弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧
Chapter one Introduction 一、定义
  1.语言学 Linguistics Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language.
  2.普通语言学 General Linguistics The study of language as a whole is often called General linguistics.
  3.语言 language Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication. 语言是人类用来交际的任意性的有声符号体系。
  4.识别特征 Design Features It refers to the defining poperties of human language that distinguish it from any animal system of communication. 语言识别特征是指人类语言区别与其他任何动物的交际体系的限定性特征。 Arbitrariness 任意性 Productivity 多产性 Duality 双重性 Displacement 移位性 Cultural transmission 文化传递 ⑴arbitrariness There is no logical connection between meanings and sounds. P.S the arbitrary nature of language is a sign of sophistication and it makes it possible for language to have an unlimited source of expressions ⑵Productivity Animals are quite limited in the messages they are able to send. ⑶Duality Language is a system, which consists of two sets of structures ,or two levels. ⑷Displacement Language can be used to refer to contexts removed from the immediate situations of the speaker. ⑸Cultural transmission Human capacity for language has a genetic basis, but we have to be taught and learned the details of any language system. this showed that language is culturally transmitted. not by instinct. animals are born with the capacity to produce the set of calls peculiar to their species.
  5.语言能力 Competence Competence is the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language.
  6.语言运用 performance Performance is the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication.
语言运用是所掌握的规则在语言交际中的体现。
  7.历时语言学 Diachronic linguistics The study of language change through time. a diachronic study of language is a historical study, which studies the historical development of language over a period of time.
  8.共时语言学 Synchronical linguistics The study of a given language at a given time.
  9.语言 langue The abstract linguistic system shared by all members of a speech community.
  10.言语 parole The realization of langue in actual use.
  11.规定性 Prescriptive It aims to lay down rules for ”correct” behavior, to tell people what they should say and what should not say.
  12.描述性 Descriptive A linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use. 二、知识点
  1.language is not an isolated phenomenon, it’s a social activity carried out in a certain social environment by human beings. 语言不是一种孤立的现象,而是人类在一定的社会环境下进行的一种社会活动。
  2.几种观点和现象的提出者: ⑴瑞士语言学家 F.de Saussure F.de Saussure:Langue 和 parole 的区别 ⑵U.S.A linguist N.Chomsky 美国语言学家 N.Chomsky in1950 针对 Saussure’s langue&parole 提出 Competence 和 performance ⑶曾经对语言概念下过定义的语言学家 Sapirlanguage is a purely human and non-instinctive method of communication ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily produced symbols. Halllanguage is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral-auditory arbitrary symbols. Chomskyfrom now on I will consider language to be a set of sentences, each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements. ⑷U.S.A Linguist Charles Hockett 美国语言学家 Charles Hockett 提出了语言的识别特征 design features
  3.the word ’language’ preceded by the zero-article ,it implies that linguistics studies not any particular language. Language 一词前不加冠词说明语言学家不只研究一种特定的语言。
  4.in order to discover the nature of the underlying language system ,what the linguists has to do first if to study language facts.
  5.language is a complicated entity with multiple layers and facts, so it's hardly possible for the linguistics to deal with it all at once. 判断题
  6.Frist drew the attention of the linguists were the sounds used in languages.最先引起语言学家注 意的是语言的发音。 三、问答题
  1.what are major branches of linguistics? what does each study? Phoneticsit’s defined as the study of the phonic medium of language, it’s concerned with all the
sounds that occur in the world’s languages. Phonologythe study of sounds systems?the inventory of distinctive sounds that occur in a language and the patterns into which they fall. MorphologyIt’s a branch of a grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed. Syntaxit's a subfield of linguistics that studies the sentence structure of a language. SemanticsIt’s simply defined as the study of meaning in abstraction. Pragmaticsthe study of meaning in context of words. Sociolinguistics?the study of language with reference to society. Psycholinguisticsthe study of language with reference to the working of the mind. Applied linguisticsthe application of linguistic principles and theories to language teaching and learning.
  2.why do we say language is arbitrary? Language is arbitrary in the sense that there is no intrinsic connection between the sounds that people use and the objects to which these sounds refer. The fact that different languages have different words for the same object is a good illustration of the arbitrary nature of language, it’s only our tacit agreement of utterance and concept at work and not any innate relationship bound up in the utterance. A typical example to illustrate the ‘arbitrariness’ of language is ‘a rose by any other name would smell as sweet’.
  3. what makes modern linguistics different from traditional grammar? Modern linguistics is descriptive, its investigations are based on authentic and mainly spoken language date.现代语言学是描述性的, 其研究以确实可靠的、 主要以口语形式的资料为基础。 traditional grammar is prescriptive. it is based on’ high’ written language. 传统语法是规定性的,研究‘高级’书面语。
  4.Is modern linguistics mainly synchronic or diachronic? why Modern linguistics is mainly synchronic, focusing on the present-day language. unless the various states of a language are successfully studied, it will not be possible to describe language from a diachronic point of view. 现代语言学主要是共时性的, 重点研究现代语言。 除非对语言的各种状态都进行成功的研究, 否则很难从历时性角度对语言进行描述。
  5.which enjoys priority in modern linguistics, speech or writings? Speech enjoys for the following reasons: ⑴Speech precedes writing in terms of evolution. ⑵A large amount of communication is carried out in speech than in writing. ⑶speech is the form in which infants acquire their native language.
