College of Foreign Languages Zou Xiaoling 2003
Basic Writing Skills
A. Manuscript Form Note: work carefully, write neatly and clearly; proofread it once or twice.
  1. Arrangement Title: write in the middle of the first line capitalize words. No period in use except for question mark.

  2. Word Division. When do it, pay attention to syllables and the form of the word. No division for people’s name, etc.
  3. Capitalization. Mainly used at three places: 1> the first words of sentences; 2> key words in title; 3> proper names (eg: Labour Day, Hyde Park, Changan Street)

  4. Punctuation (for general rules) Period (full stop), comma, semicolon , question mark, quotation mark, exclamation mark, colon, dash. usage of punctuation in direct speech. Eg:
  1) She said,” We have decided to take the examination.”
  2)“ We have decided to take the examination,” she said.
  3)“ We have decided,” she said,” to take the examination.”

  5. Handwriting. 1> Cross out a word: draw a thick line across it. 2> Write in wrong spelling: cross it out and add the correct one behind. 3> Add a word: write it above, with a clear sign to show where to insert. 4> Write letters clearly: a-o-u, n-u-v-r, t-e.
B. Diction (the choice and use of words)

  1. Words 1> different levels: formal, common, colloquial. Solution: more often than not use common words.
2> meaning. One word has both denotative (literal) and connotative (implied) meaning. Eg: country, nation, state, land. No two words with exactly the same meaning. Similar words with different collocations. Eg: amount, number, quantity. Solution: grasp the exact meaning of a word and its proper usage.
3> general and specific words. general words: long, big. give no deep impression, not vivid. specific words: exact in meaning, make writing lively when used often. Solution: use more specific words than general words. Eg: laugh; smile, grin, beam, giggle, snigger,chuckle, sneer.
general: Students do many interesting things after classes. specific: Every morning and afternoon the sports fields are alive with energetic students. Football and basketball matches, volleyball, badminton, and track-training are all in full swing. Even the alleyways under the trees and around the flower beds provide enough space for enthusiasm to practice. Through the windows comes the pitterpatter of ping-pong balls, the sound of songs and music, or laughter and discussion.

  2. Idioms: try to use them to make your writing more touching.
  3. Figures of speech: simile, metaphor, personification, irony. Eg: Her rich relatives rained birthday presents on her only son. Wrong ideas may harm a man just like diseases. The storm was so angry that it wanted to destroy everything in its way.
The leaves are trembling in the cold wind. On hearing that he had been admitted to that famous university, he whispered to himself, “I’m the luckiest man in the world.” The picture of those poor people’s lives was carved so sharply in his heart that he could never forget it.
C. The Sentence.

  1. Complete sentences and sentence fragments. Fragment: It was raining hard, they could not work in the fields. Revised:It was raining hard; they could not work in the fields. It was raining hard. They could not work in the fields. It was raining so hard that they couldn't’t work in the fields. It was raining hard, so they could not work in the fields. They could not work in the fields, because it was raining.
Fragment: A girl sitting at the beach. Revised: A girl is sitting at the beach. Fragment: Because money can bring us what we need. Revised: This is true because money can bring us what we need.

  2. Types of Sentences. 1> Declarative, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences. 2> Simple, compound, complex and compoundcomplex sentences. Simple: Short simple sentences are often used to make emphatic or important statements. Compound: and, but, or, etc. Complex: one main clause with one or more subordinate clauses.
Long complex sentences express complex ideas clearly and accurately, for they have rooms for all kinds of modifiers.
Eg: The boy who sends letters and newspapers to neighbors is Tom’s brother.
Notes: When writing a narration, use simple or compound more than complex to make language light and lively. When writing an argumentation, uses of complex sentence can make writing more forceful and proving.
3> Short and long sentences. Short: emphatic, suitable for the presentation of important facts and ideas. Long: capable of expressing complex ideas with precision, suitable for the explanation of views and theories, or the description of things with many details. Long sentences are common in legal, political and theoretical writing. In fiction long sentences are sometimes used to describe a person, a thing or a scene.

  3. Effective sentences. 1> Unity: A unified sentence expresses a single complete thought. It does not contain ideas that are not closely related, nor does it express a thought that is not complete by itself. faulty: Born in a small town in South China in the early 50s, he grew up to be a famous musician. revised:He was born in South China in the early 50s. In his childhood he liked to sing songs. Later he entered a conservatory. In the 70s he became a famous musician
faulty:Du Fu was one of the greatest poets. revised:Du Fu was one of the greatest poets of the Tang period. 2>Coherence : Coherence means clear and reasonable connection between parts. A.Parallel Construction:
  1)and, but, or, nor, either…or, neither…nor, not…but, not only…but also, both…and
faulty:A man is judged not only by what he says but also by his action. He likes to sing, to swim, and table tennis. revised:A man is judged not only by what he says but also by what he does. He likes to sing, to swim, and to play table tennis.
  2)In comparison and contrast structure:She is a singer rather than a dancer. It is better to give than to take.

