When/while/as A.when,while,as 引导时间状语从句的区别 when,while,as 显然都可以引 导时间状语从句,但用法区别非常大。 一、when 可以和延续性动词连用,也可以和短暂性动词连用;而 while 和 as 只能和延续性 动词连用。 ① Why do you want a new job when youve got such a good one already? (get 为短暂性动词) 你已经找到如此好的工作,为何还想再找新的? ②Sorry,I was out when you called me. (call 为短暂性动词)对不起,你打电话时我刚好外 出了。 ③Strike while the iron is hot. 为延续性动词,表示一种持续的状态)趁热打铁。 (is ④ The students took notes as they listened. (listen 为延续性动词)学生们边听课边做笔记。 二、when 从句的谓语动词可以在主句谓语动作之前、之后或同时发生;while 和 as 从句的 谓语动作必须是和主句谓语动作同时发生。
  1.从句动作在主句动作前发生,只用 when。 ①When he had finished his homework,he took a short rest. (finished 先发生)当他完成作业 后,他休息了一会儿。 ②When I got to the airport,the guests had left. (got to 后发生)当我赶到飞机场时,客人们 已经离开了。
  2.从句动作和主句动作同时发生,且从句动作为延续性动词时,when,while,as 都可使 用。 ①When /While /As we were dancing,a stranger came in. (dance 为延续性动词)当我们 跳舞时,一位陌生人走了进来。 ②When /While /As she was making a phonecall,I was writing a letter. (make 为延续性 动词)当她在打电话时,我正在写信。
  3.当主句、从句动作同时进行,从句动作的时间概念淡化,而主要表示主句动作发生的背 景或条件时,只能用 as。这时,as 常表示“随着……”“一边……,一边……”之意。 ; ① As the time went on,the weather got worse. (as 表示“随着……”之意) ② The atmosphere gets thinner and thinner as the height increases.随着高度的增加,大气越 来越稀薄。 ③As years go by,China is getting stronger and richer.随着时间一年一年过去,中国变得越 来越富强了。 ④The little girls sang as they went.小姑娘们一边走,一边唱。 ⑤The sad mother sat on the roadside,shouting as she was crying. 伤心的妈妈坐在路边,边哭边叫。
  4.在将来时从句中,常用 when,且从句须用一般时代替将来时。 ①You shall borrow the book when I have finished reading it. 在我读完这本书后, 你可以借阅。 ②When the manager comes here for a visit next week,Ill talk with him about this. 下周,经理来这参观时,我会和他谈谈此事。 三、 when 用于表示 “一……就……” 的句型中 (指过去的事情) sb. hardly 。 had (=scarcely) done sth.when..=Hardly / Scarcely had sb.done sth.when.. . . ①I had hardly /scarcely closed my eyes when someone knocked at the door.=Hardly / Scarcely had I closed my eyes when someone knocked at the door.我刚一闭上眼,就有人在敲 门了。 ②I had hardly /scarcely entered my room when the telephone rang.=Hardly /Scarcely had I entered my room when the telephone rang.我刚一走进房门,电话就响了
B. when 和 while 还可作并列连词。when 表示“在那时” ;while 表示“而,却” ,表对照关 系。如: a. The children were running to move the bag of rice when they heard the sound of a motor bike. 孩子们正要跑过去搬开那袋米,这时他们听到了摩托车的声音。 b. He is strong while his brother is weak. 他长得很结实,而他弟弟却很瘦弱。 Affect/effect/influence affect effect influence 作为动词, 都含“影响”的意思.affect 指“产生 的影响之大足以引起反应”,着重“影响”的动作, 有时含有“对...产生不利影响”的意思, 如:This article will affect my thinking.这篇文章将会影响我的思想。 effect 指 “实现” 、 “达成” , 着重“造成”一种特殊的效果, 如: This book effected a change in my opinion.这本书使我的看 法起了变化。influence 指“通过说服、举例等对行动、思想、性格等产生不易觉察到的,潜 移默化的影响”, 如: Influenced by a high-school biology teacher, he took up the study of medicine.在一位中学生物教师的影响下, 他从事医学研究。 Allow/permit/let/promise/admit allow(v. 意“允许” ) ,指允许某人做某事、不反对某人做 某事, 给予某人权力或特权, 常含有 “听任、 默认、 不加阻止, 不按常规行事” 的意思。 allow 不如 permit 正式。如: The teacher allowed us to leave school early.老师允许我们早点离校。 Smoking is not allowed in the lecture hall. 讲演厅不许吸烟。 If time allows, will come over to I have a chat with you.如果时间允许的话,我会过来和你聊聊。 注: allow 后的宾补要用带 to 的不定式, (