  6.how is Saussure’s distinction between langue and parole similar to Chomsky’s ? Both Saussure and Chomsky make the distinction between the abstract language system and the actual use of language. their purpose is to single out the language system for serious study Two linguists idea differ in that Saussure took a sociological view of language, Chomsky looks at language from a psychological point of view, competence is a property of the mind of each individual.
  6.the distinction between langue and parole? ⑴langue is abstract, relatively stable ⑵parole is concrete, varies from person to person, from
situation to situation.
1/ What is linguistics? 什么是语言学? Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language. It studies not any particular language, but languages in general. 2/ The scope of linguistics 语言学的研究范畴 The study of language as a whole is often called general linguistics. (普通语言学) The study of sounds, which are used in linguistic communication, is called phonetics.(语音学) The study of how sounds are put together and used in communication is called phonology. (音系 学) The study of the way in which morphemes are arranged to form words are called morphology. (形态学) The study of how morphemes and words are combined to form sentences is called syntax(句法 学) The study of meaning in language is called semantics. (语义学) The study of meaning in context of use is called pragmatics. (语用学) The study of language with reference to society is called socio-linguistics. (社会语言学) The study of language with reference to the working of mind is called psycho-linguistics. (心理 语言学) The study of applications (as the recovery of speech ability) is generally known as applied linguistics. (应用语言学) But in a narrow sense, applied linguistics refers to the application of linguistic principles and theories to language teaching and learning, especially the teaching of foreign and second language. Other related branches include anthropological linguistics, ( 人 类 语 言 学 ) neurological linguistics, (神经语言学) mathematical linguistics, (数字语言学)and computational linguistics. (计算机语言学) 3/ Some important distinctions in linguistics 语言学研究中的几对基本概念 Prescriptive and descriptive 规定与描写 If a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use, it is said to be descriptive, if it aims to lay down rules to tell people what they should say and what they should not say, it is said to be prescriptive. Modern linguistics differs from traditional grammar. Traditional grammar is prescriptive while
modern linguistics is descriptive. The task of linguists is supposed to describe the language people actually use, whether it is “correct” or not. Synchronic and diachronic 共时和历时 The description of a language at some point in time is a synchronic study; the description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study. In modern linguistics, synchronic study is more important. Speech and writing 口头语与书面语 Speech and writing are the two major media of communication. Modern linguistics regards the spoken form of language as primary, but not the written form. Reasons are:
  1. Speech precedes writing;
  2. There are still many languages that have only the spoken form;
  3. In terms of function, the spoken language is used for a wider range of purposes than the written, and carries a larger load of communication than the written. Langue and parole 语言和言语 The Swiss linguist F. de Saussure made the distinction between langue and parole early 20th century. Langue refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community, and parole refers to the realization of langue in actual use. Saussure made the distinction in order to single out one aspect of language for serious study. He believes what linguists should do is to abstract langue from parole, to discover the regularities governing the actual use of language and make them the subjects of study of linguistics. Competence and performance 语言能力和语言运用 Proposed by American linguist N. Chomsky in the late 1950’s. He defines competence as the ideal user’s knowledge of the rules of his language, and performance the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication. He believes the task of the linguists is to discover and specify the language rules.
Chapter Two Phonology 一、定义
  1.宽式音标 Broad transcription The transcription of speech sounds with letter symbols only.
  2.窄式音标 Narrow transcription The transcription of speech sound with letters symbols and the diacritics.
  3.清音 Voiceless When the vocal cords are drawn wide apart ,letting air go through without causing vibration ,the sounds produced in such a condition are called voiceless sounds.
  4.浊音 Voicing Sounds produced while the vocal cords are vibrating are called voiced sounds.
  5.元音 Vowel The sounds in the production of which no articulators come very close together and the air stream passes through the vocal tract without obstruction are called vowels.
  6.辅音 Consonants The sounds in the production of which there is an obstruction of the air stream at some point of the vocal tract are called consonants.
  7.音位 Phoneme The basic unit in phonology, it’s a collection of distinctive phonetic features.
  8.音位变体 Allophones Different phones which can represent a phoneme in different environments are called the allophones of that phoneme.
  9.音素 phone A phonetic unit or segment. it doesnot necessarily distinguish meaning, it’s a speech sound we use when speaking a language.
  10.最小对立对 Minimal pair When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two words are said to form a minimal pair.
  11.超切分特征 Suprasegmental The phonemic features that occur above the level of the segment are called suprasegmental features. the main suprasegmental features include stress ,intonation and tone.
  12.互补分布 complementary distribution P35 Two allophones of the same phoneme are said to be in
 

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