常见的语法术语摘要 常见的语法术语摘要
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  42. 名词 noun 动词 verb 形容词 adjective 数词 numeral 代词 pronoun 介词 preposition 副词 adverb 连词 conjunction 冠词 article 感叹词 interjection 结构:structure 简单句 simple sentences 并列句 compound sentences 复合句 complex sentences 倒装句 inverted sentences 省略句 elliptical sentences 陈述句 declarative sentences 疑问句 interrogative sentences 祈使句 imperative sentences 感叹句 exclamatory sentences 否定句 negative sentences 被动句 passive sentences 虚拟语气句 subjunctive sentences 同义句 synonymous sentences 歧义句 ambiguous sentences 委婉句 euphemisms 强调句 emphasis 疑难句 difficult sentences 叙述句 narrative sentences 说明句 expository sentences 议论句 argumentative sentences 人物描写句 descriptive sentences of people 动作描写句:descriptive sentences of actions 环境描写句 descriptive sentences of environment 日常口语句 sentences for everyday talk 实用情景句 sentences of actual situations 课堂教学句 sentences of classroom teaching 名人语句 quotations 格言句 maxims 谚语句 proverbs 状语 adverbial 补语 complement 宾语 object 宾语补助语 objective complement 表语 predicative 主语 subject 谓语 predicate 谓语动词 finite verb 非谓语动词 non-finite verb 情态动词 modal verb 并列 coordination 选择 alternative 转折 transition 对比 contrast 原因 cause 结果 effect 解释 explanation 动词时态 verb tenses 一般现在时 simple present (tense) 一般过去时 simple past (tense) 一般将来时 simple future (tense) 过去将来时 future (tense) in the past 现在完成时 present perfect (tense) 过去完成时 past perfect (tense) 将来完成时 future perfect (tense) 现在进行时 present continuous (tense) 过去进行时 past continuous (tense) 将来进行时 future continuous (tense) 现在完成进行时 present perfect continuous (tense) 主句 main clause 从句 subordinate clause 限定性定语从句 restrictive attributive clause 非限定性定语从句 non-restrictive attributive clause 宾语从句 object clause 壮语从句 adverbial clause 主语从句 subject clause 表语从句 predicative clause 同位语从句 appositive clause 双重复合句 double complex sentences 多重复合句 multiple complex sentences 插入语 parenthesis IT 引导的句子 IT sentences THERE 引导句 THERE sentences 省略名词 omission of noun 判断句 statements 列举句 enumeration 比较句 comparison 让步句 concession

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一般疑问句 general question 特殊疑问句 special question 选择疑问句 alternative question 反意疑问句 disjunctive question 陈述式疑问句 declarative question 省略疑问句 elliptical question 一般否定 general negation 全部否定 complete negation 部分否定 partial negation 双重否定 double negation 否定句 negative sentences 肯定句 affirmative sentences 主格 subjective case 宾格 objective case 所有格 possessive case 单数与复数 singular and plural 语序 word order 不定式 infinitive 动名词 gerund 现在分词 present participle 主动的 active 被动的 passive 语态 voice 标点符号 punctuation mark 抽象的 abstract 具体的 concrete 名言 saying 语气 mood 典故 allusion 习语 idiom 俚语 slang 外来语 foreign word 行话 jargon 直接引语 direct speech 间接引语 indirect speech 命题 proposition
课堂教学句 sentences of classroom teaching 开始上课 beginning of the class 我们开始吧 Let’s start/ Let’s begin now 让我们开始上课 Let’s begin our lesson. 今天我们上新课,先学生词,然后读课文 We are going to have a new lesson today. We’ll learn the new words first. Then we’ll read the text. 我们先学课文,然后提问。如果还有时间,就进行听写 First we’ll study the text, then I’ll ask you some questions. If time permits, we’ll have a short dictation. 今天的课这样上: 先讲课文, 然后用替换词做句型练习二。 最后做一些书面练习。 Today, the class will be conducted in this way: First we’ll go over the text. Then we’ll do pattern drill II with the substitutes. And finally we’ll do some written exercises. 我们今天要全面复习我们所学过的东西 Today we’ll have a general review of what we have learned so far. 我们把昨天学的内容温习一下 We’ll go over a little of what we did yesterday. 教学用语 Teaching 昨天我们讲到第 45 页的第三行,今天我们接着讲 Yesterday we went as far as the third line on page
  45. Today we’ll go on with the text. 我们接着昨天的讲 Let’s start from where we left off yesterday. 我记得我们还有三段课文未讲,我希望今天能把这课讲完 I remember we have three paragraphs to do. I hope I can wind up the lesson today. 今天我们上新课,请把书翻到第 20 页 Today we are taking up a new lesson. Please turn to page
  20. 我们先读词汇表。苏桌,请你读生词 We shall take the word list first. Su Zhuo, please read the new words. 今天我们讲课文 Today we’ll go over the text. 这篇课文时由一个短篇小说改写的 This text is adapted from a short story. 我给你们讲一下作者的生平 I’ll tell you something about the author’s life. 现在我把第 20 页上的课文读一遍 Now I’ll read the text on page
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  10. 现在我把课文给大家读一遍,你们听一下 Now I am going to read the text once for you to listen to.
  11. 现在你们听的时候不要看书 Now listen without looking at your books.
  12. 我把课文从头到文读一遍,你们仔细听 I’ll read the text through once. Follow me carefully.
  13. 我先读课文,请标上重音 Now I’ll read the text first. Mark the stressed syllables.
  14. 我想你们都预习了课文。谁来讲讲课文的大意? I think you’ve all previewed the text. Who would like to say something about the text?
  15. 现在我给你们讲一讲课文大意 Now I’ll give you the general idea of the text.
  16. 我想将这一段读一遍,然后再解释难句 I’ll read this paragraph first and then explain the difficult sentences.
  17. 你们对于这一段有什么问题吗?Have you got any questions about this paragraph?
  18. 还有问题吗?如果没有,我就讲下一段 Are there any questions? If not, I’ll explain the next paragraph.
  19. 现在我把课文译成中文 Now I’ll put (translate/change) the text into Chinese.
  20. 现有我一个人读,然后你们跟我读 I’ll read it alone first, and then you read after me.
  21. 现在你们轮流读课文,王芳,你先读 Now you are going to read the text one by one. Wang Fang, you start reading first.
  22. 现在请刘娜领着大家读课文 Now Liu Na, suppose you read the text. You others read after her, please.
  23. 请从头读起 Please read from the beginning.
  24. 请跳过这一段, 从下一段开始 Please skip this paragraph, and start with the next paragraph.
  25. 这篇文章的主题是什么? What is the theme of this essay?
  26. 还有 5 分钟,我们可以把课文在读一遍 There are still 5 minutes left. So we have time to read the text once more. 练习 Exercise 我们现在做句型练习 Now let’s do pattern drills. 请看替换词 Look at the substitutes. 我读句型并先做一遍,然后你们照样做 I’ll read the sentence pattern and do it first, then you do the same. 请按句型造句 Make sentences after the given patterns. 现在我们互相提问,然后请一位同学总结全课 Now we’ll ask each other questions. Then one of you will sum up the lesson. 现在我们来进行复述 Now let’s do some retelling. 现在请复述课文 Now try to retell the text. 想想看 Think it over 想一会儿 Think it for a while 再试一试 Try again 现在试着回答 Now, try to answer. 我相信,你要是认真想一想,一定能回答好这个问题 I’m sure you can answer this question well, if you think hard. 你能举几个例子吗?Can you give some examples? 有什么错误吗?Is there anything wrong?/ Any more mistakes?

