弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧
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Will 意志
The will is limitless, but the behavior should also be confined by many regulations.
虽然意志是无限的,但实际行为也应该被许多规矩所限定。 虽然意志是无限的,但实际行为也应该被许多规矩所限定。
--莎士比亚 莎士比亚
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众所周知,作文是由段落构成的,段落是由句子构成的,而句子则是由单词构成的。根 据官方的写作评分标准,我们可以得出两条关于词汇的“TWINS”原则:一致性与多样性! 一致性: 一致性:我们在写作的时候,所使用的词汇的级别不能出现“此起彼伏”的间断或波浪 的感觉。也就是说,我们在写作的时候要尽量使用接近级别的词汇:不要在文章的绝大 多数部分都是使用的 CET-
  4(大学四级) 、CET-
  6(大学六级)这样的大学词汇,而突 然在某些段落或者某些句子中突然出现一些只有在英语系专业 8 级考试中或者 GRE/GMAT/LSAT/SAT 考试中才会见到的生僻词汇!因为这样不但不会给阅卷人你的 词汇量很大的感觉,反而会给阅卷人留下华而不实的印象。下面的 150 对近义词之所 以我都给出英文的例句就是因为我们在写作中要求的词汇虽然具备 CET-
  6(大学六级) 就足够了,但是写作还要求确切地掌握词汇在具体语境下的使用方法。 多样性: 我们在写作的时候, 如果在句子或段落中需要再次用到同一个中文意思的时候 多样性: 就必须替换掉原来使用的那个英文单词。 这是一种体现考生写作基本功的重要方面, 同 时也是 ETS 的阅卷老师非常喜欢以及希望看到的。下面的 150 对近义词是我综合了许 多优秀的满分作文以及结合自己的教学研究后收集整理的最高频的近义词, 希望大家能 仔细体会、熟练掌握。当然,如果你自己觉得还有可以补充的地方,也可以自己用一个 本子加上或者补充在本书的空白之处。
  1. 安静的 Quiet: I prefer quiet soothing music. Tranquil: He grew up in a tranquil village. Peaceful: The children look so peaceful when they are sleeping. Placid: You can see fishes under the placid water of the lake. Pacific: The hotel is set in pacific surroundings. Still: Just sit still and I will finish the work in a minute. Sedate: The couple walked at a sedate pace. Restful: There is a restful quality about that apartment.
  2. 昂贵的 Expensive: It can be very expensive to train new personnel. Costly: Changing your company’s management style can be a costly business. Valuable: Where did you get the valuable collection of paintings? Invaluable: Those invaluable ancient scrolls were all destroyed by the fire. Precious: Here is a historic house with rare and precious contents. Priceless: The supreme craftsmanship of this sculpture makes it priceless.
  3. 保护 Safeguard: We hope that world leaders can agree on a plan to safeguard the environment. Protect: Are you prepared to protect yourself in case of attack? Shield: Winson shielded her eyes against the sun’s glare. Secure: We have done our best to secure the embassy against terrorist attacks. Defend: Thousands of young men came forward, willing to defend their country. Guard: There were two soldiers guarding the main gate.
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  4. 抱怨 Yammer: Do not yammer any more, OK? We have work to do. Complain: Winson is always complaining about something. Why cannot he be pleasant? Gripe: The boss did not want his employees to have anything to gripe about. Grumble: Winson has everything he needs and has nothing to grumble about. Moan: Stop moaning, it doesn’t help solve your trouble. Whine: Do not be a baby and whine about trifles.
  5. 本地的 Native: My wife’s a native New Yorker, but I am from Atlanta. Aboriginal: This last bit of aboriginal life should be preserved. Indigenous: Pandas are indigenous to China. Domestic: The domestic economy showed no improvement. Native-born: Some native-born Americans objected to new immigrants entering their country. Local: The local newspaper regards itself as the voice of the community.
  6. 必要的 Necessary: What type of clothing is necessary for survival at these altitudes? Needful: You have promised to do what is needful. Indispensable: International cooperation is indispensable to resolving the problem of the drug trade. Essential: In large organizations, good internal communication is essential.

