弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧
一、词法
  1、名词 A) 、名词的数 我们知道名词可以分为可数名词和不可数名词,而不可数名词它没有复数形式,但可数名词 却有单数和复数之分,复数的构成如下: 一)在后面加 s。如:fathers, books, Americans, Germans, apples, bananas 二)x, sh, ch, s, tch 后加 es。如:boxes, glasses, dresses, watches, wishes, faxes 三)
  1)以辅音字母加 y 结尾的变 y 为 i 再加 es 如:baby-babies, family-families, duty-duties, comedy-comedies, documentary-documentaries, story-stories
  2)以元音字母加 y 结尾的直接加 s。如:day-days, boy-boys, toy-toys, key-keys, ways 四)以 o 结尾加 s(外来词) 。如:radios, photos, 但如是辅音加 o 的加 es:如: tomatoes 西红柿, potatoes 马铃薯 五)以 f 或 fe 结尾的变 f 为 v 再加 es(s)。如:knife-knives, wife-wives, half-halves, shelf-shelves, leaf-leaves, yourself-yourselves 六)单复数相同(不变的)有:fish, sheep, deer 鹿子, Chinese, Japanese 七) 一般只有复数, 没有单数的有: people,pants, shorts, shoes, glasses, gloves, clothes, socks 八)单词形式不变,既可以是单数也可以是复数的有:police 警察局,警察, class 班,同 学, family 家,家庭成员 九)合成的复数一般只加主要名词,多数为后一个单词。如:action movie-action movies, pen pal-pen pals; 但如果是由 man 或 woman 所组成的合成词的复数则同时为复数。如:man doctor-men doctors, woman teacher-women teachers 十)有的单复数意思不同。如:fish 鱼 fishes 鱼的种类, paper 纸 papers 报纸,卷子,论 文, work 工作 works 作品, 工厂, glass 玻璃 glasses 玻璃杯, 眼镜, orange 桔子水 oranges
橙子, light 光线 lights 灯, people 人 peoples 民族, time 时间 times 时代, 次数, chicken 鸡肉 chickens 小鸡 十一) 单个字母的复数可以有两种形式直接加 s 或’s。如:Is (I’s), Ks (K’s)。但如 是缩略词则只加 s。如:IDs, VCDs, SARs 十二) 特殊形式的有:child-children, man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, mouse-mice, policeman-policemen, Englishman-Englishmen B)名词的格 当我们要表示某人的什么东西或人时,我们就要使用所有格形式。构成如下: 一)单数在后面加’s。如:brother’s, Mike’s, teacher’s 二)复数以 s 结尾的直接在 s 后加’ ,如果不是以 s 结尾的与单数一样处理。如:Teachers’ Day 教师节, classmates’; Children’s Day 六一节, Women’s Day 三八节 三)由 and 并列的名词所有时,如果是共同所有同一人或物时,只加最后一个’s,但分别拥 有时却分别按单数形式处理。如:Mike and Ben’s room 迈克和本的房间(共住一间) ,Mike’ s and Ben’s rooms 迈克和本的房间(各自的房间)
  2、代词 项目 人称代词 物主代词 指示代词 反身代词 人称 主格 宾格 形容词 名词性 第一人称 单数 I me my mine myself 复数 we us our ours ourselves 第二人称 单数 you you your yours yourself 复数 you you your yours yourselves 第三人称 单数 she her her hers herself he him his his himself it it its its this that itself 复数 they them their theirs these those themselves

  3、动词 A) 第三人称单数 当动词是第三人称单数时,动词应该像名词的单数变动词那样加 s,如下: 一)一般在词后加 s。如:comes, spells, waits, talks, sees, dances, trains
二)在 x, sh, ch, s, tch 后加 es。如:watches, washes, wishes, finishes 三) 以辅音字母加 y 结尾的变 y 为 i 再加 es。 study-studies, hurry-hurries, try-tries
  1) 如:
  2)以元音字母加 y 结尾的直接加 s。如:plays, says, stays, enjoys, buys 四)以 o 结尾加 es。如:does, goes 五)特殊的有:are-is, have-has B) 现在分词 当我们说某人正在做什么事时,动词要使用分词形式,不能用原形,构成如下: 一)一般在后加 ing。如:spell-spelling, sing-singing, see-seeing, train-training, play-playing, hurry-hurrying, watch-watching, go-going, do-doing 二)以不发音 e 的结尾的去掉 e 再加 ing。如:dance-dancing, wake-waking, take-taking, practice-practicing, write-writing, have-having 三)以重读闭音节结尾且一个元音字母+一个辅音字母(注意除开字母组合如 show ? showing, draw-drawing)要双写最后的辅音字母再加 ing。如:put-putting, run-running, get-getting, let-letting, begin-beginning 四)以 ie 结尾的变 ie 为 y 再加 ing。如:tie-tying 系 die-dying 死 lie-lying 位于
  4、形容词的级 我们在对两个或以上的人或物进行对比时,则要使用比较或最高级形式。构成如下: 一) 一般在词后加 er 或 est(如果是以 e 结尾则直接加 r 或 st)。如:greater-greatest, shorter ? shortest, taller ? tallest, longer ? longest, nicer- nicest, larger -largest 二) 以重读闭音节结尾且 1 个元音字母+1 个辅音字母(字母组合除外, few-fewer fewest) 如 结尾的双写结尾的辅音再加 er /est。如:big-bigger biggest, red-redder reddest, hot-hotter hottest 三)以辅音字母+y 结尾的变 y 为 i 加 er/est。 happy-happier happiest, sorry-sorrier 如: sorriest, friendly-friendlier friendliest(more friendly most friendly), busy-busier busiest, easy-easier easiest 四)特殊情况:(两好多坏,一少老远)
good/well - better best many/much - more most bad/ill ? worse worst little- less least farthest/furthest oldolder/elder oldest/eldest farfarther/further

