英语总复习语法系列训练
被动语态详解
( 一) 语 态 分 类
英语动词有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态。 英语动词有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态。主动语 态表示主语是动作的执行者, 态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的 承受者。 承受者。如: They will build a new bridge over the river. (主动 主动) 主动 A new bridge will be built over the river. (被动 被动) 被动
(二) 被动语态的时态、人称和数的变化 被动语态的时态、
主要体现在be的变化上,其形式与系动词be的变化形式完全 主要体现在 的变化上,其形式与系动词 的变化形式完全 的变化上 一样。 为例,列表如下: 一样。以give 为例,列表如下: 一般现在时: am / is / are + given 一般现在时: 一般过去时: was / were +given 一般过去时: 一般将来时: shall / will be + given 一般将来时: 一般过去将来时: should / would be+ given 一般过去将来时: 现在进行时: am / is / are + being + given 现在进行时: 过去进行时: was / were + being + given 过去进行时: 现在完成时: have / has + been + given 现在完成时:
(三)被动语态常用的八种时态

  1. 一般现在时: 一般现在时: People grow rice in the south of the country. Rice is grown in the south of the country. The school doesn't allow us to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher. We are not allowed to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher. teacher.
  2. 一般过去时: 一般过去时: They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month. The building of a new car factory was agreed on last month. The students didn't forget his lessons easily. His lessons were not easily forgotten.

  3. 一般将来时: 一般将来时: They will send cars abroad by sea. Cars will be sent abroad by sea. They will give plenty of jobs to school-leavers. Plenty of jobs will be given to school-leavers. school-

  5. 现在进行时: 现在进行时: The radio is broadcasting English lessons. English lessons are being broadcasted on the radio. We are painting the rooms. The rooms are being painted.
  6. 过去进行时: 过去进行时: ? Why didn't they drive there on time? ? Because the workers were mending the road. Becuse the road was being mended. mended. This time last year we were planting trees here. Trees were being planted here this time last year. year.
  7. 现在完成时: 现在完成时: Someone has told me the sports meet might be put off. off. I have been told the sports meet might be put off. off. We have brought down the price. The price has been brought down.

  9. 含有情态动词的被动语态: 含有情态动词的被动语态: 含有情态动词的被动语态是由“情态动词+ 含有情态动词的被动语态是由“情态动词 be+ 及物动词的过 去分词”构成。 去分词”构成。 You must hand in your compositions after class. He can write a great many letters with the computer.
Your compositions must be handed in after class. class. A great many letters can be written with the computer by him.
(五)主动语态变被动语态的方法

  1) My aunt invited me to her dinner party. ) 主语 谓语 宾语 → I was invited (by my aunt ) to her dinner party. 主语 谓语 宾语 (
  2) The school set up a special class to help poor readers. ) → A special class to help poor readers was set up in the school.
  1.把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。 把主动语态的宾语变成被动语态的主语。 把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的be 过去分词,
  2.把主动语态的谓语变成被动语态的 be + 过去分词 , 时态要与原 句保持一致。 句保持一致。 把主动语态的主语变为介词by 的宾语, 3 . 把主动语态的主语变为介词by 的宾语, 放在被动语态里谓语动 词之后, 短语可以省略。如果原句主语是地点名词, 词之后, by 短语可以省略。 如果原句主语是地点名词, 在被动语 态中用in 态中用in + 地点名词作状语。 地点名词作状语。
(六)语态转换时所注意的问题
把主动语态变为被动语态时,
  1. 把主动语态变为被动语态时 , 其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态 保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。 保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。 We have bought a new computer. A new computer has been bought. (正确 正确) 正确 A new computer have been bought. (错误 错误) 错误
  2. 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时, 可分别将其中的一个宾语变 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时, 为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。 为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。 My uncle gave me a present on my birthday. I was given a present on my birthday. 保留宾语 如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人)前加适 如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人) 当的介词,如上句还可以说: 当的介词,如上句还可以说: A present was given to me yesterday.
注意:一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介词 to,如: 注意:一般在下列动词后, ,
bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。 The cup with mixture was showed to the class. My bike was lent to her. 一般在下列动词后, 一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for, 如: build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。 Mother made me a new skirt. (A new skirt was made for me. ) The meat was cooked for us. Some country music was played for us. 有些既不用to 也不用for, 根据动词与介词的搭配关系。 根据动词与介词的搭配关系。 有些既不用 也不用 He ask me a question. (A question was asked of me. ) People all over the world know the Great Wall. The Great Wall is known to people all over the world. (不用 短语 不用by短语 不用 短语)

  3. 由动词 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作为整体看,即 由动词+ 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作为整体看, 把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。 把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。这类动词 有: 不及物动词+ 介词, 不及物动词+ 介词,如: agree to, ask for, laugh at, operated on, listen to, look after, think of, talk about 等。 The patient is being operated on. on. The problem is solved. It needn't be talked about. solved. about. 及物动词+ 副词: 及物动词+ 副词:如:bring about, carry out, find out, give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put off, think over, turn down, work out, turn out 等。 His request was turned down. down. The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather.

  4. 带复合宾语 宾语 宾补 的动词改为被动语态时,一般把主动结构中的宾语改 带复合宾语(宾语 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时 宾语+ 的动词改为被动语态时, 为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。 为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓语动词后面。如: We always keep the classroom clean. →The classroom is always kept clean. She told us to follow her instructions. →We were told to follow her instructions. 注意: 注意:在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾 等动词后作宾 语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to,但改成被动语态后都带 ,这时不定式为主 ,但改成被动语态后都带to, 语补足语,也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。 语补足语,也就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略 的问题。 We often hear him play the guitar. →He is often heard to play the guitar. 注意:带有复合宾语的句子,如果宾语补足语是名词,变被动句时, 注意:带有复合宾语的句子,如果宾语补足语是名词,变被动句时,应将宾语变 为主语,不要误把宾语补足语的名词作主语。 为主语,不要误把宾语补足语的名词作主语。如: Tomatoes were first taken back to Europe and people called them love apples. apples. 误:Love apples were called them. 正:They were called love apples.

  7. 当否定句中的宾语是 当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定代词时, 等不定代词时, 等不定代词时 在被动句中应将其分别变为nothing, nobody, no one作主语,并 作主语, 在被动句中应将其分别变为 作主语 将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。 将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。如: They haven't done anything to make the river clean. 误:Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean. clean. 正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.
  8. 以who为主语开头的疑问句,变被动时,用by whom放在句首: 为主语开头的疑问句, 放在句首: 为主语开头的疑问句 变被动时, 放在句首 Who wrote the story? 误:Who was the story written? 正:By whom was the story written?

  11. 在汉语中,有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构来表示,例 在汉语中,有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构来表示, 如: 据说…… It is said that … 据说 据报导…… It is reported that … 据报导 据推测…… It is supposed that … 据推测 希望…… 希望 It is hoped that … 众所周知…… It is well known that … 众所周知 普遍认为…… It is generally considered that … 普遍认为 有人建议…… It is suggested that … 有人建议
  1) It is reported that it is going to rain tomorrow.
  2) It is well known that Thomas Edison invented the electric lamp.
在英语语言中,被动语态是极常见的语言现象,人们进行语言 在英语语言中,被动语态是极常见的语言现象, 交际,离不开对被动语态的使用, 交际,离不开对被动语态的使用,熟练掌握被动语态也为下一步学 习打下良好的基础,在动词形式,不定式等结构中, 习打下良好的基础,在动词-ing 形式,不定式等结构中,都有被 动式,都需要运用被动语态的知识去理解。 动式,都需要运用被动语态的知识去理解。
 

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