  1) 不用动名词。 如可以说: allowed him to do it. I 不 可以说:I allowed him doing it. (
  2) allow 后无人称代词时, 要用动名词, 不用带 to 的不定式。 可说: y parents don't allow M smoking.不可说:M y parents don't allow to smoke. permit(vt. 意“允许、准许” ) ,通 常可与 allow 通用, 含有积极的正面意义, 多用于正式场合, 指给予做某事的权利。 如: The doctor does not permit me to stay up late.大夫不允许我熬夜太晚。 Smoking is not permitted (allowed)here.此地不准吸烟。 If weather permits,we'll go sightseeing.如果天气允许的 话,我们会去游览。 He was permitted to talk to the prisoner.允许他和那个罪犯谈谈。 注: (
  1)allow 可以和副词连用,permit 则不能。如: Mary wouldn't allow me in.玛丽不愿 意让我进去。 (
  2)在表示客气的请求时,主语是 you 应用 permit,以表示下级对上级、幼辈对长辈、底 层人对上层人尊敬的请求。若主语用 I,则应用 allow 的被动形式。如: Will you permit me to use this knife?=May I be allowed to use this knife,please? let(vt. 意“让,允许” ) ,指允许某人做某事,比较口语化,其宾语后的不定式不带 to, 常可与 allow 换用,但祈使句中用 let,不用 allow,permit,被动语态中用 allow,permit, 很少用 let。如: Let me try.让我试试看。 She lets her children play in the streets.她让她的 孩子们在街上玩。 The students were allowed to miss the examination.允许学生们缺考。 promise 作“答应、允诺”讲时,用于主语答应自己要做某件事。 注意与 allow,permit 含义上的区别。如: They promised me to help us in the work.他们答 应(我)在工作中帮助我们。试比较: She promised me to go fishing.她答应我去钓鱼。 (指 she 去钓鱼)She allowed me to go fishing. 她允许我去钓鱼。指 I 去钓鱼)Her father promised ( her to go to their English evening.她父亲答应她去参加他们的英语晚会。 (to go 的动作发生 者是她父亲) Her father permitted her to go to their English evening. (句意与上句同,但 to do 的动作发生者是她) admit 意“认可” ,指在外界压力下不得不承认错误或事实,因而常译 作 “承认” 如: I admitted this to be true. 。 我认为这是真的。 They admitted me into their football team.他们吸收我加入他们的足球队。 The thief admitted having stolen the money.贼承认偷
了那笔钱。 a great many /a great number of /a great many of a great many /a great number of 可以通用 a great many 跟 a great many of 的区别 a great many 后面直接加复数可数名词 a great many of 后面跟限定语再跟名词 例如: a great many students a great many of "my" classmates "a great number of 和 a great many of 的区别" 跟"a great many 跟 a great many of 的区别"接近就是说 a great number of 后面直接加复数可数名词 a great many of 后面跟限定语再跟名词 agree with/agree to/agree on
  1. agree with①表示同意某人或某人的意见、想法、分析、解释等 (即持同一观点):I don’t agree with you. 我不同意你的意见。They agreed with this idea. 他 们同意这个想法。I agree with what you say. 我同意你说的。②表示“ (食物、天气、工作等) 对…适宜” :The weather does not agree with me. 这种天气对我不适宜。Hard work does not agree with him. 艰苦的工作对他不适宜。 ③表示 “与…一致” A verb must agree with its subject : in person and number. 动词必须和它的主语在人称和数方面保持一致。What he does does not agree with what he says. 他言行不一致。 agree to①主要用来表示一方提出一项建议、
  2. 安排、 计划等, 另一方同意协作: agreed to their arrangement. 我们同意了他们的安排。 agreed We She to marriage. 她同意结婚。有时 agree to 也可用来表示“答应”一件自己不愿做的事:I was forced to agree to it, but at heart I didn’t quite agree with it. 我被迫答应,但内心并不完全同 意。②后接 suggestion, plan, proposal 等名词时,与 accept 同义:Do you think he will agree to (=accept) my suggestion? 你认为他会同意 (接受)我的建议吗?③其后既可接动词原形 (此 时 to 是不定式符号), 也可接动名词 (一般有逻辑主语, 此时 to 是介词): agreed to go with He us. 他同意同我们去。 never agreed to Mary marrying him. 我从来没同意玛丽嫁给他。 agree I
