弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧
英语名词变复数的规则及练习题
  1. 名词 名词可以分为专有名词和普通名词,专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名 称,如 Beijing,China 等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book, sadness 等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:
  1)个体名词:表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。
  2)集体名词:表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。
  3)物质名词:表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。
  4)抽象名词:表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。 个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词,物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数 目计算,称为不可数名词。

  1.1 名词复数的规则变化 情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps
浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars 以 s, sh, ch, x 等结尾 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches 以 ce, se, ze,等结尾 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses 以辅音字母+y 结尾 变 y 为 i 再加 es 读 /z/ babybabies
  1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化
  1) 以 y 结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加 s 变复数。例如: two Marys monkeymonkeys
  2) 以 o 结尾的名词,变复数时: a. 加 s,如: photophotos radioradios b. 加 es,如:potato--potatoes pianopianos zoozoos; tomato--tomatoes the Henrys holidayholidays
c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可,如 zerozeros / zeroes。

  3) 以 f 或 fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加 s,如: beliefbeliefs safesafes b. 去 f,fe 加 ves,如:halfhalves knifeknives wifewives leafleaves lifelives wolfwolves thiefthieves; roofroofs gulfgulfs;
c. 上述 a 和 b 两种方法均可,如 handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。
  1.3 名词复数的不规则变化
  1) childchildren mousemice footfeet manmen toothteeth womanwomen
注意:由一个词加 man 或 woman 构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如 an Englishman,two Englishmen。但 German 不是合成词,故复数形式为 Germans;Bowman 是 姓,其复数是 the Bowmans。
  2) 单复同形,如 deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu, four jin 等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。
  3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数, 不能说 a people, police, cattle, a a 但可以说 a person, a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese, the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用,如 The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国 人民是勤劳勇敢的。
  4) 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词,如: a. maths,politics,physics 等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。
b. news 为不可数名词。 c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。 The United Nations was organized in 19
  45. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。 d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。例如: "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》 是一本非常有趣的故事书。
  5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 等,若表达具体数 目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers 等。
  6) 另外还有一些名词, 其复数形式有时可表示特别意思, goods 货物, 如: waters 水域, fishes (各种)鱼。

  1.4 不可数名词量的表示
  1)物质名词 a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时为可数。 比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)
These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数) b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,可数。例如: This factory produces steel. We need various steels. (不可数)
(可数)
c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。例如: Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。
Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。
  2) 抽象名词表示具体的事例时也可数。例如: four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations 四个现代化
物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量,如 a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。

  5. 定语名词的复数 名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。
  1) 用复数作定语。例如: students reading-room 学生阅览室 the foreign languages department 外语系
sports meeting 运动会
talks table 谈判桌

  2) man, woman, gentleman 等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如: men workers women teachers gentlemen officials

  3) 有些原有 s 结尾的名词,作定语时,s 保留。例如: goods train (货车) customs papers 海关文件 arms produce 武器生产 clothes brush 衣刷

  4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如: two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋 two-hundred trees 两百棵树
  1.6 不同国籍人的单复数 a ten-mile walk 十英里路 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划
国籍 总称(谓语用复数) 单数 复数 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese 瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss 澳大利亚人 the Australians an Australian two Australians 俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians 意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians 希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks 法国人 the French
a Frenchman two Frenchmen 日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese 美国人 the Americans an American two Americans 印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians 加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians 德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans 英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede
two Swedes

  1.7 名词的格 英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有 格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:
  1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有 s,也要加"'s",如 the boy's bag 男孩的书包, men's room 男厕所。
  2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。
  3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词, 都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系, 如: title of the the song 歌的名字。
  4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词, 如:the barber's 理发店。
  5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如: John's and Mary's rooms(两间) John and Mary's room(一间)

  6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence
  1.8 练习
  1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his. a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages

  2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to during the war. a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes

  3.The students at colleges or universities are making for the coming New Year.
a.
many preparations
b. much preparation
c. preparations
d. preparation

  4.Painting in is one of their spare-time activities. a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil

  5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t oil here. a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many

  6.The large houses are being painted, but . a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense

  7.The room was small and contained far too . a.much new furniture b.many new furniture c. much new furnitures d. many new furnitures