  7. 避免 Avoid: They could not avoid being drawn into the argument. Dodge: Shoppers had to dodge flying glass when the bomb exploded. Elude: The criminal eluded the authorities for six years. Evade: The armed robbers evaded capture, escaping in a stolen vehicle. Shun: Winson shunned his friends by living alone in the woods. Keep away from: You cannot keep the kids away from the computer.

  8. 表明或证明正当(或有理) 表明或证明正当(或有理) Warrant: They are now of sufficient standing to warrant their entering the married state. Legitimize: The mayor wants to legitimize the current order. Substantiate: The hypothesis was substantiated soon afterward by Winson’s discovery. Rationalize: Winson looked at Tom, trying to rationalize the conversation they had already had. Exonerate: Winson was to be exonerated free with those evidences.
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  9. 不合适的 Improper: Laughing and joking are considered improper behavior at a funeral. Unbecoming: I felt very sorry for my unbecoming speech. Inappropriate: Winson’s speech is inappropriate to the occasion. Indecorous: It is indecorous to laugh aloud during a wedding ceremony. Offensive: The ad is offensive to women. Unseemly: It used to be thought unseemly for women to go to church without a hat. Unsuitable: Winson’s shoes were unsuitable for walking long distance.

  10. 不可避免的 Unavoidable: Traffic jams are unavoidable on a holiday weekend. Inevitable: War between those two countries now seems almost inevitable. Inescapable: The inescapable fact is that the situation is changing.

  11.不可信的,可疑的 .不可信的, Unbelievable: The congestion at the theater last night was unbelievable. Doubtful: I think the manuscript is of doubtful authenticity. Incredible: This novel is about an almost incredible story of triumph and tragedy. Questionable: The teacher feels that the results of the test are questionable. Unconvincing: He gave an unconvincing explanation of the cause of the accident. Suspicious: Did you observe anything suspicious in that case?

  12. 不清楚的 Unclear: The police said the motive for the attack was still unclear. Vague: Witnesses gave only a vague description of the murderer. Indefinite: I gave Winson an indefinite answer. Obscure: The rules for the competition are more or less obscure. Indistinct: The point of what Winson had said was indistinct.

  13.不同的,有差异的 .不同的, Unlike: These two boys are so unlike that nobody would believe they are brothers. Dissimilar: Winson’s latest album is dissimilar to her previous one. Distinct: They were classified into two distinct groups. Diverse: The magazine aims to cover a diverse range of issues. Various: There are various hats and pants in the store. Disparate: The three experiments gave disparate results.
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  14. 不注意的 Oblivious: The student seemed completely oblivious to the noise around her. Unconscious: Winson was unconscious of my presence. Forgetful: Winson was accused of being forgetful of his duties. Unaware: Winson carried on reading, seemingly unaware of my presence. Mindless: They proceeded, mindless of the danger.

  15. 澄清,阐明 澄清, Clarify: The bank spokesman was unable to clarify the situation. Clear up: There should be someone to whom you can turn for any advice or to clear up any problems. Explain: The lawyer explained the new law to us. Define: In this paragraph, the writer defined the term. Illuminate: Our teacher was trying to illuminate a point by reference to current life. Interpret: We will need some help to interpret all this data.

  16. 持续,维持 持续, Last: Our Christmas holiday lasts 20 days. Endure: The Forbidden City has endured for centuries. Survive: The crops survived the drought. Persist: The hostilities between the two families have persisted for years. Persevere: Despite failures, he persevered in his research. Keep on: Although the weather is bad, we will keep on heading for that mountain. Outlast: Most people agree that the economic reform may continue and outlast the political reform. Hold out: Can you hold out just a little longer?

  17. 重新得到: 重新得到: Recover: Though the thieves were caught, many of the items were never recovered. Regain: After losing the second set, Winson regained his confidence and won the third set. Retrieve: Government had made great rescue efforts to retrieve the bodies of the victims.

