Welcome to English Grammar Class
Lecturer: 梁燕葵(Liang Yankui) Elementary Education Department of Foshan Educational Science Institute
Chapter 1 General Introduction
Before learning grammar, please think over and answer the following questions:

  1.What is grammar? How do you understand it?
  2.Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? Why or why not?
  3.How many parts of speech (词类)are there in English?
  4.What are Notional words (实词)and Form words(虚词)?
  5.由短语构成的词类有几种?
  6.什么是短语(词组)? 短语分为多少类?
  7.句子的主要成份有哪些?

  8.How many types of sentence?
Answers to the questions: Grammara study of the organization of language Grammar 词法 (Morphology) 句法( Syntax) 词法研究词形变化的部分。如名词的数、格, 形容词和副词的比较级和最高级,动词的时态、 语态等都属于词法范围。 句法研究句子结构的部分。如句子的成分、语 序以及句子种类等都属于句法范围。
语法图表 词法: 词法 名词(单、复数,所有格) 数词(基数词、序数词、分数词) 动词(时态、语态、语气) 形容词(原级、比较级、最高级) 副词(原级、比较级、最高级) 十大词类 代词(人称、物主、指示、疑问、关 系等) 介词(简单、合成、成语介词) 冠词(定冠词、不定冠词) 连词(并列连词、从属连词) 感叹词
句子的主要成份主语、谓语、表语、宾语、定语、状语 句子种类: 陈述句 (declarative sentence) 按功能划分 祈使句 (imperative sentence) 感叹句 (exclamatory sentence) 疑问句 (interrogative sentence) 一般疑问句(general question) 疑问句 特殊疑问句(special) 选择疑问句(alternative) 反意疑问句(disjunctive) 简单句 (simple sentence) 按结构划分 并列句 (compound sentence) 复合句 (complex sentence)
Chapter 2
Word Formation
转化词形不变,由一种词类转化为另一词 类,如book(书n.)-(订购v.) 派生通过加前缀或后缀构成另一个词,如 happy-unhappy work-worker 合成由两个或更多的词合成一个词,如 first+class first-class hard-working duty-free forget-me-not
(课间休息,请欣赏)卡萨布兰卡
fell in love with you watching Casablanca Back row of the drive-in show in the flickering light Popcorn and cokes beneath the stars became champagne and caviar Making love on a long hot summers night I thought you fell in love with me watching Casablanca Holding hands 'neath the paddle fans in Rick's candlelit cafe Hiding in the shadows from the spots Moroccan moonlight in your eyes Making magic at the movies in my old Chevrolet Oh! A kiss is still a kiss in Casablanca But a kiss is not a kiss without your sigh Please come back to me in Casablanca I love you more and more each day as time goes by I guess there're many broken hearts in Casablanca You know I've never really been there So, I don't know I guess our love story will never be seen on the big wide silver screen But it hurt just as bad when I had to watch you go I love you more and more each day as time goes by
Practice 说出下列词属于哪种构词法 Sunflower, triangular, bottleneck, television, mini-computer, deadline, boyish, dorm, WHO, entrance, break-through, ad. brunch, monthly, superman, women-teachers. 要点: 要点
  1.转化(功能转换)常见情况 v. n. 也有: v. adj. n. v. n. adj. adj. v. n. adv. adv. v. num. v. adj. n. 另有: v. n. (词形不变,重音改变) record, research

  2.派生(derivation) ?加前缀一般不改变词类,只改变词意。 但前缀en-, be-, a- 可以和名词或形容词构成动词。 ?加后缀通常只改变词类,词意不变。
  3.合成 主要类型: attribute (定语) 合成形容词 (compound adj.) Predicative (表语) Subject (主语) 合成名词 (compound n.) Object (宾语)
一些次要的构词法

  1) Clipping / Shortening截短法 / 缩短法
  2) Blending混合法
  3) Initial letters and acronyms 缩写词和首字母缩略词
  4) trade name, load words 商标名; 外来词
Practice ? Give the full form of each of the following
ad flu lab dorm fridge ? Complete the sentences by giving compound nouns
  1.She makes dresses. She is a .
  2.The machine washed clothes. It is a .
  3.He likes to collect stamps. He is interested in
. Assignment: 熟记含有否定意义的前缀及表示特定意思 的前缀(课本24-31页)
Homework: ? Tell how the underlined words in these sentences have been converted. Eg. (v. n.)
  1.Slow ( )down before you reach the crossroads. )his change and left.
  2.He pocketed (
  3.The gang of four wronged( ) a lot of innocents( ).
  4.He was admitted to the university after a three-year wait( ).
  5.Many of his friends backed( ) his plan. ?Complete the sentences by adding prefixes
  1.If a person is against pollution, then he is pollution.
  2.This happened after the war. It was a war event.
  3.He used the machine too much. He used the machine.

