Argumentative Writing
Definition
? An argumentative essay is attempt to change the reader's mind,to convince the reader to agree with the point of view or opinion of the writer. Therefore,it is supposed to be highly persuasive and logical.
The Course(过程) of Argumentative Writing
? Generally speaking,argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions and applying them to the point that is under discussion.
Features of main proposition
? As for the thesis statement, ? First, it should not be something self-evident. ? Second, it should be able to bring about entirely different opinions or views. ? Third, it should be unified in its focus, i.e. ideas should be connected with each other. ? a debatable point
Paragraph Structure
? ? ? ? Writing in argumentative style requires :
  1. Introduction
  2. Body
  3. Conclusion
Brainstorming
Is Jogging the Best Way to Keep Fit?
Supporting ideas: ? It is not costly and easy to take up ? You needn’t go through special training ? It doesn’t require special equipment except for a pair of running shoes. ? You can jog without the limits of time ? It does good to your health: it exercises your lungs and muscles and improve your general health conditions.
? Opposing ideas: ? It is monotonous; It lacks excitement ? As an outdoor activity, it depends a lot on weather conditions. ? In big cities in China, it is not easy to find some free place for jogging. ? Cue: ? Wh-questions, esp. why, what, how
段落的层次性
Topic sentence
Supporting sentences
Supporting sentences
Details
Details
Details
Details
Introduction
? The introductory part of an argumentative essay contains a brief description of the topic,including different opinions about it,and a clear statement of the writer's stand(thesis statement).It sets out the tone of the essay,as an idea can be argued mildly or forcefully.
An Example
? Nowadays the internet has become part of people’s lives, and millions of young people have made friends on line. ? Is it wise to make friends online?
?
Currently the public has paid great attention to the debate concerning whether it is wise or not to make friends online. Taking all the favorable and unfavorable aspects into account, I stand firmly on the side that we can benefit from making friends online. This point of perspective, I believe, shared by the largest proportion of the public, can be explained in the following tangible reasons.
?
With the overwhelming development of Internet, never has been a communication tool, like MSN or QQ, that makes people contact with each other using such a convenient and extensive method. However, is it wise to make acquaintance with cyber friends throughout the globe even when each other’s identity is secretly classified? My answer is no.
? A thesis statement is generally located in the introduction of the paper and may somtimes be located within the body of the paper or in the conclusion,depending on the purpose of the paper.
When composing an arguable thesis,you must:
? Let the reader konw the main idea of paper. ? Answer the question:"What am I trying to prove?" ? Remember a thesis statement is not a factual statement,but a claim that has to be proven throughout the paper.
Body
? This part of the argumentative essay is built upon the debatable thesis statement made in the introductory paragraph and provides support for it. ? The debatable statements are not statements of facts but ones with which other may or may not agree. ? What you need to do is to persuade others to agree.
Firstly, internet, as a mass medium, provides people, who are apathetic and have got no idea about how to make an acquaintance with a stranger, a chance to make friends. Those people may be too shy or nervous or they are afraid of being refused by others. Things turn to be quite different when sitting in front of the computer screen. People who are scared to make friends can talk with others more naturally and confidently online. Secondly, it is well acknowledged that we can learn a lot from our e-pals. If our friend online were a foreigner, we can practice English with him or her. What’s more, we can have a glimpse of general information of another country,such as the culture, , the tradition, the custom or the geography.
?
Admittedly, making friends online bring us a great amount of joy and unimagined stimulating experience. Nevertheless, as we can only communicate people through words or images, someone with ulterior motives may hide behind the screen waiting for a moment to conspire(密谋 ) his illegal actions. Just as the joke tells, a 21 years old pretty girl may turn out to be an 80 years old ugly drunker. In addition, people are easily getting addicted to this fictitious relationship and losing the ability of surviving in their real living environment. Net communication can never take the place of a face to face taking or a familiar attracting expression. What is more, who are you turning into when emergency happens, someone thousands miles far away that you even don’t know about his name, or the next door neighbors who smile at you every morning?
To attack our opponent's argument,we can adopt one of the following methods:
? Demonstrate that our opponent's argument is completely wrong. ? Show that our opponent's argument is weak(because it is based on insufficient, outdated,misinterpreted or biased information). ? Agree that our opponent‘s arguement is valid ‘ but show our points are more compelling(有说服 有说服 力的). 力的
Conclusion
? Conclusion contains the last words that a writer will present to the audience. Therefore,it should emphasize the main point and should have a strong impact. ? The aim is to convince the reader that the essay has all the most important arguments about the issue and that your main idea is the best pisition on the issue. ? You shouldn't present any new arguments in your conclusion.
?
From what have mentioned above, we can come to the conclusion that making friends online can do us some good. And communication online is having a greater impact on our daily life.
? In conclusion, when we try to make friends online, it is necessary to be sensible and take precautions to ensure our safety especially meeting net friends outside. Only in this way, can we enjoy the exciting experience and extremely convenient the net brings to us.
Useful expressions about personal ideas:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  1.I think…
  2.In my opinion
  3.I personally think…
  4.I am for the opinion that…
  5.As I see it
  6.For my own part
  7. My opinion is that
  8. As for me…
  9. As far as I am concerned ?
  10.in my point of view… ?
  11. I believe… ?
  12. I consider… ?
  13. I hold the opnion that… ?
  14. I maintain that… ?
  15. I’d like to point out that
You may use these words or phrases when you make conclusion: ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  1. above all
  2. all in all
  3. most importantly
  4. as a result
  5.consequently
  6. eventually
  7. finally
  8. in summary
  9. in brief
  10. generally
  11. in conclusion
  12. in general
  13. to sum up
  14. to end with
Complementary Connectives

  1. enumeration(列举) To begin with; first(ly), second(ly), third(ly)…; For one thing, for another; next, then; finally, last, lastly; for a start, in the first place, in the second place, to start with, to conclude…
  2. addition(附加): What’s more, Moreover, furthermore, in addition, also, equally, Above all,
  3.transitions(过渡): By the way, now, as for, incidentally, to change subject, to return to the subject

  4. summation (概述,总结) ? In a word, (all) in all, to sum up, in short, in conclusion
  5. apposition (同位, 解释) ? Namely, i.e.(that is to say), for example, for instance, in other words
  6. result: ? therefore, and, as a result, and thus, and so

  7. inference(推测) ? If so, if not, in that case
  8. contrast(比较) ? Instead, on the contrary, by comparison, by contrast
  9. concession(让步) ? though, anyhow, anyway, in any case, at any rate, in spite of that, after all, nevertheless
Some frequently-used transitional words:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  1. accordingly
  2. additionally
  3. also
  4. besides
  5. alternatively
  6. furthermore
  7. however
  8. in addition
  9. moreover
  10. nevertheless ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  11. on the contrary
  12. so
  13. therefore
  14. thus
  15. what’s more
  16. yet
  17. despite…
  18. in spite of…
  19. otherwise
  20. instead of
Useful expessions on time sequece:
?
  1.first / second / third/ fourth… ?
  2.first of all ?
  3.firstly / secondly / thirdly/ fourthly… ?
  4.for one thing / for another ?
  5.in the first / second / third place ?
  6.last / last of all ?
  7.last but not least ?
  8.lastly ?
  9.next ?
  10.on the one hand/ on the other hand ?
  11.then ?
  12.to conclude ?
  13.to end with ?
  14.to start with / to begin with
?Argumentative essay is so important in our test that we should master the methods skillfully.
 

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