专门替中国人写的英文基本文法
第 一 章 第 二 章 第 三 章 第 四 章 第 五 章 第 六 章 第 七 章 第 八 章 第 九 章 第 十 章 第十一章 第十二章 第十三章 第十四章 序 英文文法的最基本规则..... ..... 现在式和现在进行式.... .... 过去式和过去进行式.... .... 完成式........ ....... 未来式........ ....... 否定句子....... ....... 问句......... ........ 被动语气....... ...... 动词如何转换成名词.... ... 如何将动词改成形容词... ... 词组与子句...... ...... 冠词...... ...... 形容词的比较级.... ... 总复习的例子.... .... 练习题解答 I 1 11 19 27 43 50 56 64 83 99 112 127 158 171
第一章
英文文法的最基本规则
英文和我们中文最大的不同,是在动词,我们中文的动词很简单,没有所谓的第几人称,也 没有复数和单数之分,更没有过去式或进行式,英文可不同了,凡是用动词的时候,必须注意很多 很多的规则,一旦弄错了,常常是犯了大错. 在这一章,我要将英文最基本的规则一一列下.这些规则都是我们中国人所常常不注意的. 为了不要误导读者,凡本书内错误的句子前面都有"*″的符号. 规则(
  1) :两个动词是不能联在一起用的. 在中文,我们常说"我是爱你的",翻成英文,这就变成了 * I am love you. 滑稽的是,这句英文句子犯了大忌,因为"am″是动词,"love″也是动词,两个 动词是不能联在一起用的.这句话的正确说法是: I love you. 或者 I am in love with you. 我们中国人也会说"我喜欢看电视″,翻成英文,这变成 * I love watch television. 这个句子也犯了同样的错. 以下几个句子都是错的,因为这些句子中都有两个动词连在一起的情形: * I hate eat fish. * I love play basketball. * I love swim. 如果你一定要讲"我爱游泳",怎么办呢?请看以下的规则. 规则(
  2) :如一定要同时用两个动词,后者的前面必须加"to"或者将后者加入"ing". "我爱游泳",因此有两种正确的译法: I love to swim. I love swimming. 以下的句子都是正确的: I hate to eat fish. I hate eating fish. I love to play basketball.
I love playing basketball I keep going to church. 规则(
  3) :主词如果是第三人称,现在式及单数,动词必须加 s. 我们中国人最不容易记得的规则,恐怕就是这一条了,以下的句子都是错的. * He write very well. * Jack love playing the violin. * Mary swim every day. 正确的句子是: He writes very well. Jack loves playing the violin. Mary swims every day. 规则(
  4) :绝大多数的否定的句子,不能直接加"not". 我们中文对否定语气,规则极为简单,我们可以说"我不爱你",但是我们不能说 * I not love you. 我们也不能说: * I not saw that movie. * I not like swimming. * He not likes playing violin. 我们必须用一种助动词来完成否定的句子,以下才是正确的否定句子: I do not love you. I did not see that movie. He does not like playing violin. 请注意,在以上的句子中,do 和 did 都是助动词,do 是现在式,did 是过去式. 关于现在式和过去式,究竟是怎么一回事,以后我们会解释清楚的. 助动词不限于"do"和它的变型,can,will,would,shall,may,must 等等都是助 动词,因此,以下的英文句子又都是对的: He can not swim. They will not go to church tomorrow. Mary should not go to the party. I shall not see you. He may not go out tonight. He must not eat meat any more. 规则(
  5) :在不定词"to"的后面,必须用原形动词 英文中的动词,是会变化的,以 have 为例,第一人称和第三人就不同: I have a dog. He has a dog. 如果是过去式,动词又要变化.have 的过去式是 had,不论第几人称,一概都要用 had. 几乎每一个英文动词的过去式都有变化,以下是几个例子: 现在式 过去式 go went come came eat ate play played swim swam 不论那一个动词,都有一个原形动词,一切都是从这个原形动词变出来的,像 go, drink,have,walk,love,like 等等都是原形动词. 如果我们有必要要用不定词 to,就必须用原形动词,例如 to go,to drink,to have, 都是正确的,*to went;*to drank;*to loved 等等都是错的. 英文中有一个动词最为麻烦,那就是 am,are,is,was,were 等等,翻译成中文,
这都是,而这些动词的来源都是 be,所以我们说这些动词都是 verb to be. 以下的句子都用上了"be″ I want to be a teacher. He wants to be a good father. They all love to be rich. No one likes to be poor. 规则(
  6) :英文中有所谓的助动词.必须注意 英文中有很多动词都是助词动,在规则(
  4)中,我们说在绝大多数的否定语句中, 必须用助动词 do 或 did.Do 是原形动词,did 和 does 都是 do 的变形. 除了 do 是助动词以外,can,may,might,will,would,must 也都是助动词. 以上所提到的助动词,都有一个共同的特色,那就是这些助动词后的动词必须是原 形动词,以下的句子都是正确的: He can swim. He does not swim. I do not speak English. You must walk to work every day. I did not work yesterday. You may leave now. I will go to Taipei tomorrow. 以下的句子都是错的: * I did not went. * He does not goes to work. * You must walked to work. 除了以上的助动词以外,还有一个非常特殊的助动词,那就是 have,在这个助动词 的后面,动词绝对不能用原形动词,以下是用这个助动词的例子: I have been to England. I have slept all day. I have studied English since I was a child. been,slept 和 studied 都是过去分词(past participle) ,以下的句子也都是现在完 成式,我们后讨论完成式的时候,会将这些解释清楚的. 规则(
