会批评他。 I criticized him, not because I hate him but because I love him. 也许校园生活并非总像想象中的那样,所以很多学生才会感到失落。 Many students feel lost because campus life is not always what they imagined. 英文先结论,
  2. 英文先结论,后叙事 经过多年的努力,我们终于解决了这个难题。 We have solved the problem after many years’ hard work. 英语先表态,
  3. 英语先表态,后叙事 是什么导致了人的犯罪,我们还不能确定。 We are still not sure what causes people to commit a crime 死记硬背有很多的局限性,这一点我们必须承认。 We should admit that rote learning has a number of limitations. 英语多替换, 英语多替换,汉语多重复 由于英文重形合,所以通过各种形合手段将比较大量的信息连接在一个句子里,联系紧密,逻辑分明。这种情 况下,其代词所指往往比较明确而不易混淆,因此,为了避免单调乏味,英文句子常常采用替换、省略等方式 来变换同一个词的表达。而中文则相反,由于汉语主要考意合,考隐含的逻辑贯穿全句,因此为了保持句子的 “形散神不散”,就需要通过重复的手段来增强凝聚力,保持读者的注意力。所以,汉语往往不使用同义词等 替代手段,因为那样会使得精力分散。如,用代词替代: 他讨厌失败,他一生曾战胜失败,超越失败,并且蔑视别人的失败。 He hated failure, he had conquered it all his life, risen above it, despised it in others. 而不会写成: He hated failure, he had conquered the failure all his life, risen above the failure, despised the failure in others. 再看一个用同义词替换的例子: 低分版本: 低分版本: Think about this situation. A student interviewed another student and many students about what it is like to be an only child. If the teachers in charge of the school paper did not edit names of students from the paper or facts that would give that particular student away to other students, then serious problems could be caused for the students who gave their information. 改进版: 改进版:
Think about this situation. A reporter interviewed many students about what it is like to be an only child. If the teachers in charge of the school paper did not edit names of the interviewees from the paper or facts that would give each person away to the readers, then serious problems could be caused for the students who gave their information. 第一个低分版本里面用了大量重复的单词“student”,非常枯燥乏味,而改进版将“student”用了 “reporter”、“the interviewees”、“each person”、“readers”等词来替代,句子用词富于变化,自然 生动得多了。因此,在平时的雅思学习过程中,要注意积累同义词、反义词的积累,这样才能在写作中游刃有 余,取得高分。(作者:刘晓峰) Two sides of an argument Give the other side's opinion, and then give YOUR opinion Give the other side ?Some people think that… ?Although many people feel that… ?It is claimed that… ?Some people feel that… One sentence (While, although) ?While it is true that… … I believe… ?Despite the fact that millions of people die every year from lung cancer, many people think it is cool to smoke. ?Although many people think that…., I feel that ?Although it is often said that…, in fact the opposite is true Two sentences ?It is undoubtedly true that… …However… ?It is often argued that… However, it is ?Some people say that… They claim… However, I feel… ?Supporters of this viewpoint say that… However, it is One sentence (While, although) ?While it is true that… … I believe… ?Despite the fact that millions of people die every year from lung cancer, many people think it is cool to smoke. ?Although many people think that…, I feel that ?Although it is often said that…, in fact the opposite is true Two sides of an argument Give the other side's opinion, and then give YOUR opinion
Give the other side ?Some people think that… ?Although many people feel that… ?It is claimed that… ?Some people feel that… One sentence (While, although) ?While it is true that… … I believe… ?Despite the fact that millions of people die every year from lung cancer, many people think it is cool to smoke. ?Although many people think that…., I feel that ?Although it is often said that…, in fact the opposite is true Two sentences ?It is undoubtedly true that… …However… ?It is often argued that… However, it is ?Some people say that… They claim… However, I feel… ?Supporters of this viewpoint say that… However, it is One sentence (While, although) ?While it is true that… … I believe… ?Despite the fact that millions of people die every year from lung cancer, many people think it is cool to smoke. ?Although many people think that…, I feel that ?Although it is often said that…, in fact the opposite is true
雅思写作指导:如何运用复合句写漂亮的段落
一、复合句的种类 英语的复合句一般分为三大类型:名词性从句、形容词性从句和副词性从句。 (一)名词性从句 在整个复合句中起名词作用,充当主语、宾语、表语和同位语等的各种从句,统称为名词性从句。名词性从句 主要有以下几种:
  1. that 引导的从句 e.g. It is reported that one third of Guangzhou citizens plan to buy a private car. (据报道,三分之一的广州 市民打算购买私家车。)

  2. whether/if 引导的从句 e.g. Whether motorcycles should be banned in Guangzhou has become an issue of controversy.(广州是否禁摩托车成了有争议的话题。)

  3. how/why/when/where 引导的从句 e.g. This essay aims to explore why so many white collar workers suffer from insomnia. (本文将探讨为什么这么多白领失眠的原因。)
  4. who/whom/whose/what/which 引导的从句 e.g. Who should be responsible for the environmental degradation is still unknown.(谁对环境恶化负责还不清楚。) (二)形容词性从句 具有形容词功能,在复合句中做定语的从句被称之为形容词性从句或定语从句。被修饰的名词、词组或代词被 称为先行词。形容词性从句分为两种类型: (
  1)由关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which, as 引导的从句。例如: People who are strongly against human cloning claim that it is immoral and unethical. (强烈反对克隆人的人们认为这样做不道德和不合伦理) (
  2)由关系副词 when, where, why 引导的从句。例如: I would like to ana
 

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