2010 专转本英语考试语法浓缩精华版

  1】完成时在“It is the first time +that-分句”中的使用 It is the first time I have been here. It was the first time she had been at a summer school and she thoroughly enjoyed it. 【
  2】现在完成进行时 构成: have/ has been +doing 用法: I have been writing letters for an hour ( and I have still got some more to do). Who has been eating my dinner? Who has eaten my dinner? 上列第一句表示动作还将进行下去;第二句说明动作在说话时刻之前刚刚结束。 由于现在完成进行体带有进行体的持续性,暂时性和未完成性,所以第三句话表示还有些剩下,而第四句 话则说明全给吃光了。 【
  3】将来完成时: 表示到将来的某个时间为止, 某件事已经完成了。 该时态常和由 by 引起的时间状语连用。 The painters say they will have finished painting the rooms downstairs by Tuesday. 【
  4】被动语态的一般构成( 如例句显示) He is regarded as brilliant. This book was first published in 19
  76. They are being punished by the teacher. He said it was being repaired. This car has been driven a lone way today. The road had been opened to traffic. This will be done immediately. 【
  5】Get 型被动态 The boy got hurt on his way home from work. The mail has got lost or sent to the wrong address. Do you mind working nights? You will get paid overtime. It is said that Charles is to get married. 【
  6】不定式的被动态 I hope to be elected. It is important for lost time to be made up. 【
  7】ing 分词的被动态 The problem being discussed is of vital importance. I object to being kept waiting. Having been invited to speak, I will start making preparations tomorrow. I don’t mind him / his being invited. 【
  8】一些动词如 make, let, see 等, 可以更一个宾语和不带 to 的不定式, 它们在变为被动式后要用带 to 的不定式 They made him tell everything. He was made to tell everything. 【
  9】Need / require / want / deserve 四个动词后可接分词, 以主动态表示被动的含义。 The flower needs watering. = The flower needs to be watered. 【
  10】在表示穿戴, 触摸, 销售等感官动词时, 不用被动态。 These kinds of hat sell well. This brand of glasses wears comfortably. 【
  11】错综虚拟条件句 : 有时主句和从句所指的时间是不一致的, 这时需要对有关的动词形式作调整。 If I had eaten breakfast, I would not be hungry now. 从句指的是过去, 主句说的是现在 If he were a good student he would have studied for test. 从句指通常情况,主句指的是过去/ 【
  12】在正式文体中, 条件从句含有 were, had should 有时可以把 if 省略掉, 这是要把这些词放到主语 之前/ Were it not for his wife’s money, he would never be a director. Had I known about it, I would have told you. Should you change your mind, let us know. 【
  13】if only 常引导感叹句, 表示强烈的愿望或遗憾, 通常后面跟过去时或过去完成时。 If only you would listen to reason! If only you hadn’t told Jack what I had said. If only I had more money, I could buy the new clothes. 【
  13】 would rather 可跟一句子表示宁愿让某人做某事, 用法和 wish 相似。 也可以用 would sooner 表 示相同的意思。 1
2010 专转本英语考试语法浓缩精华版
Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather you came next weekend. I would rather you hadn’t done that. I’d sooner you didn’t ask me to speak. 【
  14】as if / as though 如果叙述的情况是不真实的, 通常用过去时表示现在的情况; 用过去完成时表 示以前的情况, 不管什么人称 be 都用 were. She looks almost as if she were mad. You look as if you’d seen a ghost. He acted as though he had never met her before. 【
  15】当我们说某人该做某事了,可用 It’s time +主语+过去时 这样的结构, 这时它说的是现在或将来。 It’s time she washed that dress. It’s about time you started working. I’m tiredit’s time we went home. 【
  16】情态动词 should have done / ought to have done 表示应该做而没有做的事情。 I hurt my back. I should not have carried that heavy box. We ought to have got here earlier: the train’s packed. Must not 表示禁止, 有义务不做某事。 You must not tell anyone my secret. Don’t have to 表示没有义务, 没有必要做(=need not) I can hear you. You don’t have to shout. Needn’t have done 表示本来不必要做的事( 但是已经做了) You needn’t have gone to the station. May/might have done 表示过去发生某事的可能性。 Might as well/ may as well 表示“ 不妨, 就不如” 。 Must have done 表示对过去发生某事的非常肯定的推论。 其否定式是 can’t / couldn’t have done Could have done 表示过去有能力做但没有做的事情 【
