英语学习之自考综合英语二语法总结 一,语法 Grammar & Usage Subject-Verb Agreement (I)
  1.主谓一致的三条原则
  1)语法一致,即在语法形式上取得一致. Human beings enjoy learning. Everybody's understanding is incomplete.
  2)意义一致,即根据意义来处理一致关系. The people there are fighting for the independence of their country. The dollars was a lot of money at that time.
  3)就近原则,即谓语动词的单,复数形式取决于最靠近它的词语. There is a pen, two pencils and an eraser in the pencil box. Neither the boy nor his teachers know the answer.
  2.集体名词作主语时与动词的一致
  1)当主语为 furniture, equipment, machinery 等词时,谓语动词通常用单数. The furniture in that shop is all made in China. Office equipment is very expensive nowadays. A lot of new machinery has been installed. 集体名词如 people, cattle, police, poultry,等往往作复数用. Some people drive madly in this country. Many cattle have died because of the fold. The police have been sent there but they have not made any arrests yet. Poultry are plentiful in that mountain region. family, government, class, committee, audience , team, public 等词被视做一个整体时,其后的动词作单数;被视做为构成整体 的个体时,其后的动词则为复数. His family is a happy one. His family are all interested in stamp-collecting. The Democratic Government is in power now. The government is/are considering further tax cuts. The audience was very quite when he was giving his speech. The audience were shouting and laughing when he came into the hall. Our class is the top class in the grade. The class are busy taking notes.
  3.并列主语与动词的一致
  1)当"名词+名词"表示一种事物时,用单数动词. Bacon and eggs is a very popular British breakfast. Toast and marmalade (果酱面包) is my favorite breakfast. Fish and chips (炸鱼与土豆片) is served every day.
  2)当主语是由 and, both ….and 连接的并列结构时,如果主语所指的不是一种事物,动词则用复数形式. Jack and Mary are in love with each other. Both Tom and John are absent today. War, famine and drought have claimed thousands of lives in that country.
  3)在又 or 或 nor 连接的并列结构中,动词单,复数形式一般与 or 或 nor 后边的名词或代词保持一致. He or his brothers are to blame for this. Either you or your friend has to pay the bill. Either his father or his mother comes to see him every day. When couples quarrel, (either) the wife or the husband has to give in. Neither she nor you are mistaken. Neither the manager nor the clerks are college graduates.
  4) not only … but also 连接的结构做主语时,动词的单,复数形式依据 but also 后的名词或代词. Not only Fred but also his parents love this small pet dog.
Not only the boys but also their mother is very ell. 课后练习 Translate the following into English.
  1) Use the verb + noun collocation. 出席会议 体验苦难 发现奇迹 掌握技能 需要勇气 接受修正 不再指望 to attend a meeting to experience bitterness to discover wonders to master skills to require courage to accept rectification to cherish no hope 干的不错 自学英语 忍住咳嗽 获取知识 丰富生活 改正错误 作出努力 to do a good job to teach oneself English to hold back one's cough to acquire knowledge to enrich one's life to correct mistakes to make efforts

  2)Use the "useful expressions".
  1.新造的大桥坍塌了,一名工程师和两名地方官员为此受到刑事起诉. The collapse of the big newly-built bridge led to criminal prosecution against an engineer and two local government officials.
  2.他工作了一天,午饭都没动. He worked all day, leaving his lunch untouched.
  3.经常性的体育运动使学生身体强壮,更好的适应学习,决不是浪费时间. Far from being a waste of time, regular sports activities make students physically strong and deal with their study better.
  4.在海洋世界公园,海豹和海豚能够表演各种技巧,逗的小观众们乐不可支. The seals and dolphins in the Sea World are capable of various acting techniques, and this makes children audience overjoyed.
  5.把快乐建立在别人痛苦之上的人迟早要受到报应的. Those who take delight in other people's pain will suffer retribution sooner or later.
  6.在某些方面,那部新字典有不少地方需要改进. In some respects, that new dictionary has much to be improved.
  7.当那辆公共汽车冲进路边翻了车时,许多小朋友被困在里边. When that bush rushed out of the road and turned over, many children got trapped in it.
  8.在开幕式上,市政府将为一千多明来宾提供饮食. At the opening ceremony, the municipal government will provide food and drink for more than 1,000 guests.
  9.在中国,城市家庭只允许生一个孩子. In China, every urban family is restricted to only one child.
  10.只要我们能得到点休息,去哪里并不重要. As long as we can get a little rest, is doesn't matter where we go.
  3)Use learn, ask and teach.
  1.那位男孩向警察询问去火车站怎么走. That boy asked the policeman how to get to the railway station.
  2.学习外语没有任何捷径可走. There are no shortcuts to learning a foreign language.
  3.获悉我最喜欢的数学老师仍然在那所学校教书我决定去看他. Learning that my favourite maths teacher is still teaching in that school, I decided to visit him.
  4.这位老工人教育他的子女做人要诚实. This veteran worker taught his children to be honest.
  5.他问老板那天他是否可以早点离开办公室. He asked his boss whether he could leave off work a little earlier that day.
  6.艰难困苦使我们对我们现有的一切感到满意. Difficulties and hardships teach us to be grateful for all that we have already had.
  7.毕业时他要求到西藏去工作一年. On his graduation, he asked to work in Tibet for one year.
  8.我只不过是想关心别人,也希望受到他人的关心,我的要求并不过分. All I want to do is just to show my care for others, and I hope to be treated in the same way by others. I am not asking too much.
  9.聪明人从自己的错误中吸取教训.
Wise men learn lessons from their own mistakes.
  10. 求援是没有用的,因为已经早过了午夜. Since it is well after midnight, there is no point in asking for help.
  11.那位科学家教育他的学生说年轻人要面向未来. That scientist taught his students that young people should be gearing themselves for the future.
  12.问及她生活的最大乐趣时,她说"学习". When asked what was the greatest pleasure in her life, she replied "learning" 综合英语 2 词型转化练习 1-100_英语题库 英语题库
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  22. Have they made any inquiries after me? (inquire) Many foreign words and phrases have enriched the English language. (rich) They were the most notable pioneers in translation. (note) There is an overhead fan in his room. (head) Some advertisements are misleading. (lead) She was paying a big price for her stupidity. (stupid) His performance in the sports meet was not good. (perform) He was wounded in the brutal war. (brute) They are busy with preparing for the evening gathering. (gather) The animals grew restlessly as if in anticipation of an earthquake. (rest) I think the tendency to give children many toys and clothes is quite common in American families. (tend) The children will feel unloved if they don't have the same playthings their friends have. (love) It is unreasonable for children to ask their parents for too many things. (reason) You can judge his feeling from his facial expressions. (face) He left the house without my awareness. (aware) Hughie thought the model should have a percentage. (percent) Now he was unemployed and stayed at home. (employ) He was a man with great wealth. (wealthy) In the relationship with others, you will notice some annoying habits. (annoy) For some people, it may take several days to readjust, depending on the length of time they were away. (adjust) The plan was set up to give expert advice to first time housebuyers. (advise) Her first sight of the African landscape thrilled her enormously. (thrill)