  7) :英文问句要有助动词 我们先看看以下的英文句子,这些都是错的: * How many books you wrote? * How many sons you have? 正确的句子是: Why do you drink so much water? How many books did you write? How many sons do you have? 绝大多数的英文问句子是一定要有助动词,以下全是正确的英文问句,你可以看出 每一句的助动词吗? Do you love me? Did you go to school yesterday? How many books do you have? How much money does he have? Why don't you go back home? Do you like to swim? Can you play violin? Will you go home tomorrow? Would you give me a call? 当然啦,一旦动词是 verb to be,我们又不需要助动词了,以下都是正确的英文问
句: Are you a teacher? Is he a student? Is Mr. Chang your father? Were your mother and father in England last year? 规则(
  8) :特殊动词随主词的变化 英文中,有些动词因主词不同而改变,verb to be 是其中之一,因此,我们必须记 得以下的规则: 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 现在式 单数 I am You are (He,She,It)is 复数 We are You are They are 单数 (He,She,It)was I was You were 过去式 复数 We were You were They were Verb to have 也有类似的变化: 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 单数 I have You have (He,She,It)has 现在式 复数 We have You have They have 单数 (He,She,It)had I had You had 过去式 复数 We had You had They had 【练习一】 以下的句子都有错,请将正确的句子写出来:
  1.* I am like my parent.
  2.* He is loves his teacher.
  3.* He keeps swim every day.
  4.* He wants drink a glass of water.
  5.* He likes play violin.
  6.* Jack do not love mathematics.
  7.* Mary hate singing.
  8.* My mother cook very good food.
  9.* He want me to see him tomorrow.
  10.* He not knows my name.
  11.* I not like you.
  12.* He not like swimming.
  13.* You not went home.
  14.* I not like swimming.
  15.* I wanted to went to my mother's home.
  16.* I do not like to swimming.
  17.* I did not ate dinner.
  18.* I will not went home.
  19.* He did not went home.
  20.* You may leaving now.
  21.* He can swimming.
  22.* He does not goes to work. 第二章 现在式和现在进行式 2 1 现在式 英文中,现在式(present tense)好像是最容易的,其实现在式都是我们常常用错的时式. 首先,我们不妨举一个例子来说明我们对现在式惯有的误解,假设我们要说"我在吃午饭″,这总
该用现在式了吧.很多人将这句话翻成 I eat lunch. 这就错了,因为"I eat lunch.″的意思并不是"我在吃午饭″,而是"我有吃午饭的习惯″, 意思是说,有人中午不吃午饭(可能是在减肥) ,我可是每天中午都会吃午饭的. "我在吃午饭″,应该要用现在进行式,这是我们以后会谈的. 现在式不是指任何一个行为,而是一种状况.举例来说,以下几句话都应该用现在式: I am a student. 我是一个学生 He is a teacher. 他是一个老师 He swims every day. 他每天游泳 Tom works hard 汤姆勤奋工作 He gets up early. 他早起 Mary loves watching movies. 玛莉喜欢看电影 It rains often here. 这里常常下雨 I drink a glass of milk every day. 我每天喝一杯牛奶 I am a Chinese. 我是中国人 He speaks English. 他会讲英文 He drinks tea. 他有喝茶的习惯 I ride a bicycle to school. 我骑脚踏车上学 He rides a bus to go to work. 他搭乘公车上班 I do not like you. 我不喜欢你 He loves his wife. 他爱他的太太 He obeys the law. 他守法 I do not like Shakespeare. 我不喜欢莎士比亚 He does not smoke. 他不抽烟 He drinks. 他喝酒 He sings well. 他唱歌唱得很好 He dances well. 他跳舞跳得很好 He can not swim. 他不会游泳 He is not a good student. 他不是一个好学生 They are all very lazy. 他们都很懒 凡是真理,自然界的现象,数学里的定理,都要用现在式: The sun rises in the east. 太阳从东方升起 The earth is round. 地球是圆的 The moon is a satellite of the earth. 月亮是地球的一个卫星 America is a large country. 美国是一个大的国家 The sun never sets at the North Pole in 在北极的夏天,太阳永不落下 summer. Tree leaves absorb CO2 . 树叶吸收二氧化碳 The basic principle of computers is 计算机的基本原理是布尔代数 Boolean algebra Two points define a line. 二点决定一线 Three points define a plane. 三点决定一平面 Three of the basic colors are red, yellow 三基本颜色是红,黄,蓝 and blue. 【练习二】 将以下中文句子翻成英文,都用现在式.