  3. on [upon]①主要指双方通过协商而取得一致意见或达成协议: agreed on the price. 我们就 We 价格达成了一致意见。Both sides agreed on these terms. 双方都同意这些条件。②后接动名词 (=agree to do sth):He agreed on lending (=to lend) us some money. 他同意借给我们一些钱。 Mary agreed oncoming [to come] on Monday. 玛丽同意星期一来。
  4. 两点用法说明:(
  1) 后接 表示人的名词或代词时,一般只用 agree with。(
  2) agree 不能接不定式的复合结构,所以汉 语的“同意某人做某事” ,不能直译为 agree sb to do sth, 而应根据情况改用其它结构:他们 同意我去。 正: They agreed to let me go.正: They agreed to my going.误: They agreed me to go. by far/ so far 两者都是副词而不是介词,后面是不能直接接名词的。所以不管是哪一个都不 正确。 “直到这个春天”应翻译为 until this spring。 by far(最,显然:到达极为明显的程 度) She is by far the best executive in the company. 她目前是公司中最为优秀的决策人 so far 迄今为止: So far there's been no word from them. 至今没有他们的消息 到一有限的程度: You can go only so far on five dollars. 你顶多花五美元 eye a beam in sb.'s eye 某人本身的大缺点 a cast in one's eye 斜视 a cast in the eye 斜视 a single eye 目标专一 all my eye (and Betty Martin)(=all in my eye and Betty Martin) [俚]胡说八 道, 鬼话, 瞎说 an eye for an eye (=eye for eye) 以眼还眼, 一报还一报 appear to one's eyes 出现在....面前 armed eye 借助望远镜, 显微镜等器具扩大视力的眼睛 bat an eye 眨一下眼 睛 be all eyes 目不转睛[全神贯注]地看着, 非常留意 be in the public eyes 受到公共的注意 be unable to keep one's eyes off 目不转睛地看, 看入了迷; 羡慕地注视 be unable to take one's eyes off 目不转睛地看, 看入了迷; 羡慕地注视 before sb.'s eyes 当着某人的面, 公开地 under sb.'s eyes 当着某人的面, 公开地 believe one's (own) eyes [多用于否定句]相信自己的
眼睛(看到的) Better to have one eye than be blind altogether. [谚]独眼总比全瞎好。 black eye 有黑眼珠的眼睛 被打得发青的眼睛 挫折, 惨败 [美俚]名誉扫地, 臭名昭著; 丑事 black sb.'s eye 把某人的眼眶打得发青 blear sb.'s eyes 欺骗某人, 蒙蔽某人 bright in the eye [口]微 醉, 有醉意 by reason of the fair eyes of sb. 为了某人的缘故 by (the) eye (=by one's eye) 用眼 睛(估计), 凭眼力 camera eye 象照像机似的眼睛; 过目不忘的人 cast an evil eye (on) 不怀 好意的朝...看一眼, 用毒眼看 cast an eye on 瞟一眼, 粗略地看一下 cast an eye over 瞟一眼, 粗略地看一下 cast an eye at 瞟一眼, 粗略地看一下 cast sheep's eyes at sb. 含情脉脉地看某 人, 向某人送秋波 make sheep's eyes at sb. 含情脉脉地看某人, 向某人送秋波 catch sb.'s eye 与某人目光相遇; 引起某人注意 catch the Speaker's eye 获准发言 catch President's eye 获准 发言 clap eyes on [口]瞧见; 注视 lay eyes on [口]瞧见; 注视 set eyes on [口]瞧见; 注视 close one's eyes 睡眠 逝世, 长眠 close one's eyes to 闭眼不看; 假装看不见; 硬不承认 close turn a blind eye to 闭眼不看; 假装看不见; 硬不承认 shut one's eyes to 闭眼不看; 假装 看不见; 硬不承认 shut turn a blind eye to 闭眼不看; 假装看不见; 硬不承认 cock one's eye at sb. 向某人使眼色, 递眼
 

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   Grammar Infinitive 不定式没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语 不定式没有人称和数的变化, 态的变化。 态的变化。 主动语态 一般式 完成式 进行式 to do 被动语态 to be done to have done to have been done to be doing 否定式: 否定式: not / never to do 一、不定式的时态: 不定式的时态: (1) 不定式的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表 不定式的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表 示的动作几乎同时发生或在其 ...