英语写作基础教程
A Basic Course in Writing 主讲: Priscillapan 教学大纲 一. 教学对象 本课程的教学对象是高等专科英语专业的学生或具有同等水平的自学者._ 二. 教学目的与要求 通过本课程的教学, 使学生初步掌握英语写作技能, 学会用英文写叙述,说明性的短文和一般性应用文. (
  1) 用英文写叙述,说明性的短文: 要求学生能根据命题列出作文提纲,在 1 小时内写出不少于 200 词的短 文, 内容切题,完整,条理清楚,语句连贯通顺, 语法基本正确. (
  2) 用英文写一般性的应用文: 要求学生能根据提示写出 式正确, 语言得体._ 三. 教学安排 本课程 3 个学分, 在一个学期内开设, 每周 3 学时,共计 54 学时._ 四. 教学内容 本课程主要教学内容如下: (
  1) 文稿格式; (
  2) 句子结构; (
  3) 构段方式; (
  4) 谋篇布局; (
  5) 摘要; (
  6) 应用文._ 五. 教学原则 (
  1) 在教学过程中, 要充分考虑成人学习的特点和本课程的特点, 注重对学生遣词造句这两种能力的培养; (
  2) 在教学过程中, 教师应以指导学生自学为主, 以电视教学和课堂教学为辅, 采用多种教学手段对学生 进行写作训练._ 六. 测试 _ 实行全国统一的闭卷考试.考试采用百分制,60 分及格. 实施方案 一,课时安排 "英语 写作基础"课内总学时为 54 小时,课外练习时数为 54 小时. 二,具体学习安排_ __ (一)基本技能的学习:6 课时,要求掌握标点符号的用法. __ (二)句子的写作:9 课时,要求掌握句子统一性,连贯性,重点突出的写作技巧. __ (三)段落的写作 :6 课时,要求掌握段落统一性的写作,学会主题句和扩展句的运用. __ (四)一般性文章和应用文的写作 :30 课时,要求掌握基本应用文的写作,这是本课程的重点部分(具体内 容附后). __ (五)期末复习:3 课时,全面复习本学习的教学内容,模拟考试. 三,教学意见_
  1) 作文课应该以教师讲解,学生练习为主.
  2) 授课重点应该放在写作技能技巧的训练上,理论知识可以适当少讲.
  3) 有条件的分校可以充分利用网上资源和现代技术设备,利用互联网上的英语写作网站扩大学生的阅 读两;利用视频展示台把学生所写的优秀文章向全班批改,也可以讲普遍性的问题;等等. 知,贺卡,便条,申请书,邀请函,简历, 格
考试题型 一,考试题型与要求 本课程的考试依据教学大纲的要求,重点考查应用文写作和一般文体的写作.考试为闭卷考试,总分为 100 分.
  1.应用文写作 根据提示写一个不少于 50 词的通知和一个不少于 100 词的便条,要求语言通顺,用词得体,格式正确. 满分为 30 分;
  2.命题作文 根据所给题目及写作提纲或规定场景等,写一篇不少于 200 词的作文,要求符合文章类型特点,内容切 题,语言通顺.满分为 70 分. 二,考试模拟试题 一,Write a notice into the box according to the following facts:(10 分) 乒乓球赛 地点: 1 号球室 : 北京商业学校对北京语言文化大学 时间:5 月 8 日 用六 下午五时 二,Write a note based on the given facts:(20 分) : 时间:6 月 9 月 对象:Prof. Stone_ 内容:对不起,不能赴 3 点的约会.我的论文由,于被朋友锁上了,不能带来.我不知他何时返回.如果方 便,我能在明日下午五时在系办公室见您吗 若不行,请明早特便条放在我的信箱里,信箱号 6
  06.谢谢._ 留言者:吴敏 三,Write an essay of no fewer than 200words:(70 分) : Title:_ Qualification of a Good University Student Aids: First Paragraph:_Your point of view of being a good university student Second Paragraph: What makes a good university student (with some examples) Third Paragraph:_Conclusion 平时作业 英语写作基础平时作业(大作业)共四次,主要检查同学们对英语应用文写作的掌握情况.__
  1)完成 P125 页 Exercise 1 (Notice Writing)
  2)完成 P126 页 Exercise 3 (Note Writing)
  3)完成 P126 页 Exercise 4 (Letters Writing)
  4)完成 P126 页 Exercise 5 (resumes Writing) 另外,任课教师可以根据教学内容,适当补充写作练习. General Remarks on Writing _Writing _makes an exact man. _Great use and popularity _Needing Much Knowledge _Useful for Reading and Spoken _Great Difficulties as well Targets of this Course At the end of this course, you should be able: _to use the punctuation marks correctly;
_to write correct sentences; _to write more effective sentences ; _to compose a full essay; _to write a practical essay like a note, a letter, or a notice etc. Arrangement _ I Writing the title II Leaving the margins III Paragraphing IV Capitalization V Dividing words Writing the title Be placed in the middle of the first line Every word of the title should be capitalized No full stop should be used at the end of a title Margins A. leave margins at the top and bottom and on the side of each page. Never write on a full page. B. left side margin should be wider if the work is to be bound. C. For students, it is advisable to write on every other line. Paragraphing A. Indentation (Space) … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. B. Block … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. … … … … … … .. Handwriting Regrettably, an English writer is not so concerned with the aesthetics in handwriting as a Chinese writer is. Be neat and legible. A. Make your "t"s different from your "e"s; B. Make your "r"s different from your "v"s; C. If cross out a word, no brackets but a thick line across it; D. If add a word, write it above, not below; E. Two common ways of writing the letters: form loops and print Syllabification When you happen not to have enough room to write a whole word in at the end of a line: A. If the word is monosyllabic, please write it in a next line; B. If the word is polysyllabic, you maybe syllabify it if you feel necessary