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It was subsequently discovered that several errors had been made. (subsequent) Recovery of English gives him an advantage in getting a job. (recover) If you had been more careful, you wouldn't have made so many mistakes. (care) The teacher handed out the answer sheets when all the students entered the examination room. (sheet) They have set aside the unfinished project for one year. (finish) The moment he got into the classroom he felt nervous. (nerve) Thanks to your kindness, the poor boy was saved. (kind) You had better consult a doctor. (good) The president devoted his energies to updating the curricula, making the education offered at Washington College as
meaningful and usual as possible. (update)
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  39. I know that a few weeks ago you held an exhibition on lifelong learning. (exhibit) Nowhere has the world seen such enthusiasm for learning as in our country. (enthuse) He apologized to me what he had said. (apology) Body language is a form of non-verbal communication. (verbal) His sudden illness kept him in Beijing for three months. (ill) Unlike her quiet sister, she is very talkative. (talk) If I were you, I wouldn't put up with his behavior any longer. (behave) Increasing in the modern world, the maintenance of health and the care of the sick and disabled are looked upon as social
concerns, not merely individual problems. (increase)
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  43. All efforts to build a bridge over the wide and swift river ended in rain. (effort) Today more and more people are enthusiastic about body fitness. (fit) The temperature of the conductor affects its resistance to current. (resist) Mozart had the mak
ings of a great musician. (music)
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  46. Boys wear fashionable clothes to attract girls. In a similar way, some birds have bright feather. (fashion) It's better not to interfere in the internal affairs of other countries in the case of diplomatic relations. (diplomat) Even a child knows the similarity of a cat to a tiger. (similarly)

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The king refused to comment upon the financial scandal. (finance) Once published, this interesting and instructive novel will be a great success. (instruct) This expression is thought of as being out of style today. We seldom use it. (express) It's advisable to learn these good sentences by heart. (advise) What's important is to keep up our present friendship and trip relationships. (relation) I felt that film was most boring. (bore) There are various clothes to chosen in the store. I am really confused. (vary) I highly appreciate the writing style of Lu Xun. (high) This has greatly increased our international prestige. (internation) That we need more practice and confidence is quite obvious. (confident) I would never have noticed the fault if you had not pointed it out in difficult times. (faulty) Plastic and rubber won't conduct electricity. ((electric) The big department store employed 20 girls to stand at the gate and distribute advertising leaflets to the customers.
(advertise)
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  72. The jury will try a case of robbery with violence. (violent) The air conditioner is so often complained about that I am surprised it hasn't been improved. (condition) The rapid development of our country stimulated the writers' creative enthusiasm for writing. (create) The old lady needs comforting after her shock. (comfort) You have left out a possibility that she have got the wrong information. (possible) Plastic bags are useful for holding many kinds of food, by virtue of their clearness, toughness, and low cost. (tough) Many old women prefer colorful dress. They all expect to stay young. (color) It was not long before he regained his consciousness. (conscious) He is a comparative silent boy. But when he speaks, what he says always makes sense. (compare) He is qualified for the job. (qualify) He had been seriously ill for a long time, but his doctor managed to bring him through. (serious) The lucky passenger held right to the rail of the bus and didn't fall down and hurt himself. (luck) My cousin is afraid that his future will be affected by his father's final decision. (decide)

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Some scientists think that day dreaming can help you to shape your future. (dream) The project was doomed to failure because of the badly organizational work. (fail) Caps in hand, they filed slowly past the grave of their respectable leader at the cemetery. (respect) Jim's health broke down from over work on the farm. (healthy) The president's security men did their best to keep the crowd back from him, but in vain. (secure) Much to my relief, my lose friends survived the earthquake in Japan. (relieve) Since he always keeps silent no matter what I recommend, I can only interpret it as a refusal. (refuse) That is an objective description, which in fast, is not influenced by my subjective impression. (object) His funny gestures were greeted with roars of laughters. (fun) Their
 

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