  8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the . a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers

  9.Computers can do work in a short time, but a man can not do by himself. a great many…many b. a great deal of…much c. much…a great deal d. many…a great many

  10.She didn’t know he had been given. a. b. how many information the number of information c. how many informations d. how much information

  11.He invited all of his to join his wedding party.
a. b.
comrade-in-arms comrades-in-arms
c. comrades-in-arm d. comrade-in-arm

  12.All the in the hospital got a rise last month. a. b. women doctors women doctor c. woman doctors d. woman doctor

  13.After ten years, all these youngsters became. a. b. growns-ups grown-up c. growns-up d. grown-ups

  14.The police investigated those about the accident. a. b. stander-by stander-bys c. standers-by d. standers-bys

  15.The Nazi kept those in their concentration camp. a.prisoner-of-wars b.prisoners-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war d. prisoner-of-war

  16.The manager was greatly appreciate that made by Linda lately. a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels

  17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her . a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress

  18.All the people at the conference are .
a. mathematic teachers b.mathematics teachers
c. mathematics teacher
d. mathematic’s teachers

  19.Professor Mackay told us that of lead are its softness and its resistance. a. b. some property some properties c. properties d. property

  20.Physics with matter and motion. a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are

  21.He has written several books, but his last works well known among his friends. a. have b. have been c. is d. are

  22.After he checked up my heart, the doctor advised him to rest for a few days. a. b. father-in-law’s father-in-law c. father’s-in-law d. father’s-in-law’s

  23.He told me would come to his birthday party. a. b. many Jack friends Jack’s many friends c. many Jack’s friend d. many friends of Jack’s

  24.I had my hair cut at the around the corner. a.barber b. barbers c. barber’s d. barbers’

  25.Yesterday evening we had a lovely evening at . a. Peter and Helen’s c. Peter and Helen
b.
Peter and Helens
d. Peter’s and Helen’s

  26. receives only a small portion of the total amount of the sun’s energy. a. b. The earth’s surface The surface earth c. The surface of earth d. The earth surface

  27.Numerous materials are available to . a. b. today of designers today’s designers c. today’s of designers d. today designers

  28.Why did you speak to Peter that way? Don’t you know he is an old friend of ? a. my brother b. my brothers c. my brother’s d. my brother’s friend

  29. is a well-informed man. He can tell you anything you want to know. a. b. This John’s old friend This old friend of John c. That’s Jahn’s old friend d. This old friend of John’s

  30. is too much for a little boy to carry. a.A bike’s weight b.The weights of a bike c. The weight of a bike d. Bile’s weight

  31.Generally there are television programs for children on Saturday. a. little b. much c. a large number of d. a large amount of

  32.When they got to the lecture-room, there were left. a. only few seats b. a very few seats c. only a few seats d. so a few seats

  33. travels faster when the zip code is indicated on the envelope. a. A little mail b. A piece of mail c. A mail d. A small mail

  34.The Department purchased to improve the working conditions there. a. b. a new equipment a new piece of equipment c. new equipments d. new pieces of equipments

  35.The boy tried hard but there has been in his work. a. b. little improvement a little improvement c. many improvements d. few improvements

  36.Today’s modern TV cameras require light as compared with the earlier models. a. only a few b. only few c. only a little d. only little

  37.No country can afford to neglect . a. an education b. educations c. education d. the education

  38.Please write the answers to the questions at the end of . a. eighth chapter b. chapter eight c. eight chapter d. chapter the eight

  39. is only surpassed by that of monkeys’ and apes’. a. b. The intelligent dog The dogs whose intelligence c. The intelligence of dogs d. The dogs being intelligent

  40.All must take the graduate Management Admission Test. a. student business student b. business’s students c. business students d. business’s

  41. anywhere in the United States costs less than a dollar when you dial it yourself. a. b. Three minutes call Three-minute call c. A three-minutes call d. A three-minute call

  42.The about nuclear energy revolves around the waste problem. a. b. public’s chief concern public chief concern c. chief public concern d. chief concern of public’s

  43. the first and largest ethnic group to work on the construction of the transcontinental railroad. a. Chinese were b. T
 

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