倒 装 结 构 inversion
英语句子的自然语序是“ 谓语” 英语句子的自然语序是“主语 + 谓语”。 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前, 如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前,这 种语序被称为“倒装” 种语序被称为“倒装”。谓语全部放在主语之 全部倒装;只把助动词, 前,为全部倒装;只把助动词,连系动词或情 态动词放在主语之前, 部分倒装。 态动词放在主语之前,为部分倒装。 倒装的原因, 倒装的原因,一是语法结构的需要 如某些疑问句);二是为了强调; );二是为了强调 (如某些疑问句);二是为了强调; 三是保持句子的平衡或是上下文紧密相接。 三是保持句子的平衡或是上下文紧密相接。
一、 全 部 倒 装
(谓语全部放在主语之前) 谓语全部放在主语之前)
此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时

  1.there be句型 其中 动词有时可 句型, 动词有时可exist, live, stand, lie, 句型 其中be动词有时可 seem, appear,remain, happen 等词代替 全部倒装) 等词代替(全部倒装 全部倒装)
  1) There is an experienced teacher and many lovely students in the classroom.
  2) There lay a winding brook in front of an old house.
  2.方位词 out, there, here, inside, outside, up, down, 方位词in, 方位词 away, off, downstairs, upstairs等以及 等以及now, then放在 等以及 放在 句首时,谓语动词常用be, run等 句首时,谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run等, 并且句子的主语是名词。 全部倒装) 并且句子的主语是名词。(全部倒装)
  2) Now comesthe bird which I boughtfloor.
  1) Away flew your turn to sweep the yesterday. 注意:主语是人称代词时,仍用自然语序。 注意:主语是人称代词时,仍用自然语序。 Away they went. (=They went away.)

  3.直接引语的一部分或全部放在句首时,有时用倒装。
  3.直接引语的一部分或全部放在句首时,有时用倒装。 直接引语的一部分或全部放在句首时 (全部倒装) 全部倒装) “What’s up, Tom?” asked Mother. “The car is mine,” said Tom. 注意:主语是代词时,不倒装。 注意:主语是代词时,不倒装。 “The car is mine,” he said.
  4.为了平衡句子结构的需要,或为了强调状语(
  4.为了平衡句子结构的需要,或为了强调状语(常为介词 为了平衡句子结构的需要 短语) 或为了使上下文紧密衔接时, 短语),或为了使上下文紧密衔接时,将状语提前 全部倒装) (全部倒装)
  1)They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.
  2)Nearby were the canoes in which they had come to the island.

  5.主语太长,表语太短,为了平衡句子结构的 主语太长,表语太短, 需要,将表语提前。 全部倒装) 需要,将表语提前。 (全部倒装)

  1. Inside the pyramid are the burial rooms for the kings and queens.
  2. Gone are the days when we are enslaved.
  3. Present at the meeting are ten famous writers.
  4. Among the children was an old man. such和be连用作表语时 也常用倒装语序, such和be连用作表语时,也常用倒装语序,如: 连用作表语时,
  1. Such was not his intention.
  2. Such are the facts.
二、 部 分 倒 装
把助动词,连系动词或情态动词 把助动词, 放在主语之前

  1.用于疑问句。 部分倒装)
  1.用于疑问句。(部分倒装) 用于疑问句 Shall everything be ready before you arrive? What can I do for you? 注意:疑问词做主语或修饰主语时,主谓不颠倒. 注意:疑问词做主语或修饰主语时,主谓不颠倒 Who can work it out? How many students have read this book?
  2.用于省略if的虚拟条件从句中,
  2.用于省略if的虚拟条件从句中,should / were / 用于省略if的虚拟条件从句中 had 被放在句首。(部分倒装) 被放在句首。 部分倒装)
  1)Had I not adopted my class teacher’s advice, I would have made such a serious mistake.
  2)Were she you, she would tell her parents the truth.
  3) Should I earn money, I should live better.

  3、so, as, neither, nor, no more 位于句首,表示前面的 位于句首, 情况也适合于另一人或物时。 部分倒装) 情况也适合于另一人或物时。(部分倒装) Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. -- Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? -- I don't know, . A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 注意:若只是表示对前面所述内容的肯定,确认, 注意:若只是表示对前面所述内容的肯定,确认, 主谓不倒装 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. “It's raining hard.” “So it is.”