  5、数词 (基变序,有规则;一、二、三,自己背;五、八、九、十二;其它后接 th;y 结尾, 变为 i, eth 跟上去。) first, second, third; fifth, eighth, ninth, twelfth; seventh, tenth, thirteenth, hundredth; twenty-twentieth, forty-fortieth, ninety-ninetieth 二、句式
  1.陈述句 肯定陈述句 a) This is a book. (be 动词) b) He looks very young. (连系动词) c) I want a sweat like this. (实义动词) d) I can bring some things to school. (情态动词) e) There’s a computer on my desk. (There be 结构) 否定陈述句 a) These aren’t their books. b) They don’t look nice. c) Kate doesn’t go to No. 4 Middle School. d) Kate can’t find her doll. e) There isn’t a cat here. (=There’s no cat here.)
  2. 祈使句 肯定祈使句 a) Please go and ask the man. b) Let’s learn English! c) Come in, please. 否定祈使句 a) Don’t be late. b) Don’t hurry.
  3. 疑问句
  1) 一般疑问句 a) Is Jim a student? b) Can I help you? c) Does she like salad?
d) Do they watch TV? e) Is she reading? 肯定回答: a) Yes, he is. b) Yes, you can. c) Yes, she does. d) Yes, they do. e) Yes,
she is. 否定回答: a) No, he isn’t. b) No, you can’t. c) No, she doesn’t. d) No, they don’ t. e) No, she isn’t.
  2) 选择疑问句 Is the table big or small? 回答 It’s big./ It’s small.
  3) 特殊疑问句 ① 问年龄 How old is Lucy? She is twelve. ② 问种类 What kind of movies do you like? I like action movies and comedies. ③ 问身体状况 How is your uncle? He is well/fine. ④ 问方式 How do/can you spell it? L-double O-K. How do we contact you? My e-mail address is cindyjones@1
  63.com. ⑤ 问原因 Why do you want to join the club? ⑥ 问时间 What’s the time? (=What time is it?) It’s a quarter to ten a.m.. What time do you usually get up, Rick? At five o’clock. When do you want to go? Let’s go at 7:
  00. ⑦ 问地方 Where’s my backpack? It’s under the table. ⑧ 问颜色 What color are they? They are light blue. What’s your favourite color? It’s black. ⑨ 问人物 Who’s that? It’s my sister. Who is the boy in blue? My brother. Who isn’t at school? Peter and Emma. Who are Lisa and Tim talking to? ⑩ 问东西 What’s this/that (in English)? It’s a pencil case. What else can you see in the picture? I can see some broccoli, strawberries and
hamburgers. 11 问姓名 What’s your aunt’s name? Her name is Helen./She’s Helen. What’s your first name? My first name’s Ben. What’s your family name? My family name’s Smith. 12 问哪一个 Which do you like? I like one in the box. 13 问字母 What letter is it? It’s big D/small f. 14 问价格 How much are these pants? They’re 15 dollars. 15 问电话号码 What’s your phone number? It’s 576-83
  49. 16 问谓语(动作) What’s he doing? He’s watching TV. 17 问职业(身份) What do you do? I’m a teacher. What’s your father? He’s a doctor. 三、时态
  1、一般现在时 表示普遍、经常性的或长期性的动作时使用一般现在时,它有: Be 动词:She’s a worker. Is she a worker? She isn’t a worker. 情态动词:I can play the piano. Can you play the piano? I can’t play the piano. 行为动词:They want to eat some tomatoes. Do they want to eat any tomatoes? They don’ t want to eat any tomatoes. Gina has a nice watch. Does Gina have a nice watch? Gina doesn’t have a watch.
  2、现在进行时 表示动词在此时正在发生或进行就使用进行时态,结构为 sb be v-ing sth + 其它. I’m playing baseball. Are you playing baseball? I’m not playing baseball. Nancy is writing a letter. Is Nancy writing a letter? Nancy isn’t writing a letter. They’re listening to the pop music. Are they listening the pop music? They aren’ t listening to the pop music.
 

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