Writing
Outline
? Introduction(总, 开门见山点出问题、现 ( 开门见山点出问题、 提出自己的观点、看法等) 象,提出自己的观点、看法等) ? Body(分,具体陈述自己的论点、理由) ( 具体陈述自己的论点、理由) ? Conclusion (总,收束全文,再次点题) 收束全文,再次点题)
英语文章标题大小写原则
  1.题目的第一个单词要大写;
  2.冠词都不需要大写;
  3.字母多于三个(不含三个)的介词、连词首字母要 大写; ?
  4.名词、动词、形容词、副词、代词、感叹词首 字母; ?
  5.大写所有英语中要求大写的单词。如月份、人 名、地名等等。 ? 这几条原则的优先性是递减的: 即,如果几条原则之间出现了矛盾的情况,应优 先实用前面的原则。如:如果题目的第一个单词 是冠词或不多于三个字母的介词时也应该大写。 ? ? ? ?

  3.
  1. 如何开头 ? (
  1) 主题句法 The application of this law can have both negative and positive effects. ? (
  2) 问题法 Do you know how many people die from traffic accidents every 23 minutes? Why does cream go bad faster than butter? (
  3) 对比法
When asked …., most of college students say that…. But I think quite differently. I would prefer a career that will help realize my potentials.
.
? (
  4) 数据法 ? According to a recent survey, about
  78.9% of the college students wanted to further their study after their graduation. (
  5) 故事法 ? Six o’clock yesterday (June 20th, Friday) afternoon when I was walking along the riverbank of our school, an unbelievable scene caught my eyes.
.
? (
  6) 引语法 ? As the proverb goes, “You are only young once.”(适用于记住的名言) ? There is an increasing awareness/popularity among people that…..
如何结尾
?
  1.重复中心思想 回到文章开头阐明的中心 . 思想或主题句上,达到再次肯定和强调的 效果。 With all these benefits, it is no wonder that sports and games have now become more popular with people than ever. ? From the discussion above, we may safely arrive at/come to/reach the conclusion that…
?
  2.作出结论 文章最后用几句话概括全文内 . 容,并进一步肯定文章的中心思想或作者 的观点。 All in all /to sum up, in conclusion, in brief, ……a good teacher-student relationship can be mutually beneficial. The students gain knowledge eagerly and enjoyably, and the teacher gains satisfaction from his job.
.
?
.
  3.应用引语 用格言、谚语或习语总结全文 用格言、谚语或习语总结全文,既 .
言简意赅又有更强的说服力。 If you have anything to do, try to do it yourself, for that is the safest way to permanent success. Remember the famous saying. “God helps those who help themselves."
?
  4.用反问结尾 虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯 . 定的,具有明显的强调作用,引起读者思考。 Therefore, listening skills must be consciously improved. Since it is such an important means of learning and communication, why shouldn’t we develop this ability as far as possible?
.
?
  5.提出展望或期望 表示对将来的展望或期 . 待读者投入行动。 I am sure that Chinese will become one of the most important languages in the world in the next century. As China will open further to the outside world, the language is sure to be spread worldwide.

  3.
  3. 行文中间
? ? ? ?
  3.
  3.
  1. 用词多样丰富 think vs. hold the view that/maintain that… so vs. consequently because vs. resulting from, on account of the fact that and so on
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

  3.
  3.
  2. 长短句交错使用 When it comes to…, I hold the view that… I am for/ against the view that… There is no denying the fact that… There is no doubt that No wonder … The reason why…is that… On no account can we… Contrary to what is widely accepted, I maintain that…
.

  3.
  3.
  3. 通过遣词造句使英语更加地道
? ? ? ? ? ?
遣词 造句 Clear and neat writing Concise and acceptable language Appropriately applied connecters Grammatical
英语文章常用的“ 英语文章常用的“启、承”表达方 式
?
  1)“启”的表达:用于引导主题句,或 引导主题句后的第一个发展句。 ? first, firstly , first of all, to begin with, in the first place, to start with, in the beginning
?
  2)“承”的表达:用于承接全题句或前面的 发展句。 ? second, secondly, third, thirdly, besides, in addition, furthermore, what is more, moreover, in addition to
?
  3)“转”的表达:用于表示不同或相反的 情况 ? but, despite, in spite of, on the contrary, conversely, on the other hand
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  4)“合”的表达:用于小结段落中上文的内 容、引导最后一个发展句或引导结尾句表 示段落的结束。 ? hence, in conclusion, in short, in brief, in summary , briefly

  1.
英语文章常用的“ 英语文章常用的“启、承”表达方 式: 有关“ 的常用词语:用于引导主题句、 有关“启”的常用词语:用于引导主题句、或用于主 题句的后面,引导第一个扩展句。 题句的后面,引导第一个扩展句。 第一 首先, 首先,第一 首先, 首先,第一 首先, 首先,第一 首先, 首先,第一 最近 at first in the beginning at present currently lately now 最初 起初 现在 目前 最近 现在
first (ly) first of all in the first place to begin with to start with recently
generally speaking 一般说来 on the whole 从总体上看 for one thing (常与 常与for another连用) 连用) 首先 连用 on (the) one hand(常与 the other hand 连用) 一方面 连用) (常与on 有关“ 的常用词语:用于承接主题句或第一个(
  2. 有关“承”的常用词语:用于承接主题句或第一个(或 前一个)扩展句。 前一个)扩展句。 second (ly) 第二; 第二;第二点 in other words 换句话说 third (ly) 第三; 第三;第三点 in particular 尤其是 also (or too) 并且; 并且;又;也 in the same way 同样地 besides (this) after that 此外 此后
in addition in addition to furthermore moreover what is more just as for example as an example at the same time by this time
此外 除……之外 之外 而且; 而且;此外 而且; 而且;此外 而且; 而且;此外 正如 例如 例如 同时 此时
afterwards 此后 after a few days 几天之后 after a while 过了一会儿 from now on 从现在开始 apart from 除……之外 之外 similarly 同样地 for instance 例如 meanwhile 与此同时 as another example 再如 namely 即;就是 就是
soon then 不久 of course for this purpose 当然 equally important 同样重要 another example is… for another 前句有for one thing) (前句有 ) a case in point is 适当的例子是 to illustrate in another case 比如 an illustration of this 例如 for another instance still another … 再如 for another example
然后 为此 再如 其次 再如 再如 再如
有关“ 的常用词语:用来表示不同或相反的情况。
  3. 有关“转”的常用词语:用来表示不同或相反的情况。 after all 毕竟 on the contrary 相反地 but 但是 in contrast 相比之下 仍然, unlike… ……不同 yet 仍然, 然而 unlike… 与……不同 however 然而 whereas… 然而…… whereas 然而 nevertheless 尽管如此 nonetheless 尽管如此 all the same 但是 conversely 相反 unfortunately 不幸地 though 尽管如此 still 仍然 although 虽然