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有什么评论吗?Any comments? 请到黑板前面来 Come to the blackboard 回到座位去 Go back to your seat 你能指出哪里有错吗?Can you point out any mistakes? 听写 dictation
准备听写 Get ready for dictation 现在听写 Now let’s have dictation. 我再念一遍,你们可以检查一下 Now I’ll read once more, and you check you work. 好了,把笔放下 All right, put down your pens. 同桌的同学和相交换练习本,互相改一改。Exchange your exercise books with your neighbour and correct each other’s mistakes. 把练习本交上来 Hand in your exercise books. 把练习本传到前面来:Pass your exercise books to the front. 你们都交了练习本了吗?Have you all handed in your exercise books? 辅导 coaching 有问题吗?Are there any questions? // Any questions? 还有问题吗?Have you any other questions to ask? 你们还有别的问题要问吗?Is there anything else you want to ask? 谁还有问题要问? Does anyone else have any questions to ask? 你们还有什么不明白的吗?Is there anything which you don’t understand? 我把各点都讲清楚了吗?Did I make everything clear? 也许你没有搞清我的意思,我再说一遍 I’m afraid you didn’t quite catch my meaning. I’ll say it once more. 布置作业 Homework 今天我讲给你们两份作业, 复习上周的语法, 并写出这个故事的摘要 I’m giving you two sets of homework today. Review last week’s grammar, and write a summary of this story. 今天的作业是:用黑板上的单词造句,背诵课文,做第 54 页上的练习 For today’s homework, make sentences with the words on the blackboard, learn the text by heart and do the exercises on page
  54. 你们的家庭作业是:仔细复习课文,准备口头回答问题 For your homework, review the text carefully and be prepared to answer questions orally. 熟读课文。星期三有一个测验 Learn the text thoroughly. You will be given a quiz on Wednesday. 这次作业是给你的朋友写封英文信,谈谈你的学校生活 For your homework, write an English letter to a friend, telling him about your life at school. 今天没有笔头作业, 星期五我们要做口头练习。 written work for today. We’ll have oral No drill on Friday. 熟读今天教的单词,必须掌握拼写方法、发音和词义 Learn the new words taught today. Be sure that you know their spelling, pronunciation and meaning. 你们做作业前必须复习今天所学的功课 You must review today’s lesson before doing your homework.

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  9. 把下列单词抄写在本子上 Copy the following words in your exercise book.
  10. 把第二段课文背下来 Learn the second paragraph by heart. 评语 Comment 从语法上来看,这句话不错,但它不太符合英语的习惯 Grammatically, it is all right, but it is not quite idiomatic. 这个句子不合语法 This sentence is grammatically wrong. 你的回答不很切题 Your answer is not quite to the point. 这学期你的英语进步很大 Your English has improved greatly this term. 你现在比以前说的更流利了 You can speak English more fluently now. 你考试刚刚及格 You just managed to pass the exam. 你学习不够努力。 你必须更努力些 You did not work hard enough. You must strive to work harder. 你期末考试很差 You did very poorly in the final exam. 我希望你们再接再厉 I hope you’ll persist in your efforts. 考试 examination 把名字写在试卷上 Put your name on our examination paper. 交卷前仔细把试卷检查一遍 Go over your papers carefully before you hand them in. 补考将在下学期开学初举行 The make-up exam will be at the beginning of the next term. 你的英语要补考 You will have to take a make-up exam in English. 你们许多人都考得很好 Many of you got good marks. 下课 end of the class 今天的课就到这里 That’s all for today. 休息时间到了 It’s time for break/recess. 时间到了 Our time is up. 现在我们休息一下 Now let’s have a break. 我们休息 10 分钟 Let’s rest for 10 minutes. 课上完了 The lesson is over. 下课 Class is over/ dismissed.

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