  17】Would rather …… than 表示宁愿 I would rather go to a movie than study grammar. I would sooner stay at home tonight. 【
  18】Would like “ 想要“ I would like to go for a walk. 【
  19】主语后有介词短语或其他修饰语时, 动词的数不受影响。 His father as well as his brothers has left for London. My brother rather than my parents is going to attend a party this weekend. 【
  20】个别由 and 连接的两个名词代表的是一个单一的概念, 用单数动词 Fish and chips is a popular supper for London people . 【
  21】就近原则 Neither Tom nor his sisters are to blame. 【
  22】More than one question was asked. 【
  23】A number of students were late. / the number of students in the class is increasing. 【
  24】不定式, 动名词, 名词性从句作主语, 谓语动词一律用单数。 What caused the accident is a completely mystery. Reading English articles is a good way of enlarging our vocabulary. To do this work well requires intelligence, diligence and good luck. 【
  25】some of, part of, most of, a lot of, plenty of, half of, two thirds of, ninety percent of 等, 其后动词的 数要和这些词组后的名词一致。 【
  26】反意疑问句 1 ○. Nothing, everything it 2 ○ nobody, somebody, everybody they 3 ○ this , that it / these, thosethey 4 ○ Do sit down, won’t you? Give me a hand, will you? Open a window, would you? Shut up, can’t you? Don’t forget , will you? Let’s shall we / Let us will you 5 ○ I don’t think she cares, does she ? I suppose that he is serious, isn’t he ? 6 ○ There aren’t any problems, are there? 【
  27】后面一定要接动名词的动词有: admit, advice, appreciate, avoid, complete, consider, delay, enjoy, finish, can’t help, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, put off, quit, recall, recommend, resent, resist, risk, suggest , 2
2010 专转本英语考试语法浓缩精华版

  28】后面一定要接不定式的动词有 afford, agree, arrange, claim, decide, determine, choose, demand, expect, fail, hesitate, hope, learn, ménage, mean, offer, prepare, pretend, promise, want, wish. Try + 动名词= 试一试看, 看看会发生什么结果 Try + 不定式= 作一番努力 Mean+动名词=意味着 Mean+不定式=打算做 Remember, forget, regret +动名词表示发生在较早的事, 接不定式表示发生在 remember 等之后的事。 【
  29】物主代词和所有格的名词可以和动名词连用, 表示动作是由谁做的 Do you think my going there will be of any help? Please excuse my interrupting you ? 【
  30】have trouble/ difficulty/ a hard time/ fun/ a good time doing sth. Spend time/money doing sth / on sth There is no doing sth There is no knowing how long he might be away. 没法知道他可能离开多久。 There is no sense/ point / use doing sth Feel like doing sth 【
  31】不定式在 except/ but 之后 如果 except/ but 之前 有动词 do 的某种形式, 其后通常用不带 to 的不定式, 否则带 to They did nothing except work. There is no choice but to wait. 【
  32】would rather/ cannot but/ cannot help but / might as well 后面跟不带的不定式 I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast. You can’t help but respect them. 【
  33】在 Rather than( 宁可……而不)后面。 位于句首时, 其后跟不带 to 的不定式; 位于句中是, 可 带也可不带 to. Rather than cause trouble, he left. He decided to write rather than telephone. The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 【
  34】不定式的构成 一般形式 I have a lot of work to do. 进行体形式 She had no need to be worrying. 完成体形式 he is said to have left Shanghai. 被动态 The matter to be discussed at the meeting is a hard nut to crack. They were all waiting for the gate to be opened. 被动态的完成体 He is sure to have been taught by a good musician. 【