  4.That country has not been fully developed. It is developed.
  5.Last week he made his house larger. He house.
  6.He spelt the word incorrectly. He spelt the word. larged his

  7.They were husband and wife before. She is his wife. Assignment: 熟记含有否定意义的前缀及表示特定意思的 前缀(课本24-31页)
Chapter 3 Nouns 名词
一、名词的种类及复数变化
专有名词(proper n.) (不可数) 名词 个体名词 (可数名词) 普通名词 集体名词 (common n.) 物质名词 (不可数名词) 抽象名词 加-s books teachers(基本)[s][z] 加-es boxes buses [iz] heroes [z] 名词的复数变化: 把 “y”改 “i”再加es factories [iz] 改f/fe为v加es wife?wives [vz] ※ roofs chiefs safes [fs] 不变 deer sheep 特殊变化 child--children
二、名词的数、格、性
  1.名词的数(number) 补充: ?外来语的复数形式:

  1)词尾 is
  2) 词尾 on
  3) 词尾 um
es a a
basis bases phenomenon datum medium
crisis
crises
phenomena
data media foci / focuses

  4) 词尾 us
i / es
focus
?复合名词的数
  1)中心词改为复数
passer-by passers-by; brother-in-law brothers-in-law

  2)复合名词中有一个是动词时,则在词尾加S forget-me-nots; grown-ups
  3)前后两词均改为复数 woman-teacher women-teachers
  2.名词的格(case) 主格(nominative case) 宾格(objective case) 通格(common case)
所有格/属格(possessive/genitive case ) 名词所有格的构成法及用法
?所有格的形式 The Possessive Case
  1)单数 -'s Hellen’s doctor
  2)复数 -s' ladies’ hats a dog’s tail teachers’ office
-'s Children’s Day
  3)复合名词 最后一词+ 's father-in-law’s car
  4) 以and连接的两个名词 共同所有(最后一个名词加‘s ) Tom and Mary’s school 各别所有(分别加's ) Tom’s and Mary’s schools
?无生命的名词所有格(of属格)
  1)the + 所有物 +of + (the, that, my…) +所有者 the door of our classroom the leaves of that tree 例外: Do you know the name of the teacher talking to John over there?
  2)表示价格、距离、时间、重量等的名词,单数加 ’s;复数加 ’ 拟人化 for God’s sake Heaven’s will 时间 today’s newspaper ten minutes’ walk 距离 three miles’ journey
重量 twenty pounds’ weight 价格 ten dollars’ worth of coffee 惯用语 to one’s heart’s content 尽情地;心满意足 ?双重所有格(Double genitive) (a, 结构:(a, an, this that, these, those, some, any, no)+ 名词+ of + ’s(所有格代词) (表示部分或带有某种感情色彩) this beautiful picture of yours a friend of my father’s
This good child of yours is really loved by every one! 你这个好宝贝,真是逗人爱! That damned husband of hers. 她那个该死的 丈夫!
Assignment:
  1.自学名词的性(gender)部分 (feminine gender阴 性 ; masculine gender阳性 and neutral中性)
  2.熟悉名词在句子中的作用
(课间休息,请欣赏) Country Road Take me Home Almost heaven west Virginia Blue ridge mountains Shenandoah river Life is old there older than the trees Younger than the mountains Growin like a breeze Country roads take me home To the place I belong West Virginia mountain momma Take me home country roads All my memories gather round her Miners lady stranger to blue water Dark and dusty painted on the sky Misty taste of moon shine Tear drops in my eyes I hear her voice in the morning Hours she calls me Radio reminds me of my home far away Driving down the road I get a feeling that I should have been home yesterday, Yesterday Country roads take me home To the place I belong West Virginia mountain mamma Take me home country roads
Chapter 4 The Article 冠词 重点掌握:
  1. 冠词的种类及用法 用于不限定的单数名词之前 定冠词(the) 用于特定的单数或复数名词之前 e.g. We work eight hours a day. (每天) I will never forget the day when we got married. The tea of Hangzhou is very good.
  2. 何时使用“a” 或“an” a用于辅音(发音)之前 (“phonetic” not “letter”) an用于元音(发音)之前 “(phonetic” not “letter”)
不定冠词(a, an)
e.g. a useful book an umbrella a house a high price
a one-eyed man an old man an hour an honest boy
一、不定冠词的用法 (6项) 二、定冠词的用法(10项) 三、专有名词与定冠词(3+8项) 四、零冠词(12项) 五、冠词的位置
一、不定冠词(a, an)的用法 用 法 例 句 1 a = one(表示一 There is a book on the desk. 个 Rome was not built in a day. 2 a = any, every A dog is a faithful animal. (表示同类的全 = The dog is a faithful animal. 体) = Dogs are faithful animals. 3 a = the same Birds of a feather flock together. (同样的) 物以类聚. They are of an age. 他们同年. 4 a = per(每一) He came home twice a month. We work eight hours a day. (每天)
5 a = a certain (某一个) 6 a = one like (像…的人) 二、定冠词
Do you know a Mr. Smith? A Mr. Brown called on you. He wishes to become an Edison. 他希望成为像爱迪生那样的发明家.
the + 前面出现过的 1 名词
They have a son and a daughter. The son is a doctor and the daughter is a teacher. This is the most interesting story I 最高级 2 the + 序数词 +名词 have ever heard. He was the first man to come here. only Man is the only animal that can same talk.
3 the + 比较级+ of the two 4 play the + 乐器
He is the taller of the two.
She plays the piano (guitar/ violin) very well. 5 宇宙独一无二的东西 the earth / moon / sea / sun/ world / sky Turn to the right / the left / the 6 方向;方位 north / the south They are paid by the month / hour. 7 by the + 计量名词 (按;论;以…计) by the dozen / by the pound He took me by the hand. 8 the + 身体部位 He hit me on the head
9
The rich (= rich people) are not always happier than the poor (= poor people). The beautiful (=beauty) lives forever 短语 He is the student who I taught. 10 the +名词 + 从句 The lamps on the wall are very pretty. (表示特定的人或事物) 三、专有名词与定冠词
  1、专有名词前不加 不加定冠词 不加 用 法 例 句 人名、地名、国名 Mary is the best student in the class. Shanghai is the largest city in China. 1 China is the largest country in Asia.
the+ 形容词 = ①复数普通名词 ②抽象名词
2 周日名和月名
We have no class on Saturday. National Day comes on October
  1. 3 街(路)名、车 Our college lies at 5 West Tongji Road. 站(前面有专有名 We met at Guangzhou Station. 词)、公园 Zhongshan Park is a very beautiful place.

