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您现在的位置:英语世界-英语世界杂志-2000 年第十期
The Information Gap
by Barbra Kantrovitz Jonathan Hee, 15, and Michael Tran, 16, attend the same suburban high school, Montgomery Blair in Silver Spring, Md., outside Washington. Both hope to use computers at work someday. Tran would like to he a programmer or an engi-neer; Hee wants to he an engineer. But the similarity ends there. Hee is in Montgomery Blair' s 400-student magnet science program, which boasts two state-of-the-art computer labs, Internet access and teachers who have been trained in the latest technol-ogy. Tran goes to the nonmagnet section of the school, which has 2,000 students, a few dozen obsolete computers and teachers who are struggling with too few resources for too many students. Jonathan has studied binary code and logic; he has his own computer at home. Michael took his first computer class this year; he has no ma-chine of his own to hone his skills. [2] Students like Hee and Tran repre-sent what many educators fear is becoming an all-too-pervasive trend in American public schools, the creation of two separate and very unequal classes of computer haves and have-nots. "The folks who are getting left out," says Margaret Honey, associate director of the Center for Children and Tech-nology/Education Development Center, "are going to be poor urban districts or rural districts with limited resources or blue-col-lar districts with very tight budgets" At Montgomery Blair, most of the magnet stu-dents are upper-middle class and white; most of the students in the regular school are minorities or immigrants. The school set up the magnet to lure white students into a largely minority school (although the subur-ban district itself is mostly white). The school now has many more white students, but there' s little contact between the two groups. The consequences of such inequity4 could be grave. Last month, Laura D'Andrea Tyson, chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers, released a study showing that in all job categories, from clerks to professionals, people who know how to work with computers earn more than those who don't. In fact, the difference between the two groups accounts for half the increas-ing wage gap between high-school and col-lege graduates. [3] The information gap is a problem not only for educators, but for industries and even nations locked out of the technological revolution. But it's especially acute in financially strapped public schools. In a 1993 report, Macworld magazine, a respect-ed trade publication, visited schools around the country and concluded that computers perpetuate a two-tier system of education for rich and poor". Sally Bowman Alden, executive director of the Computer learning Foundation in Palo Alto'. Calif., says that the national ratio of students to computers is 16 to
  1. "On the surface that doesn't sound as bad as it really is," she concedes. "But if you think of what would happen in a business where 16 people were sharing one
