限定词( 第 5 讲:限定词(一)
限定词包括:①冠词;②物主限定词;③指示 限定词;④关系限定词whose, which;⑤疑问 限定词;④关系限定词whose, which;⑤疑问 限定词what, 限定词what, which, whose;⑥不定限定词no, whose;⑥不定限定词no, any, some, each, every, enough, either, neither, all, both, half, several, many, much, (a) few, (a) little, other, another;⑦基数词,序数词;⑧倍数词, another;⑦基数词,序数词;⑧倍数词, 分数词;⑨量词a 分数词;⑨量词a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a great greatgood deal of, a largesmall amountquantity large amount of, a greatlaregegood number of greatlarege
一,数量限定词(表示名词的数量) 数量限定词(表示名词的数量)
1,数量限定词 英文中的数量词常用的有: ⑴只与可数名词连用 ①只接单数的:one, each, every ②只接复数的:two, three, etc., both, a couple of, a few, 只接复数的:two, few, several, man, a number of ⑵只与不可数名词连用:a little, little, much, a great deal of, a large number of ⑶与可数名词复数或不可数名词连用均可:not any, some, a lot of, lots of, plenty of, most, all
2,数量词与of连用 数量词与of连用
在上述数量词中,有些还可以接of短语连 在上述数量词中,有些还可以接of短语连 用,具体用法如下: ⑴all, most, some, any of+特指限定词+复数可 数或不可数名词.比较: Most books are interesting. Most of books are interesting. Most of mythesetheJohn's books are interesting.
⑵many, a few, few, several, both, two, three of+ 特指限定词+复数可数名词.比较: Many students are good at English. Many of students are good at English. Many of these students are good at English. ⑶much, a little, little of+特指限定词+不可数 名词.比较: Much water is wasted. Much of water is wasted. Much of the water is wasted. 注:以上 这些"特指限定词"包括:this, that, these, those; my, their, John's等名词所有格;the
⑷其他数量词如a lot of, lots of, a couple of, plenty of, a number of, a great deal of一般直接 与名词连用.
特别关注: 特别关注:all(三个或以上都) both(两个都)的 用法,研究下列句子: All students are smart. 所有的学生都很聪明. All of my students are smart. All my students are smart. All of students are smart. both和all的用法类似.但其他数量词不能像all 第三 种句子这样用.
3,数量词a few, few, a little, little 数量词a
⑴ 与名词搭配 a few, few后面只能接可数名词复数;而a little, little后 few后面只能接可数名词复数;而a little后 面只能接不可数名词 ⑵ 肯定,否定之别 A few, a little意思是肯定的,相当于some,表示"有 little意思是肯定的,相当于some,表示" 一些".而few, little意思是否定的,表示" 一些".而few, little意思是否定的,表示"很少, 几乎没有" 几乎没有".例如: ①His theory is rather difficult; few people understand it. =almost no people inderstand it. ②His theory is rather difficult, but a few people understand it. ③I have little interest in English, so I am very poor at it. ④I have a little interest in English, so I like learning it.
⑶ 与only或very搭配 only或very搭配 我们只能说:only 我们只能说:only a little, only a few;而不 few;而不 能说:only 能说:only little, only few.但为了强调否定 few.但为了强调否定 意义,我们可说:very 意义,我们可说:very few, very little.例如: little.例如: His theory is rather difficult and students can understand it. A. only few B. only a few C. only little D. only a little
4,数量词some, any 数量词some,
⑴ 从与名词搭配来看,some和any均可以与不可数 从与名词搭配来看,some和any均可以与不可数 名词和可数名词复数连用,表示"一些" 名词和可数名词复数连用,表示"一些".some 一般用在肯定句中;而any一般用在否定句中.例 一般用在肯定句中;而any一般用在否定句中.例 如: ①Clint is busy. He always has some work to do. But John is lazy. He never does any work. ②Last night I was very hungry and I wanted some food to eat. But now I am not hungry and I don't want any food to eat. ③I need some medicine to cure my cough. ④I want to buy some computer books. ⑤I don't have any friend here.
⑵ 在疑问句中,我们多数情况用any,但是在 表示我们期待一个正面回答或要鼓励对方说 "是"时,要用some在疑问句中.例如: ①Have you got any medicine to cure your cough? ②Would you like to give me some advice? ③Can I have some more wine? ⑶ any可以表示"无论哪一个,任何一个", 此时可用于任何类型的句子.例如: You can catch any bus. They all go to the railway station.