  3) Parallel construction includes words, phrases and clauses,e.g.: They had their choice of watching television, going shopping, or eating out. To finish school and to get a good job are my ambitions. Tom knows that he has to work hard, that he has to earn enough money, and that he has to give up his holidays. faulty:At the conference Tom met a doctor, writer and world traveller. revised:At the conference Tom met a doctor, a writer and a world traveller.
B.Pronouns with ambiguous reference用代词 来代替名词或名词短语等可使句子连贯,但 代词必须明确地取代被修饰的词,并与其先 行词保持性、数的一致。 He was knocked down by a car, but it was not serious. (指代不明) He was knocked down by a car, but was not serious. When my brother was five years old, she became interested in painting.(指代不一致)
When my brother (he)was five years old, he (my brother)became interested in painting. If you want something to suit you, we should do it ourselves. (指代混乱) If you want something to suit you, you should do it yourself. The article tells us that the heat under your feet can be used.(指代混乱) The article tells us that the heat under our feet can be used.
C.Dangling and misplaced modifiers: faulty:To get ready for the trip, all the things she needed were put into a suitcase. (dangling) Looking out of the window, the grassland stretches as far as the eye can reach. (dangling) The ideas he mentioned at first sounded good. (misplaced) She missed the train yesterday leaving at eight. (misplaced)
She missed the train leaving at eight yesterday. The job is open over eighteen years of age to anyone. (misplaced) The job is open to anyone over 18 years of age. To get up early, the clock was set at six.(dangling) To get up early, he set the clock at six. Though seriously ill, the boss made her work ten hours a day in the hot workshop.(dangling) Though seriously ill, the boss made her (she had to) work ten hours a day in the hot workshop.
D. Confusing shifts in person and number, voice, tense and mood. Those who wish to learn English songs are expected sign his name on this sheet of paper. An important thing for the student to remember is that you should work hard. Jack said that he does not know the secret. They washed the door and the windows were cleaned.
3> Conciseness: Contains no unnecessary words. If the idea is fully expressed, the fewer words are used, the better. Repetition is sometimes necessary for emphasis, but unnecessary repetition should be avoided. Eg: He gave many reasons for the failure, but the reasons he gave was not convincing. In my opinion, I think your plan is feasible.
Solution: Conciseness can sometimes be achieved by changing the sentence structure. Eg: Mr. Smith usually likes to drink all kinds of wines that are produced in France. Mr. Smith prefers wines produced in France. Mr. Smith prefers French wines.
4> Emphasis. When there is an important idea, it should be expressed with emphasis. (
  1) emphatic sentences. a. Short sentences. It has been mentioned that short sentences are more emphatic than long ones, especially at the beginning or end of a paragraph, or in the midst of long sentences.
b. Sentence fragments. They are also called onemember sentences. They are emphatic because they contain only the few words that express the main idea. Eg: The sky was overcast. A north wind was blowing. It threatened to rain at any moment. A gloomy day. c. Inverted sentences. They are emphatic because their unusual word order draws the reader’s attention. Eg: In rushed the noisy children. The poet was born poor, and poor he remained all his life.
d. Parallel constructions and balanced sentences. Eg: On hearing the news, he was angered, and I was saddened. The politician is concerned with successful elections, whereas the statesman is interested in the future of his people.
e. Negative-positive statements. They first point out what is not the truth, and then what. The contrast makes them emphatic. Eg: The delegates shouted and quarreled. It was not a meeting; it was the farce. There were so many errors in the performance that the result was not a tragedy, but a comedy.
f. Sentences with repeated words or phrases. Eg: I loved the sound of Martin Luther King’s voice, its eloquence, oratorical cadeness. At the climax of the1965 Montgomery march he had cried out,” How long will it take before my people achieve full equality?” Then, answering his own question, he shouted:” It will not take long because truth pressed to the earth will rise again. How long? Not long, because no lie can live forever. How long? Not long, because the arm of the normal universe is long, but it bends toward peace.
  2) Emphasis within the sentence. a. placing. The beginning and the end, especially the end, of a sentence are the two places that attract the reader’s attention. Compare: Wang Bing is modest and hardworking and is a good student. Modest and hardworking, Wang Bing is a good student. Wang Bing is a good student, modest and hardworking.
b. Repetition: Eg: Bright, very bright, were the stars over the wild, dark Yenan hills. The good old days were gone forever, could never be got back again. c. Emphatic words or phrases: Eg: This is the very dictionary I have been looking for. His latest novel is by far the best he has ever written. Not…. At all, whatever, not to mention, let alone.
D. The Paragraph