信息鸿沟 15 岁的乔纳森希和 16 岁的迈克尔特兰两 人都在蒙哥马利布莱尔中学学习.该校离 华盛顿不远,位于马里兰州的银泉市郊 区.他俩都希望有朝一日能在工作中使用 计算机.特兰想作一位程序员或是工程 师;希也想当一名工程师.但他俩的相似 之处就仅此而已.希所在的班级是蒙哥马 利布莱尔学校有吸引力的理科班,有 400 名学生,宣称拥有两个现代化的计算机实 验室,可使用因特网,其教师是经过最新 技术培训的.特兰则在学校没有吸引力的 班里学习,该类班共有学生 2000 人,只有 几十台很陈旧的计算机,老师们得拚命地 使用这极有限的教学设备来为这么多的学 生服务.乔纳森以前学过二进制编码和逻 辑学,家里有一台自己的计算机.而迈克 尔则是今年才开始学计算机的,家里也没 有自己的计算机来提高他的技能. [2]希和特兰这样的学生代表着许多教 育工作者所担心的一种趋势,就是造成拥 有计算机的和没有计算机的两个极不平等 的阶层.这种趋势正在美国的公立学校中 过度蔓延.儿童中心及技术/教育发展中 心的副主任玛格丽特霍尼说:"那些被忽 视的人将会成为城市贫民区,农村的自然 资源贫瘠区以及资金紧缺的蓝领区的居 民."在蒙哥马利布莱尔中学里,有吸引 力的理科班的大部分学生属中产阶级和白 人,而普通班的大部分学生则是少数民族 或外来移民.学校设立吸引力班的目的是 吸引白人学生进入这所本来少数民族学生 占多数的学校(虽然郊区人口本身大多是 白人).现在学校里白人学生比以前多多 了,但这两部分学生之间很少有来往.这 种不公平现象将会产生严重的社会影响. 上个月,经济顾问委员会主席劳拉D安德 烈泰森发表的一份研究结果表明:从一般 职员到专业技术员的所有工种中,懂电脑 操作的人比不懂的工资要高.实际上,高 中毕业生和大学毕业生日益加大的收入鸿 沟半数是由于懂与不懂计算机之差别. [3]信息鸿沟不仅是教育工作者所面临的问 题,而且是被技术革命拒之门外的工业部 门甚至国家民族所面临的问题.但这一问 题在资金紧缺的公立学校尤为严重.著名 商业刊物(迈科沃尔德)在 1993 年的一份 报告中说,它采访了全国的学校并得出如 下结论:"计算机使贫富两个层次教育体制 长期存在."加州帕格阿尔托市的计算机学
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computer, it's the equivalent of having a pencil for every 16 习基金会执行主席萨莉鲍曼奥尔登说, children." 学生和计算机的比例在全国范围内为 16 比 [4] Even when schools manage to get their hands on
  1.她说:"在表面上听起来,这并不像实 computers, the machines of-ten gather dust in a locked room 际情况那么糟糕.但如果想象一下在某一 because teachers don't know how to use them. "School districts 项工作中 16 个人共用一台计算机将会出现 spend 90 percent of funds on new equipment, 10 percent on 什么情况,这相当于每 16 个孩子只拥有一 teacher training," says Charles Piller, the Macworld editor who 支铅笔." conducted his magazine's study. [4]即使在学校千方百计得到了计算机时, [5] Savvy teachers: Their students miss out on new and 这些机器也常常被闲置在房门紧锁的房间 innovative learning techniques. A few years ago machines 里,因为老师们不知道怎么使用."学区花 were just for routine drills, and students fre-quently found them 费 90%的资金添置新设备,可花在教师培 boring. Now savvy teachers focus more on giving kids access 训上的资金只有 10%."(迈科沃尔德) to the Information Highway. Bonnie Bracey, a fourth- and 杂志进行这方面研究的编辑查尔斯皮勒这 fifth-grade teacher at Arlington Elementary School in 样说. Arlington, Va. is a technophile. With the help of several grants, [5]j 经验丰富的教师们认为:他们的学生 Bracey and her students use the five computers in her 错过了获得新颖创新的学习技能的机会. classroom to hook up to the Internet where they study such 几年前,计算机只用在日常训练方面,学 subjects as the ecology and geography of the rain forest and Mayan civilization. They communicate with students in other 生们往往对此感到很乏味.现在,经验丰 countries and tap into sophisticated data banks. The computers 富的教师们更关注让学生使用信息公路. 弗吉尼亚州阿林顿郡灰坪小学的一位教四 inspire her students to transfer what they learn in other 五年级的老师邦尼布雷西是位技术爱好 subjects. "We have eaten our way through tropical fruits, costed out the price of spices and researched coral bleaching." 者.在多方捐助下,她和她的学生们把教 室里的五台计算机联入因特网,他们在网 Bracey says. 上学习诸如雨林地区生态学和地理学及玛 [6] To less fortunate students, the Information Highway is about as real as the yellow brick road to Oz. Mischa Porter, a 雅文明等科目.他们与世界其它国家的学 生们交流,并能敲入复杂的数据库.计算 17-year-old junior in the regular program at Montgomery Blair, talks wistfully about the magnet program. "They're the 机激励她的学生们把他们在其它科目中学 smart people," he says. Lyn Shiery, a computer teacher in the 的东西转换到计算机上来学.布雷茜说: regular school, points to a service room behind his classroom. "通过计算机,我们已经全面了解了所有的 热带水果,按生产成本核算了香料的应售 It's filled with the carcasses of donated computers that no longer work because he can't get the funds for spare parts. On a 价格,并对珊瑚的漂白消毒进行了研究." bulletin board in his classroom, Shiery has posted a story about [6]对于不大幸运的学生来说,信息公路宛 Apple II computers, declared officially obsolete last year. 如通往神话中奥兹国的那条黄砖路一样虚 Shiery's hope is that his students won't share that same fate. 无缥缈.蒙哥马利布莱尔学校普通班里一
位 17 岁的三年级学生米沙波特谈到有吸 引力的理科班时说:"他们是时髦人物." 其语气颇带有不满和渴望的情绪.林思希 尔利??一位普通班的计算机老师指着他 教室后面的一个机房说:那里面全是一些 报废了的别人赠送的计算机,由于没钱购 置零件,再也不能使用了.在教室里的一 个告示牌上,希尔利贴出了一篇关于苹果 第二代计算机的文章,那些机器去年就被 正式宣布过时了.希尔利希望他的学生不 要有此同样的命运.