  35】动词+介词 to 的词组 ( 既 to 后要接动名词)有: confess to / contribute to / resort to / submit to/ object to / stick to/ yield to / react to/ consent to / relate to 【
  36】动词+名词/代词+ 介词 to apply…to / accustom…to / confine…to / devote…to / dedicate…to / owe…to / prefer…to / reduce…to 【
  37】动词+副词小品词+介词 to get round to 找到时间做 face up to 勇敢地面对 get down to 开始认真做 look forward to 盼望; 期待 【
  38】以介词 to 结尾的复杂介词 according to 根据; 按照 owing to 因为 as to 关于 previous to 在……以前 prior to 在……以前 thanks to 多亏 in addition to 除……以外 in relation to 论及; 关于 with a view to 为……目的 【
  39】More …than / not…so much as 与其……不如 George is more intelligent than aggressive.与其说乔治言行方式, 不如说他聪颖过人。 The present crisis is much less a political than an economic crisis. 当前的危机与其说是政治危机不如说是经济危机。 【
  40】Cannot (be) too 越……越好: You cannot be too careful when you are driving. 你驾车的时候要特别小心。 【
  41】分词短语做定语象是一个简化了的定语从句。 过去分词做定语表示的是一个被动, 已经完成的动 作; 若要表示一个和句子的谓语同时发生的动作, 就要用 being +过去分词 Most people invited to the party were old friends. =Most people who had been invited …..) 3
2010 专转本英语考试语法浓缩精华版
Did you see the boy being questioned by the police? =….the boy who was being questioned …?) [42]现在分词做定语只能用于叙述和句子的谓语差不多同时发生的动作。 Anybody touching the wire will get electric shock.= Anybody who touches the wire 【
  43】分词的完成时( 如 having seen, having lost) 不能用作定语; being 除了用于被动结构外, 也不 能出现在用作定语的分词短语了 Do you know anybody who has lost a car? 不能说: Do you know anybody having lost a car The books on that shelf are mine . 不能说: the books being on that shelf 【
  44】分词短语可用作状语, 说明句子的动词和整个的句子。 其作用就象是一个状语从句。 Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. = Because she was unable to ..,….. Living in the country, we had few amusements. = As we live ….. Given better attention, the flowers could have grown better. = If they were given ( 有时, given 解释为考虑到, 相当于 considering) 【
  45】分词作状语时, 如果动作在谓语的动作发生之前就已经完成了, 就要用分词的完成时。 Having seen that movie before, I don’t want to go again. = Because I have seen….. Not having made adequate preparations, we decided to put off the meeting. = As we hadn’t made.. Having finished all my letter , I had a drink and went out . = After I had finished ……. 【
  46】分词短语和句子的主语不同时, 有时分词短语可以有自己的主语 The shower being over, we continued to m march. (= When the shower was over, we ..) Weather permitting, we will have an outing tomorrow. (= If weather permits, we…) He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. ( …and his face was covered …) 【
  47】带主语的分词结构用来表示伴随情况时, 常常可以在前面加上介词 with The day was bright with a fresh breeze blowing. With winter coming on, it’s time to buy warm clothes. She sat with her head bent. 【
  48】分词和分词短语可以用在表示感觉的动词如 feel, hear, observe, see, smell, 以及其他某些动词像 catch, find, get, have, keep, leave, set 的宾语后面作宾语补足语的作用 I am sorry to have kept you waiting. Jane’s narrow escape left her shaking with terror. I found him drinking my whisky. / He found the door closed. 【
  49】. as 在定语从句中的用法( 见例句显示) She was absent, which / as is often the case. As was expected , he performed the task with success. This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. ( 类似的) This is the same pen that I lost yesterday . ( 同一支笔) 【
  50】 倍数 . times as + 形容词或副词的原级+as We have produced twice as much as cotton this year as we did in 19
  62. Times + 形容词比较级+than Strings of the same thickness made of nylon are five times stronger than those . 用尼龙制作的同样粗的
 

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