  2、但在下列情形下要加 要加定冠词 要加 1 the + 姓氏复数(指 The Wangs live nest door. 全家人) 2 正式国名的“全称” the United States 或带有of的短语 the People’s Republic of China the city of Foshan (= Foshan City)
3 被限定的专有名词
Tom is the Newton of the age. 汤姆是当代的牛顿 (=科学家) 4 山脉;群岛 (孤岛、 the Alps 阿尔卑斯山脉 独山之前不加) the Philippines 菲律宾群岛 但Mt. Tai 泰山 Mt. Ali 阿里山 5 与“水”有关的名称,the Pacific Ocean 太平洋 如海、洋、河、湖等 the Yellow River 黄河 the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河 the Sun Moon Lake 日月潭 the People’s Great Hall 6 公共建筑物 the White House the Military Museum
7 书报、杂志
8 全体国民
the Bible 圣经 the Times 泰晤士报 the People’s Daily The Chinese are a peace-loving people. 中国人是爱好和平的民族。 the Americans / the English
四、零冠词 (名词前不用冠词,我们称之为零冠词) 1 表示总称的复数名词 2 称呼用语 家人称谓 (家人称谓 3 在任何位置,第一 个字母须大写) Children love cartoons. Sir, please give me a cup of tea. Father won’t be home for dinner. I refused to answer Mother’s question.
4 三餐名称
What do you often have for breakfast / lunch / supper / dinner Mathematics / chemistry is difficult 5 学科名称 to learn. 6 表示“职务、头衔” We made him chairman of the 的名词作补语或同位 Student’s Union. 语 Brown, leader of the class, is an able man. by ship / car / taxi / train / letter 7 by + 运输方法 /land / sea 运动、游戏的名称 8 They like to pl
 

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