Critical Writing (
  2)
General structure Thesis/structure/logical development
Argumentation or argumentative essay
Definition: Explore your own ideas about a subject Present your personal opinions or ideas about that subject Take your stand & write as if you are trying to persuade an audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior The primary objective: to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to change
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 2
Overall structure (close-form writing)
3-5 paragraph essay

  1. Introduction (motivation, thesis statement).
  2. 1st body development (topic sentence, supporting examples).
  3. 2nd body development (topic sentence, supporting examples).
  4. 3rd body development (topic sentence, supporting examples).
  5. Conclusion (thesis restatement & so what)
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 3
Possible organization patterns
Pattern 1: Thesis statement PRO idea 1 PRO idea 2 PRO idea 3 Conclusion
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
4
Possible organization patterns
Pattern 2: Thesis statement PRO idea 1 PRO idea 2 CON(s) + Refutation(s) Conclusion
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
5
Possible organization patterns
Pattern 3: Thesis statement CON(s) + Refutation(s) PRO idea 1 PRO idea 2 Conclusion
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
6
Possible organization patterns
Pattern 4: Thesis statement: CON idea 1 CON idea 2 CON idea 3 Conclusion > Refutation > Refutation > Refutation
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
7
Thesis development
Thesis: the main opinion or idea about a subject is called a thesis and presented in a thesis sentence/statement. Thesis development: Elicited by introducing a problem or a phenomenon (a hook) Supported by arguments (topic sentences in the body part; related to the thesis) Supported by a conclusion (restatement of the thesis; so-what)
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 8
Structure (paragraphing) development
Topic sentence (Paraphrase of the TS.) Support/Illustration by examples (facts, others’ opinion, statistics, personal experience etc.) Wrap-up (conclusion)
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
9
Logical development
What is logic? Logic is the means by which you know things. Two main paths to logical knowledge induction & deduction Induction: a method of logic that arrived at a general conclusion based on the observation of specific incidents or examples The conclusion reached by induction is a generalization (subject to error) Inductive reasoning provides us with a probability, not certainty
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 10
Logical development
The biggest problem with inductive reasoning occurs when the sample incidents or examples are too small compared to the overall possible number (hasty generalization). e.g.,
  1. Since Seve ate seafood once and fell ill, seafood will always make Seve ill.
  2. Don’t drink beer any more, because you were allergic to beer last time.
  3. ... it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 11
Logical development
Deduction: a method of logic in which a conclusion is drawn from two premises, one major & the other minor. A premise is a statement or assertion that you are already certain is true. Used properly, deductive reasoning can supply certainty.
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
12
Logical development
Syllogism 1 (right?)
Major premise: Each person who works for Technotech must have a security clearance. (a general statement) Minor premise: Beth works for Technotech. (a specific example) Conclusion: Beth has a security clearance. (conclusion)
Syllogism 1 (right?)
Major premise: The French love wine. Minor premise: Giselle is French. Conclusion: Giselle loves wine.
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
13
Logical development
In syllogism 2, the trouble is with the major premise (hasty generalization in induction) The major premise,The French love wine, based on induction is subject to error because induction can only provide probability. A better major premise: Many French love wine. A correct conclusion: Giselle is likely to love wine.
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
14
Logical development
Logical relations used in paragraph development Definition Classification Exemplification Comparison & contrast Cause & effect Logical fallacies
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 15
Analyzing an essay

  1.
  2.
  3.
  4.
Read & discuss The general structure The thesis development The structure (paragraphing) development The logical development
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
16
Brainstorming
Group discussion on: campus on-line matrimonial agency Your opinion Supporting arguments Evidence conclusion Write an argumentative essay on this topic after class Pay special attention to your overall structure
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 17
Assignment

  1.
  2.

  3.
  4.
Write an argumentative essay on the discussed topic in 300500 words. Find information & have a presentation on: The differences between Chinese & English argumentation (group
  3) What are the differences between fact & opinion? How is opinion usually expressed? What can be evidence? (group
  4) Give a list of interesting topics for our argumentative essays (group
  1) Read Chapter 9 of the book: Developing an Argument: College English Composition (
  3). Ding, Yen-Ren, et al.
2011-4-13
广东外语外贸大学
18
Peer Review
Is the structure well organized? Is there a clear thesis statement? Are the arguments related to the thesis statement? Is the supporting evidence relevant? Is the material ordered logically? Are that any spelling, grammar, punctuation errors? If you are not completely convinced, please provide better evidence to support the writer’s position.
19
Assignment

  1. Review chapters on argumentation
  2. Presentation focusing on: The differences between Chinese & English argumentation (group
  3) What are opinion and fact? How are they expressed? What can be evidence? (group
  4)
  3. Write an argumentative essay on the discussed topic in class.
  4. Give a list of interesting topics for our argumentative essays (group
  1)
2011-4-13 广东外语外贸大学 20
 

相关内容

高考英语议论文写作指导

   高考英语议论文写作指导 议论文通过议论或说理来表达作者的见解和主张. 作者对某一问题持有一种看法,为了使读者同意自己 的看法,提出若干理由,企图说服他人. 议论文的写作步骤: 议论文的写作步骤: 1. 引言(introduction).由于英语作文受时间.字数的限制.因此,审清题意之后在引言段中作者就必须简单解释要讨论 的问题,并明白地亮出自己的观点,如提倡什么,支持什么,反对什么. 2. 主体段(main body).主体段是议论的过程,作者必须有足够的证据(adequate proofs ...