How to syllabify a word Just splitting a word then a hyphen then the other part of the word. occupation: oc-cu-pa-tion ( Don't split it like this: occ-upa-tion) Nowadays, a computer deals with this problems automatically Abbreviations and Numerals Abbreviations shorten some words, titles and long names. They are used in advertising and informal occasions.
  1) Be sure to use them before you know.
  2) Be sure of the dots ( . ). Abbreviations
  1) Before names (family names), titles are abbreviated: Mr. Green Ms. Adella Dr. Bethune
  2) Titles of academics, government officials, and priest can be abbreviated, followed by the full name: Prof. Li Gov. Henry Ford Sen. Robert
  3) Academic degrees and family designations preceded by full names can be abbreviated: Robert Smith, Ph. D. John Jones Jr./Sr.
  4) Names of well-known organizations, firms, places, and long technical terms can be abbreviated by using the initial letters of the words: UNESCO FBI WHO TOEFL GATT
  5) Time designations when used with specific numbers are abbreviated: 135 B.C. 6:00 a.m.
  6) Words referring to portions of address can be abbreviated when they appear in address on envelopes, letter headings, or inside addresses: Rd. Dept. Pro. P.R.C. Capitalization
  1)The use of capitalization is unique and important in writing. (
  1) The china made in China is first class. (
  2) he bought that article of japan in Japan. (
  3) Their child was shanghaied in Shanghai. (
  4) John wanted to go to the john. (
  5) The turkey here is not as good as in Turkey. _
  2)The capitalization is used in the following 10 aspects: (
  1) the beginning of a sentence Wonderful! Where there is a will, there is a way. Can you hear me at the back Capitalization (
  2) For the first letter in each line of a poem. The Arrow and the Song I shot an arrow into the sky, (
  3) The first letter of a directed quotation / speech:
"Who is on duty today " the teacher asked. " Don't worry," he said, trying to comfort me. " We will help you make up for the lessons." (cf. "To be frank with you," he said, "you should not have told him that." Capitalization (
  4) The first letters of the essential words in proper nouns ( names of people, countries, organizations historical events, planes, etc.) Darwin Shakespeare China Jesus Christ the Great Wall the Red Cross Boeing 747 (
  5) The first letters of designation of relatives before family names: Uncle Geoge Aunt Maggie Niece Mary Grandma Lee Capitalization (
  6) Almost all abbreviations except a.m., p.m., etc., e.g., c/o, i.e., tec (
  7) the first letter of essential word in trade marks, service signs, posts, greetings, etc. Information Desk Hands Off Open Strictly No Smoking (祝你生日快乐!) Happy birthday to you! Happy Birthday to you! (
  8) the title of all significant words in the title of a theme, article, essay. newspaper, periodical. But a form word of less than five letters is not capitalized unless it begins the title. Jane Eyre Gone with the Wind My College Life Capitalization (
  9) the first letter of the salutation and complimentary close in a letter: Dear Sir, Dear Mr. Evans, Sincerely yours, Yours, (
  10) the first letter of the words of the days of a week, the month, and the major words of holidays: Punctuation Main Punctuation marks
  1. the period(.)