1,不定冠词a, an的位置 ,不定冠词a, an的位置 ⑴不定冠词a用在以辅音音素 ⑴不定冠词a用在以辅音音素(并非辅音字母)开头 辅音音素(并非辅音字母)开头 的名词前;不定冠词an用在以元音音素 的名词前;不定冠词an用在以元音音素开头的名 元音音素开头的名 词前.例如: ①An apple a day keeps the doctor away. ②Old Hen: Let me give you a piece of good advice. Young Hen: What is it? Old Hen: An egg a day keeps the ax away. ③Telling lies is a fault in a boy, an art in a lover, an accomplishment in a bachelor, and second-nature in a secondmarried man. ⑵An还用在发音以元音开头的单个字母前面.例如: An还用在发音以元音开头的单个字母前面.例如: ①an SOS sign ②An L letter is in the word "letter". letter"
2,名词与冠词使用的重要技巧 从名词角度来看,对于名词与冠词的使用, 以下几条是核心: ⑴ 单数可数名词:单数可数名词不能单独使 用,必须与冠词或其它限定词连用. ⑵ 复数名词和不可数名词:对于复数名词和 不可数名词,以下两点必须掌握:
  2)复数名词或不可数名词在表示泛指时,不 可用the.复数名词或不可数名词在表示特指 特指 时,要用 要用the. 要用
例如: ①Life is hard sometimes. Life is education in itself. The writer is writing a book about the life of blacks in America. ②I love music, poetry and art. I don't like the film, but I like the music (of the film). ③Air is a colorless and tasteless gas. The air in this room is stuffy. Please open the windows. ④Books become more and more expensive. Put away the books on your desk. ⑤Pencils contain lead (铅). Who put the pencils on the desk? ⑥Sugar isn't very good for you. Can you pass me the sugar, please? 请注意,表示特指的复数可数名词或不可数名词,他们一般带 请注意 有各种短语或从句作后置定语,以限定这些名词所指的事物范 围.
⑴ 第一次提到的单数可数名词前面用不定冠 词a或an,这一名词再次出现则要用定冠词 an,这一名词再次出现则要用定冠词 the: the: ①A man came up to a policeman and asked him a question. The policeman didn't understand didn' the question, so he asked the man to repeat it. ②I had a banana and an apple. I ate the banana and gave the apple to Clint.
⑵ 在谈到说话人和听话人双方都知道的事物 时,要用the.比如在自己家的房间里,我们 要说the light, the floor, the door, the window, the carpet.例如: ①Can you turn off the light, please? (=the light in our room) ②Shut the door, please! ③How do you like the film? ④A: Do you need the car today, honey? B: Yes. I have a lot of things to do. Why don't I drive you to work today? C: OK. But be sure to fill the car up with gas.
⑶ 表示世界上独一无二的事物:the earth, the sky, the equator, the moon, the world, the universe ⑷ 形容词或副词最高级,序数词以及only用作形容 词加名词连用时,它们前面一般要用the.例如: ①the onlybest way to cope with the problem ②This is the first time I've come to Beijing. ⑸ 在乐器,乐队,合唱团及流行音乐团体前加the. 例如:the Beatles,the Philadelphia Orchestra, playlearn the guitar,learn the piano 注意:运动项目前不用the.如play chess, play football 注意 (basketball, table tennis)
⑹专有名词前带有表示职业的词语或限制性 修饰词时,要用the. ⑺海洋,江河,海湾,山脉,群岛,沙漠, 以复数形式出现的地理名称,带有of词组的 岛名,一般要用the. ⑻组织,机关,机构,公共建筑,车船等名 称前,大多用the. ⑼许多报纸,杂志名称前带the. ⑽度量衡名称之前常用the.
⑴ 表示独一无二的身份前一般不用冠词.例 如: ①Elizabeth Ⅱ, Queen of England ②They elected Henry chairman. ③Henry was elected chairman of the committee. ④He was elected President for the second time. ⑤She is chairman of the committee. ⑥For the first time I am king of myself. ⑦Elect whom you choose to be king. ⑧Mr. Smith used to be president of our band.