英语议论文写作模板

   Recently,the problem ofhas aroused people's concern. However, different people hold different attitudes toward. A lot of people seem to think that There is no doubt that enough concern must be paid to the problem of.It does us much harm(good). I qu ...

英语议论文写作指导

   Chapter 8 Argumentation arguing a fundamental activity and an important skill to persuade your audience to accept your point of view about a controversial point with sound reasoning Persuasion and argumentation when you hope to get your readers to ...

英语 议论文 写作指导

   Critical Writing (2) General structure Thesis/structure/logical development Argumentation or argumentative essay Definition: Explore your own ideas about a subject Present your personal opinions or ideas about that subject Take your stand & wri ...

英语专业学士学位论文写作指导

   英语专业学士学位论文写作指导 1、 毕业论文写作概述 毕业论文写作是大学英语专业教学计划中一个不可缺少的部分和实践性环节。 《英语教学大纲》 明确指出:“毕业论文是考查学生综合能力、评估学业成绩的一个重要方式。”毕业论文写作的 优劣是决定学生毕业时可否被授予学士学位的重要依据。 1.1 毕业论文写作的意义 撰写毕业论文不仅具有一般写作的意义,而且有其特殊的作用:培养科研创新意识、锻炼思维 组织能力、训练语言运用能力、激活知识的输出与输入等。 1.2 毕业论文的特点 毕业论文的题材与体裁:专业 ...

中考英语作文写作指导

   中考英语作文写作指导 现在,书面表达是中学生学习英语应掌握的一项基本技能,它要求学生有扎实的语言基本功,具备一定的审题能力、想象能力、表达能力和评价能力等。大部分学生的英语写作能力较差,具体说来,学生书面表达中主要存在以下错误: 1.时态误用 主要表现在两方面:1)学生写作之前没有判断整篇文章主要用哪种时态,常出现该用一般现在时的句子,用了一般过去时;而该用将来时的句子,用了完成时。 2)时态构成表达错误。由于学生对各种时态掌握不好,常常将 ...

英语专业毕业论文写作指导

   江苏技术师范学院外国语学院 英语专业毕业论文写作指导 江苏技术师范学院外国语学院 顾丹柯 黄启发 李顺春 张德福 编 2007 年 6 月 6 日 英语专业毕业论文写作指导 2 目 录 江苏技术师范学院外国语学院 ........................................................................................................................ 1 英语专业毕业论文写作指导 ..... ...

2010高考英语二轮专题复习课件--高考作文写作指导

   How to Write a Composition ? 如何写好英语作文呢? 一.写好句子 1、句子要正确。 句子要正确。 2、句子要平行。 句子要平行。 句子要连贯。 3、句子要连贯。 句子要有逻辑性。 4、句子要有逻辑性。 句子要避免过多重复。 5、句子要避免过多重复。 句子要避免头重脚轻。 6、句子要避免头重脚轻。 7、句子要避免汉式英语。 句子要避免汉式英语。 二.写好段落 三.用好过渡词 四.写好开头和结尾 作文: 作文: 1.记叙文 1.记叙文 2.说明文 2.说明文 3.议论 ...

英语论文写作指导

   The Role of L1 Influence and Lexical Aspect in the Acquisition of Temporality System in L2 English Name: *** Student Number: 007 Sun Yat-sen University August, 2009 本文目的是通过实例分析,帮助你更好的了解在应用语言学方面的毕业论文是"长 成什么样的. "范文的每部分都附有说明和建议,希望这能使你更好地了解和掌 ...

中考英语写作指导

   英语写作指导 写作顺序: 写作顺序: 一、审好题 仔细审查所给的内容提示, 特别要研究题目的核心词汇, 明确要求写的内容,确定文章的 体裁、人称、时态等,理顺思路,确定主旨。 二、写提纲。 写提纲。 审好题后,写出这篇文章的提纲。以 How to keep healthy. 为例。 How to keep healthy. 开头:Nowadays, more and more people concentrate on the health problem. How can we keep ...

热门内容

新目标英语九年级教材电子书Unit1

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

初中英语语法3

   Unit16 简单句 简单句 疑问句 祈使句 感叹句 陈述句 简单句 简单句 简单句是由一个主语(或并列主语)和一 个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子.它可 以分为四大类,即陈述句,疑问句,祈使 句和感叹句. 陈述句 陈述句(包括肯定的或否定的)用来叙述 一项事实,读降调,句末用句号.陈述句 的结构分为肯定结构或否定结构两种. 结构 陈述句的肯定结构 1.陈述句的语序 陈述句的语序一般是主语在前, 谓语在后.某些类型的句子由 THERE.HERE引起, 谓语为COME等,常用倒装 语序.幻 ...

英语作文必背句子

   6 级作文模板 级作文模板: 1)先背 3 个句子 ) 1 Nowadays with the rapid development of advanced ……., more and more….. are commonly and widely used in everyday life.(讲重要性) 2 The popularity of digital …will have great influence on our work, study and everyday life. On ...

新世代交互英语网络版4答案

   Unit 6 3/16 342 8/16 2343123 9/16 3223 1A/5 24323 1B/5 really curious opinion cloning kind of crimpy science fiction personality something like that clone organs genetic material getting completely out of hand nature versus nurture debate u ...