  2. the question mark ( )
  3. the exclamation point (!)
  4. the comma (,)
  5. the semicolon (;)
  6. the colon (:)
  7. brackets ([ ])
  8. the quotation marks (" " ' ')
  9. parentheses ( ( ) )
  10. The dash (―)

  11. ellipsis points ( … ) The Period ( . )
  1. The period (full stop) is used at the end of a declarative sentence, a mildly imperative sentence, and an indirect question. Honesty is the best policy. Hand in your homework, please. . The period marks the end of a sentence. The word after it begins a new sentence and has to be capitalized. She graduated from Oxford University. She achieved great success in her studies there.
  2.The period is used with most abbreviations. But some people prefer not to use the period with abbreviations. They just write Mr, Ms, etc. Names of well-known organizations, broadcasting corporations are often written without periods, like UN, UNESCO, NATO, VOA, BBC.
  3. Three spaced period make the ellipsis mark, which indicates the omission of one or more words within a quoted passage, or pauses in speech; Um… I think, um… she is um… pretty um… hardworking. The Comma ( , )
  1. A comma is used to join coordinate. It is put before the conjunction (and, but, or, for, so, nor, or, yet,): We wanted to go on, but other people disappeared. He tried hard, yet he failed to convince her. We should remember that coordinate clauses have to be joined with a comma and a conjunction. One comma alone cannot do the job though it is possible in Chinese. Sam is four years old, he is quite bright. Sam is four years old, and he is quite bright. Using a comma to link two clauses is a common mistake, which has a name: the comma fault or the comma splice. But we can use a semicolon, a dash, or a colon between two coordinate clauses. Sam is four years old; he is quite bright. Sam is very happy: he's got the first prize. The Comma ( , )
  2. A comma is used after an adverbial clause or phrase. When the rain stopped, we continued to work in the fields. On hearing the news, she went faint. Some listeners, bored by the lengthy talk, closed their eyes and dozed.
  3. Commas are used to separate a series of words or phrases with the same function in the sentence. The comma before the conjunction and last item is optional. It can be omitted there is no danger of misreading. The children sang, danced, jumped, and chased each other.
  4. Nonrestrictive clauses and phrases are set off by commas. Restrictive clauses and phrases are not set off by commas. The speaker, after glancing at his notes, began to talk about the next point. The Comma ( , )

  5. In dates, a comma is used to separate the day and the year if the order is month-day-year; no comma need be used if the order is day-month-year. Hong Kong was returned to China on July 1, 19
  97. She was born on 15 September 19
  80.
  6. With numbers over 1,000 or more, commas or little blank spaces may be used to separate digits by thousands. From right to left, a comma is placed after every three numerals. 12,221,548 53,507,214 The question Marks ( )
  1. The question mark is used after a direct question. Do you know Mr. Smith "Could you please explain to me the meaning of this sentence " she asked.
  2. The question mark is used after a statement turned into a question ( said in a rising tune ). You like it You want to buy it The first time to the United States
  3. A question mark put between parentheses indicates the writer's uncertainty about the correctness of the preceding word, figure or date. Cao Xueqing was born in 1715 ( ), and died in poverty in 1764 ( ). The Exclamation Mark ( ! )
  1. The exclamation mark is used after an exclamatory sentence, or an emphatic interjection, or a phrase expressing strong emotion. Wow! What beautiful flowers! Help! It is on fire! The exclamation mark indicates strong emphasis and therefore it should be used sparingly. It is preferable to close a mild interjection with a comma or a period. (Do not use it frequently!)
  2.Sometimes the exclamation mark is used after a slogan
 

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