  1. Effective paragraphs. (
  1) Unity: Unity of a paragraph is concerned with its content. If all the sentences in the paragraph lead to one central theme, the paragraph is unified. The central theme is usually summarized in what is called the topic sentence.
  2) Coherence: Coherence of a paragraph is concerned with its form, or its organization. The sentences in a paragraph should be arranged in a clear, logical order, and the transitions should be smooth and natural. As a result, the reader finds it easy to follow the writer’s train of thought and understand what he is talking about.
Eg: There is some feeling nowadays that reading is not as necessary as it once was. Radio and especially television have taken over many of the functions once served by print, just as photography has taken over functions once served by painting and other graphic arts. Admittedly, television serves some of these functions extremely well; the visual communication of new events, for example, has enormous impact. The ability of radio to give us information while we are engaged in doing other thingsfor instance, driving a caris remarkable, and a great saving of time. But it may be seriously questioned whether the advent of modern communications media has much enhanced our understanding of the world in which we live.
  3) Transition: The following ways may help the writer to produce a fluent paragraph:
a. Using parallel structures; b. Repeating words or word groups; c. Using pronouns to refer to nouns in preceding sentences; d. Being consistent in the person and number of nouns and pronouns, and the tense of verbs.
Eg: Americans are queer people: they can't play. Americans rush to work as soon as they grow up. They want their work as soon as they wake. It is a stimulantthe only one they are not afraid of. They used to open their offices at ten o'clock; then at nine; then at eight; then at seven. Now they never shut them. Every business in America is turning into an open-all-



   汇丰银行商务英语写作教程[1] 汇丰银行商务英语写作教程 1。简介 。 2.第一章 第一章 简介: 简介: 这是汇丰银行内部培训员工用的写作课程。它把写作分为五步:计划、组织、草稿、修改和 编辑。分成 8 章讲解。讲解的时候举具体的例子做示范,对提高商务写作能力很有帮助。今 天我们先来了解一下教程的体系和学习计划。 HSBC Writing Course--"Writing for Results" Chapter 1 Plan your writing Chapter ...


   英语写作 浙江师范大学外国语学院 English Writing Fu Anquan Foreign Languages Colleges Zhejiang Normal University 英语写作教学大纲 一,课程性质,目的和对象 英语写作基础是英语专业的一门理论与 实践相结合的课程.目的是培养学生逻 辑思维的能力,养成严谨,规范的英语 写写作习惯,不断提高写作水平,为今 后进一步学习英语打下较为坚实的基础. 其对象是英语专业二年级学生. 二,本课程考查的能力,层次与要求 1,识记能力 ...


   高中英语写作教学研究 如何在平时教学中提高学生写作能力?本文从以两个方面入手,首先是基本功练习,其 次是作文课直接练习写作。 在英语教学中,词汇教学,语法教学和阅读教学一直是重点,而对于写作教学很容 易忽视。 其实扎实的写作能力既能够让学生灵活应用所学的词汇又能够锻炼相关的语法 知识, 还能培养语感进而促进阅读理解能力的提高。 因此必须重视培养学生的写作水平。 如何有效地进行写作教学呢? 首先是打牢基本功。作文是一种语言的输出练习,要输出首先要有足够的语言输入。 这既包括基本语言材料如词汇, ...


   谈初中英语写作教学的体会 语言最主要的功能是交际, 采用书面形式进行信息传递更是交往中心必不可 少的手段,在听、说、读、写四种技能中,写的难度最大,这种技能的培养并不 是一朝一夕、 一蹴而就的事, 而是整个中学阶段长期的任务, 因此, 从初一开始, 老师就应对学生有计划、有步骤地进行写作训练,避免对学生进行中考前突击而 产生被动。 一、激发学生的写作动机,保持学生写作兴趣 在教学过程中, 教师要善于激发学生写作的动机, 通过提供令学生感兴趣的 话题(如你最喜欢哪种体育运动,为什么?假期你有何 ...


   % 722 % Journal of Q iqihar M edical College, 2008, V ol. 29, N o. 6 大学英语写作教学的新模式 郑 巍 摘要 英语写作教学是英语教学中的重要一环, 如何提高 英语写作 教学的效率 一直是 教学实 践 中急需解决的问题。多媒体网络技术的发展为这个课题的解决提供了一个新的途径。 关键词 多媒体网络 英语写作教学 新途径 1 大学英语写作教学的形势及现状分析 近年, 随着改革开放 的进一 步深入, 我国 加入世 贸组 织, 并且参 ...