  18. 充足的: 充足的: Enough: A pound of butter is barely enough for a month. Sufficient: we do not have sufficient time for the report. Ample: There is ample evidence to judge him. Generous: The Indian dish is with generous pepper. Adequate: The state needs to maintain an adequate supply of qualified doctors. Extensive: The professor had an extensive knowledge of history.
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  19. 传统的 Traditional: Many women have abandoned their traditional role as wife and mother. Conventional: Winson wanted a conventional marriage with a wife and kids. Customary: It is customary to offer the repairman a cup of coffee in our country. Prescriptive: These are prescriptive policies of our country.
  20. 粗鲁的 Rude: Rude behavior will not be tolerated. Rough: Do not be so rough with her, Winson, She is only a baby. Coarse: They objected to the councilor’s coarse language. Crude: I have never appreciated Winson’s crude sense of humor. Vulgar: Winson’s vulgar jokes shocked everyone. Disrespectful: Most people often criticize the government, but they are never disrespectful towards the Winson family. Uncivil: Winson was often uncivil to other members of his family.
  21. 错误 Mistake: The officer’s decision to invade was a costly mistake. Error: The report contains many errors. Misdeed: You should feel shameful for that misdeed. Flaw: There are serious flaws in the way we train the new employees. Defect: There are a few minor design defects in that plan. Wrongdoing: The captain issued a denial of any wrongdoing. Shortcoming: Despite her shortcomings as a cook, she was still the best mother you could ever hope for.
  22. 打破,折断 打破, Break: The window broke into pieces. Fracture: You have fractured a rib, maybe more than one. Crack: The windowpane was cracked but not broken. Rupture: Most truck gasoline tanks can rupture and burn in a collision. Shatter: A bolt of lightning shattered the oak tree. Breach: Fire breached the cargo tanks and set the oil ablaze. Fall apart: The work was never finished and the building fell apart bit by bit. Smash: The thief smashed the window to get into the car. Splinter: The man splintered the locked door with an axe. Mangle: His body was crushed and mangled beyond recognition.
  23. 耽搁、推迟 耽搁、 Delay: The train was delayed two hours because of the accident. Postpone: We have decided to postpone our holiday until September. Put off: Women who put off having a baby often make the best mothers. Defer: Winson’s military service was deferred until he finished college. Stall: Winson stalled for time to think. Suspend: Parliament has been suspended because of the civil unrest.
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  24. 导致 Result: An accident could result if you do not use the bolt. Lead to: Excessive spending can lead to terrible bankruptcy. Bring about/on: The attack brought about a slaughter of the unarmed villagers. Conduce: Daily exercise conduces to good health. Induce: Alcohol can induce a loosening of the tongue. Generate: The discussion between the two parties generated many meetings.
  25. 抵消 Offset: Donations to charities can offset taxes. Counteract: Schools are taking action to counteract bullying. Compensate: This payment compensate more than what we have lost. Balance: The dark colors are balanced by the brightness of the walls. Neutralize: Acids neutralize alkalis and vie versa. Equalize: A nuclear deferent equalizes the gap in conventional weapons between the two countries. Cancel out: That will not cancel out his crime.
  26. 调查 Examine: The detective opened the suitcase and examined the contents carefully. Probe: Investigators have probed the causes of the plane crash for two years. Inspect: The young plants are regularly inspected for disease and insects. Explore: We are exploring the possibility of taking legal action against the opponent company. Investigate: All complaints from our customers are investigated quickly and efficiently.
  27. 丢弃、遗弃 丢弃、 Abandon: The captain gave orders to abandon the ship when it was sinking. Desert: The man deserted his wife. Discard: My father repaired the toy that I had discarded. Forsake: Winson pleaded with his wife not to forsake him. Quit: We encourage younger people to quit smoking. Dump: Over 860,000 tons of wastes are dumped annually along the coastline. Cast off: It took many years for this city to cast off its reputation as the home of violent gangsters. Reject: The cat reject
 

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