  4.有关“
  4.有关“合”的常用词语:用于小结段落中上文的内容、 有关 的常用词语:用于小结段落中上文的内容、 引导最后一个扩展句或引导结尾句表示段落的结束。 引导最后一个扩展句或引导结尾句表示段落的结束。 in by as on fact 事实上 comparison 比较而言 a matter of fact 事实上 the other hand 另一方面 despite / in spite of 尽管 by contrast 对比而言 in reality 实际上
finally 最后 hence 因此 in brief 简言之 in conclusion 总之 in consequence 结果 by and large 一般说来
as has been noted 如前所述 as I have said 如我所述 at last 终于 最后, at length 最后, 终于 in short 简而言之 in summary 概括地说
no doubt 毫无疑问 undoubtedly 无疑 truly 的确 so 所以 obviously 显然 certainly 无疑 in sum 总而言之
briefly 简单地说 above all 最重要的是 as a consequence 因此 as a result 结果 for this reason 正因为如此 in a word 一言以敝之 for that reason 正因为如此
Guided Writing Model
Topic Sentence
Argument 1
Argument 2
Argument 3
Computer Use in Our Life
Guided writing
写作模版 Computer is becoming a daily necessity, not only in every day work but also in free times. ( topic sentence) First of all, they can help children with all, interesting and informative lessons….. What is more, computers, can teach a child... In addition, computers can help researchers.. Furthermore, they can assist engineers....
Nowadays, computers are used in so many places that you find them everywhere in the world. You will catch sight of them in schools, factories and offices. Computer is becoming a daily necessity, not only in every day work but also in free times. Computers can help different people in different ways. They can help children with interesting and informative lessons and homework to bring the children’s learning initiative into full play.
What is more, computer, like never-tired teachers, can teach a child a foreign language, a sill or a knowledge over and over until he masters it. For students and scholars alike, computers can do calculations, analyze data and present the latest achievements. In addition, computers can help researchers find all kinds of helpful information on Internet. Furthermore, they can assist engineers and experts in the design of a mold, of a bridge or a spaceship. In conclusion, computers are so useful and important to our live.
?
①People’s views/ideas/opinions on vary from person to person. Some people think that ② . They hold this opinion because ③ . However, others hold/don’t believe that ④ , for ⑤. ⑥As to me, I am in favor of the first/ second/former/latter idea. The following are the reasons of/for my choice/personal inclination. First, ⑦ while it is true that , it doesn’t mean that . Second, ⑧ . Furthermore, ⑨ . ⑩Therefore/In conclusion/From the foregoing, .
Composition Model 1 (对立观点型作文 ) 对立观点型作文
Composition Model 2 (说明利弊型作文 ) 说明利弊型作文
? ①Nowadays, X has/have become …/ play(s) an important part/role in … (X is/are popular/common around us). ②X has/ have brought great benefits/ harm/troubles to . ③Why is/are X so popular/common around us?/Why are there so many X? First, ④. Second, ⑤. ⑥Undoubtedly, X is/are very beneficial/ harmful to . First, ⑦. Besides, ⑧. Most important of all/Worst of all, ⑨ .
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Composition Model 3 (解释型作文 ) 解释型作文
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①Among …, my favorite/ideal is/ are . ②The unique features / advantages may contribute to/be responsible for the reason why I like it best / choose as my favorite/ideal . Firstly, ③. Secondly, ④. Finally/Above all, ⑤ . ⑥There are many factors/reasons which may account for my preference/choice of . The most important reason/factor is that ⑦. Besides, ⑧. Therefore/From the foregoing/the above discussion, ⑨ .
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Composition Model 4 (解决问题型作文 ) 解决问题型作文
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①Nowadays , which has aroused close social attention /great concern. // It is widely assumed that , they think because . Actually/In fact/As a matter of fact, . ②There are several/many factors that / which may contribute to/ be responsible for/have led to . To begin with, ③ . Besides, ④. Last but not least, ⑤ . ⑥We can resort to various ways/There are different ways to tackle the problem/cope with the situation. Firstly, ⑦ . Secondly, ⑧. Finally/Lastly, ⑨ . ⑩With , I believe .// Only in this way can we .
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Composition Model 5 (阐述型作文 ) 阐述型作文
? ①The famous that is very (philo-sophical and hence universally) accepted. ②It means . ③That is/ In other words, . ④Many examples can be cited to illustrate the . ⑤A case in point is . ⑥Another case in point is . . . ⑦Therefore/In conclusion, it goes without saying that . ⑧Since we have realized the essence of the , we should .
 

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