   Journal of Jilin Radio and TV University No. 5 , 2010 ( Total No. 101) 《吉林广播电视大学学报》    2010 年第 5 期 ( 总第 101 期)                    改革与探索 大学英语写作教学的现状与革新 勾  淼 ( 广西财经学院 , 广西 南宁   530003) 摘   : 本文以第二语言写作理论为指导 , 对我国高校目前英语写作教学的现状进行了剖析 。从语言习得 要 的规律和角度 , 并以 ...


   假设你是李红,你的一位美国笔友 假设你是李红,你的一位美国笔友Robert写E-mail 写 问及你高考后暑假的安排,请根据以下要点, 问及你高考后暑假的安排,请根据以下要点,写一 词左右的email回复他 可以适当增加细节。 回复他, 封100词左右的 词左右的 回复他 可以适当增加细节。 1. 学开车 2. 参加英语培训课程 3. 去北京看奥 运会 4. 游览北京的名胜 注意: 根据以上内容写一篇短文 根据以上内容写一篇短文, 注意:1.根据以上内容写一篇短文,不要逐句 翻译,可适当增加 ...


   高考必背疯狂英语成功之路13篇.迅速提高写作 成功之路第一篇:暑假打工 文体:记叙文 【题目要求】 暑假过后,你的外籍教师要同学们汇报自己假期所从事的社会活动和自己的感想。请写一书面材料交给外教: 你在2005年暑假到一家肯德基(KFC)快餐店做保洁员(cleaner)工作,你每天工作7个小时,为期3周,这项工作辛苦且枯燥,并使你感到非常的疲惫,这几乎使你半途放弃。 在新学期开始之前,你终于坚持完成了这项工作,并且认识到了劳动(labor)的意义,你认为这是一次成功的体验。 注意: 1.必须用 ...


   有没有什么高考英语作文万金油句子? 有没有什么高考英语作文万金油句子? 模版 1 Some people believe (argue, recognize, think) that 观点 1. But other people take an opposite side. They firmly believe that 观点 2. As for me, I agree to the former/latter idea. There are a dozen of reasons behi ...


   英语写作训练 一、应用文 1、书信 、 2、请假条 、 3、留言 、 4、 4、通知 5、借条 、 6、寻物启事 、 7、失物招领 、 2、请假条 、 昨天晚上你突然觉得不舒服,发高烧, 昨天晚上你突然觉得不舒服,发高烧, 咳嗽。大夫说你得了重感冒, 咳嗽。大夫说你得了重感冒,需要卧 床休息。请你给李老师写张病假条, 床休息。请你给李老师写张病假条, 请假两天,并表示康复后立即返校, 请假两天,并表示康复后立即返校, 你名叫王立,时间2008年6月5日。 你名叫王立,时间 年 月 日 范文 ...


(外研.陕西专版)英语:选修7 module 1 reading and vocabulary (课件)

   Ⅰ.单词聚焦 defend 1. v. 2. adj. talented 的 attend 3. v. average 4. n. 5. n. motivation various 6. adj. 防守 有才能的,有天赋 上(学) 平均数 动力 各种各样的 outstanding 7. adj. live 8. adv. coach 9. v. instant 10. adj. collision 11. n. adequate 12. adj. abrupt 13. adj. accele ...

外研社英语七下NSE module7教案

   阳光家教网 阳光家教网 www.ygjj.com 西安家教 青岛家教 郑州家教 家教 苏州家教 天津家教 中国最大找家教, 家教平台 中国最大找家教,做家教平台 家教 MODULE 7 一,题材内容 TEACHING PLAN 本模块话题是"旅游与交通" .语法重点是学习形容词最高级形式和 by+交通工具的用法,围绕旅 游与交通开展听,说,读,写的课堂活动.要求学生通过对形容词最高级形式的操练,能够就相关话 题进行问答,能够描述自己或他人的旅行.在阅读过程中,学会应用寻找 ...


   2011 年公共英语三级考试英译汉题目练习 1、他这次考试失败使他意识到定期复习功课是多么重要。 He failed in the exam, which has made him aware of the importance of reviewing hi s lessons regularly. 2、请一定不要忘记离家前你父母对你说过的话。 Be sure not to forget what your parents said to you before you left home. ...

庄氏高考英语辅导 试题4

   庄氏英语高考寒假特供试卷 4 一、单词拼写(1’×10=10’) 1. She did very well in her first film and became a star (一夜之间). 2. The young painter has e(展览) his works in several galleries. 3. I’ve asked him to (缩短) my grey trousers. They are too long. 4. He doesn’t seem to un ...


   1.如果只是遇见,不能停留,不如不遇见. If we can only encounter each other rather than stay with each other,then I wish we had never encountered. 2.宁愿笑着流泪,也不哭着说后悔.心碎了,还需再补吗? I would like weeping with the smile rather than repenting with the cry,when my heart is brok ...