您现在的位置:英语世界-英语世界杂志-2000 年第十期
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Reliability of Eyewitness Evidence Never Absolute By Angela Gregory IN THIS ARTICLE: Our ideas about how well we remember are often wrong. This becomes a difficulty when eyewitness accounts are important for evidence in court trials. Recent legal research indicates that in correct identification is a major factor in many miscarriages of justice. [2] It also suggests that identification of people by witnesses in a courtroom is not as reliable as commonly believed. Recent studies do not support the degree of faith judges, jurors, lawyers and the police have in eyewitness evidence. [3] The law Commission recently published an educational paper, "Total Recall? The Reliability of Witness Testimony", as a companion guide to a proposed code of evi-dence. The paper finds that commonly held perceptions about how our minds work and how well we remember are often wrong. But while human memory is fragile and subject to change, it should not be underestimated. [4] In court witnesses are asked to give evidence about events, and judges and ju-ries assess its reliability. The paper points out that memory is complex, and the reliability of any person's recall must he as-sessed individually. [5] Both common sense and research say memory declines over time. The accu-racy of recall and recognition are at their best immediately after encoding the infor-mation, declining at first rapidly, then gradually. The longer the delay, the more likely it is that information obtained after the event will interfere with the original memory, which reduces accuracy. [6] The paper says subsequent inter-views or media reports can create such dis-tortions. "People are particularly suscepti-ble to having their memories modified when the passage of time allows the original mem-ory to fade, and will be most susceptible if they repeat the misinformation as fact." [7] Witnesses may sec or read infor-mation after the event, then integrate it to produce something other than what was ex-perienced, significantly reducing the reliability of their memory of an event or offend-er, "Further, witnesses may strongly believe in their memories, even though as-pects of those memories are verifiably false." [8] leading questions can lead to mistakes. If witnesses are asked whether the offender had a beard, they may incorporate an imaginary beard into their memories. Subsequent questioning can reinforce the error through repetition.
目击者的证据并非绝对可靠
本文简介:那些认为我们有多么好的记忆力 的想法时常是错误的.在法庭审讯中,当目 击者的陈述被当作重要证据时,就给我们带 来了一个难题.编者
近来法律方面的研究表明,指认错误是造成 误判的一个主要因素. [2]研究还指出,目击者在法庭上对嫌疑犯的 指认并非一般想象中的那么可靠.对法官, 陪审员,律师和警察给予目击证据的相信程 度,近来的一些研究表示无法认同. [3]最近,法律委员会发表了一篇有教育意 义的论文(完全的回忆?目击者证言的可靠 性)作为拟议中的"证据法规"的参考指南. 论文指出,在有关我们的大脑如何工作以及 我们的记忆能达到什么程度方面,人们普遍 持有的一些看法常常是错误的.但即使人类 的记忆很脆弱,易于变化,也不应被低估. [4]在法庭上,要求目击者为案件提供证据, 由法官和陪审团判断其可靠性.论文指出, 记忆是十分复杂的,对任何人回忆的可靠性 都必须独立地进行判断. [5]无论是常识还是研究都表明记忆会随时间 的流逝而
 

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