⑵ 表示球类,棋类运动项目时不加冠词. 例如:play football, play chess, play tennis ⑶ 下列这些限定词彼此排斥,不能同时 出现在名词前面:
  1)冠词:the, an, a;
  2)物主形容词:my, your, his, her, our, their;
  3)指示形容词:this, that, these, those;
  4)名词属格:Tom's, John's
⑷ the在一些特殊的名词前省略:
  1)nature:泛指自然界(动,植物及无生命 物质的世界).例如:in nature If you destroy nature you will suffer for it.
  2)society:泛指我们在其中生活的这个社会, 一般不用冠词.例如:in society Society turns people into criminals and then locks them up.
  3)space:泛指星球之间的空间时,不用冠词. 例如:in space Man has just taken his first steps into space.

  4)man:泛指整个人类时,不用冠词.例如: ①Man can conquer nature. ②From early times man has used garlic (大蒜). Through the years man has tried to cope with (处 理) the smell of garlic. But no herb, mouthwash, chewing gum, or toothpaste seems to help much. ③That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for man.
  5)history:泛指人类整个历史时,不用冠词. 例如: ①History may repeat itself. ②Throughout history man has had to accept the fact that all living things must die.
⑸ 在一日三餐名词前不用冠词.例如: ①have something for breakfast ②invite somebody to dinner ③I was invited to dinner. 若在三餐名词前有形容词时,则一般加不定 冠词.例如:We often have a big lunch and a nice dinner. ⑹ 交通工具名词前不用冠词.例如:by bicycle, by boat, by car, by plane, by train, by metro (subway, tube)等. 但若用介词on,则须用冠词.on the train, on the plane, on the boat(特别注意:on foot步行, 不加冠词.)
⑺ 大多数地名,湖泊名称,道路,广场, 车站,机场,公园,桥梁名称,节假日 名称前不用冠词. ⑻职位,职称,官阶,职业等名称,疾 病名称,餐食名称之前不用冠词. ⑼在一些固定介词搭配中不用冠词.例 如:face to face, arm in arm, hand in hand, shoulder to shoulder, side by side, inch by inch, day after day, dentist after dentist
5,school与the school school与
表示地点的名词如bed, 表示地点的名词如bed, church, court, hospital, prison, schoolcollegeuniversity, sea, work, office等.当人们去这 office等.当人们去这 些地方做在这些地方应该做的事情时,上述这些名词 前面不加冠词.因为这时这些名词只表示一种抽象概 念,说话人并非特指具体的地点.如果我们去这些地 方不是要做特定的事情,而是由于其它原因,则要用 the.例如: the.例如: ①His mother is in hospital and he has been in the hospital to take care of her. ②He is often invited to the prison to give lectures. He is in prison for bribery. ③Bill Clinton came into office in 19
  92. Bill Clinton came into the office and saw Lewinsky working there.
其它类似的还有:①to schoolcollegeuniversity (to study) ;②to church (to pray) ;③to hospital (as patients) ;④in class,in the class 当然我们也可以用其它介词:
  1) atfrominto schoolcollegeuniversity);
  2) atfrominto school;
  3) toinintofrom church
  4) toinintoout of prisonhospitalbed);
  5) toatfrom work;
  6) toat sea;
  7) toinfromout of town;
  8) atfrom home;
  9) go to sea (as sailors) go to the sea=go to the seaside;
  10) be at sea (as passengers or crew) be at the sea=be at the seaside;
  11) by sea=by ship by the sea=by the seaside;
  12) be in office be in the office;
  13) be out of office be out of the office
6,"泛指概念"的四种表达方式 泛指概念"
⑴ 由以上得知,不带the的不可数名词表示泛指.例: 由以上得知,不带the的不可数名词表示泛指.例: ①I like music. ②Gold is a metal. ⑵ 由以上得知,不带the的复数可数名词表示泛指.例: 由以上得知,不带the的复数可数名词表示泛指.例: ①Bananas are yellow. ②I am afraid of dogs. ⑶ "the+单数可数名词"可以表示泛指(当然也可以 the+单数可数名词" 表示特指).例如: ①The whale is the largest mammal on earth. ②The whale is dead. ③The elephant is the largest land mammal. ④The elephant over there has only one tusk.
⑷ 不定冠词"a(n)+单数可数名词"可以表示 泛指.当然也可以含有"one"这一数量意义. 注意比较: ①I ate a banana this morning. ②A banana is yellow. ③I saw a dog enter the room. I ④A dog makes
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