  4. 含有否定意义的副词或连词置于句首,如hardly, 含有否定意义的副词或连词置于句首, rarely, seldom, scarcely, barely, never, not, few, little, neither, nor, not only, hardly…when, in no case, by no means, no sooner…than, many a time, often 等。 部分倒装) (部分倒装)
  1)Not until the 19th century was the written examination probably known.
  2)Not only was everything he had taken away from, but also his German citizenship.
  3)Not a single mistake did he made.
  4)Hardly had I reached the bus stop when the bus started.

  1. Hardly anyone believe that today.
  2. Not only you but also she has been to Beijing.
  3. Neither the girls nor John is to blame. 注意
  1:修饰或连接主语时, 注意 :修饰或连接主语时,主谓不倒装 performance. I have never seen such a performance. 注意2 如否定词不在句首不倒装, 注意
  2: 如否定词不在句首不倒装,例如:
  1. Not only is she a good singer, but also she is a good dancer.
  2. Neither did he watch TV nor did he go to the cinema.
  3. Not until it is dark will we come home.

  5.only + 状语(副词、介词短语、状语从句)放在 状语(副词、介词短语、状语从句) 句首时。 部分倒装) 句首时。 (部分倒装)
  1)Only then did I realize the value of reading aloud every morning.
  2)Only by means of talking can we avoid misunderstanding each other.
  3)Only when the war was over in 1918 was he able to get happily back to work.

  6.“so /such +表语/状语 + that从句”结构中的 “ 表语/ 从句” 表语 从句 so 或such引导的表语 状语放在句首时。 引导的表语/状语放在句首时 引导的表语 状语放在句首时。 部分倒装) (部分倒装)
  1)So frightened was she in the darkness that she ) didn’t dare to move at all.
  2)Such a lovely child is he that all of us love him. )
  3)So hurriedly did she leave that she forgot ) to switch off the lights.

  7.用于形容词(名词/动词)
  7.用于形容词(名词/动词)+ as/though 用于形容词 的让步状语从句中。 的让步状语从句中。 特殊倒装) (特殊倒装)
  1)Proud as they are, they are afraid to see us.
  2)Child as he is, he knows a lot. ( A small child as he is, he knows a lot.)
  3) Try hard as they would, they could not lift the box.
  4) Youngest as he is in our class, his pronunciation is the best.

  8. 用于表示祝愿和祝福之类的句子中。 用于表示祝愿和祝福之类的句子中。 (部分倒装或全部倒装) 部分倒装或全部倒装)
  1)May you succeed / be happy! )
  2) Long live the People’s Republic of China!
Exercises:
  1.Not until all the fish died in the river how serious the pollution was.
A.did the villagers realize B.the villagers realize C.the villagers did realize D.didn’t the villagers realize
  2.It was not until 1920 regular radio broadcasts began. A.while B.which C.that D.since

  3.I finally got the job I dreamed about. Never in all my life so happy.
A.did I feel B.I felt C.I had felt D.had I felt

  4. ? Why can't I smoke here? ? At no time in the meeting-room.
A. is smoking permitted B. smoking is permitted C. smoking is it permitted D. does smoking permit

  5.No sooner than it began to rain heavily.
A. the game began B. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun

  6. ? Do you know Tom bought a new car? ? I don't know, .
A. nor don't I care C. I don't care neither B. nor do I care D. I don't care also

  7. can you expect to get a pay rise.
A.With hard work B.Although work hard C.Only with hard work D.Now that he works hard

  8.Now Sally’s turn to keep guard. A.there is B.is going C.has come D.comes
  9.Not only polluted but crowded. A.was the city; were the streets B.the city was; were the streets C.was the city; the streets were D.the city was; the streets were

  10.So that no fish can live in it. A.the lake is shallow B.shallow the lake is C.shallow is the lake D.is the lake shallow
  11.Little about his own safety, though he was in great danger himself. A.does he care B.did he care C.he cares D.he cared
  12.Was it in 1969 the American astronaut succeeded landing on the moon. A.when; on B.that; on C.when; in D.that; in

  13. for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often. A.If it is not B.Were it not C.Had it not been D.If they were not
  14.David has made great progress recently. , and .
A.So he has; so you have C.So has he; so have you B.So he has; so have you D.So has he; so you have

  15.Here the good news for every man and every woman who in the town. A. is ; live B. is; lives C. are; live D. are; lives
Homework:

  1. Review Version
  2. Finish English weekly
 

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