  1.他是一个好学生.
  2.我的哥哥 17 岁.
  3.我弟弟每天游泳.

  4.他们都喜欢音乐.
  5.他们现在在日本.
  6.喜玛拉雅山是全世界最高的山.
  7.亚马孙河是全世界最长的.
  8.他的爸爸是位老师.
  9.我们都喜欢中国菜.
  10.他不喜欢冰淇淋.
  11.我爱你.
  12.每个人都怕蛇.
  13.每个人都喜欢狗.
  14.今天真冷. 2 2 现在进行式 假如我们正在做一件事,是不能用现在式的,而必须用现在进行式,现在进行式的形态是: verb to be + present participle(现在分词) verb to be 大家都懂,什么叫做现在分词呢?现在分词就是 动词+ing 以下是现在分词的例子 动词 现在分词 work working go going read reading run running play playing swim swimming sing singing write writing eat eating walk walking come coming love loving like liking watch watching smoke smoking 如果我们说 I am watching a movie. 那是指我现在正在看电影,这和 I watch movies. 意义上截然不同的,I watch movies 是说我有看电影的习惯. 因此有些动词是没有现在进行式的,举例来说 I am loving you. 是不通的,因为严格说起来,love 是一种状态,而不是一个动作.现在进行式,都是指动作,很 少指状态的. 以下是现在进行式的例子: I am calling my father. He is swimming now. He is playing basketball. They are all eating now. He is walking in the woods now. He is reading a detective novel. Mr. Brown is driving to work.
Mrs. Brown is cooking. It is raining now. 【练习三】 将以下句子译成英文,都用现在进行式:
  1.他在看电影.
  2.我在游泳.
  3.她在和她妈妈打电话.
  4.他的哥哥在散步.
  5.我现在正在吃饭.
  6.我们在唱歌.
  7.他在弹钢琴.
  8.他在看一本小说.
  9.我在写一封信.
  10.他在跑步. 【练习四】 将下列句子译成英文,有的用现在式,有的用现在进行式:
  1.我爱你.
  2.我正在吃饭.
  3.他不是一个学生.
  4.我是一个老师.
  5.他正在唱歌.
  6.他在游泳.
  7.他喜欢游泳.
  8.他会唱歌.
  9.他正在唱歌.
  10.他的爸爸是一个医生.
  11.他的爸爸在美国.
  12.我正在洗澡.
  13.他正在睡觉.
  14.你的姊姊在骑脚踏车.
  15.你的姊姊每天骑脚踏车上学. 第三章 过去式和过去进行式 3 1 过去式 过去式是指过去所发生的事,举例来说,假如我昨天去看了一场电影,我就可以说 I went to see a movie yesterday. 以下全部是正确的句子: I saw your father last night. I met your son last month. I ate three apples this morning. He went to church to pray last night. 可是,我们必须非常小心,因为一不小心,我们就可能犯了大错,我们如果要向情侣表示爱情,当 然说 I love you. 如果我们说 I loved you. 事情就可能闹大了,因为这表示我过去曾经爱过你,可是现在已经不爱了."I loved you″等 于是"I loved you before. But I do not love you now.″ 假如我们看过一个小男孩然后我们说 He was a good boy.
那就是说他现在已不是一个好男孩了,变成了一个不乖的孩子,或者他已经死了. 英文里的过去式常常是侦探用来破案的线索.有一次,有一个母
 

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