一、绪论 语言学的定义 语言学的研究范畴 几对基本概念 语言的定义 语言的甄别特征 What is linguistics? 什么是语言学? Linguistics is generally defined as the scientific study of language. It studies not any particular language, but languages in general. 语言学是对语言科学地进行研究的学科。语言学 所要研究的不是某一种特定的语言,而是人类所有语言的特性。 The scope of linguistics 语言学研究的范畴 Phonetics 语音学\Phonology 音系学\Morphology 形态学\Syntax 句法学\Semantics 语义学 \Pragmatics 语用学\Sociolinguistics 社会语言学\Psycholinguistics 心理语言学\Applied linguistics 应用语言学 Prescriptive vs. descriptive 规定性与描述性 Descriptive:a linguistic study describes and analyzes the language people actually use. Prescriptive: it aims lay down rules for "correct" behavior. Modern linguistics is descriptive; its investigations are based on authentic, and mainly spoken data. Traditional grammar is prescriptive; it is based on "high" written language Synchronic vs. diachronic 共时性与历史性 The description of a language at some point in time is a synchronic study The description of a language as it changes through time is a diachronic study In modern linguistics, synchronic study seems to enjoy priority over diachronic study. Speech and writing 口头语与书面语 Speech enjoys priority over writing in modern linguistics study for the following reasons: (
  1) speech precedes writing in terms of evolution (
  2) a large amount of communication is carried out in speech tan in writing (
  3) speech is the form in which infants acquire their native language Language and parole 语言与言语 Language refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community Parole refers to the realization of language in actual use Competence and performance 能力与运用 Chomsky defines competence as the ideal users' knowledge of the rules of his language Performance: the actual realization of this knowledge in linguistic communication What is language? 什么是语言? Language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication Characteristics of language: 语言的特性 Language is a rule-governed system Language is basically vocal Language is arbitrary (the fact different languages have different words for the same
object is a good illustration of the arbitrary nature of language. This conventional nature of language is well illustrated by a famous quotation from Shakespeare's play "Romeo and Juliet": "A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.") Language is used for human communication Design features of language 语言的甄别特征 American linguist Charles Hockett specified 12 design features:
  1) arbitrariness 武断性
  2) productivity 创造性
  3) duality 二重性
  4) displacement 移位性
  5) cultural transmission 文化传递性
二、音系学 语言的声音媒介 什么是语音学 发音器官 音标……宽式和严式标音法 英语语音的分类 音系学和语音学 语音、音位、音位变体 音位对立、互补分部、最小对立 几条音系规则 超切分特征 Two major media of communication: speech and writing The limited range of sounds which are meaningful in human communication and are of interest to linguistic studies are the phonic medium of language. 用于人类语言交际的声音称为语音, 这些数目有限的一组语音构成了语言的声音媒介。 Phonetics 语音学: is defined as the study of the phonic medium of language; it is concerned with all the sounds that occur in the world's language. Three branches of phonetics : articulatory phonetics 发音语音学(most highly developed), auditory phonetics 听觉语音学 and acoustic phonetics 声学语音学 Organs of speech 发音器官 The articulatory apparatus of a human being are contained in three important areas or cavities: The pharyngeal cavity 咽腔??the throat The oral cavity 口腔??the mouth The nasal cavity 鼻腔??the nose Vibration of the vocal cords (声带) results in a quality of speech sounds called "voicing" 浊音,which is a feature of all vowels 元音 and some consonants 辅音。 单词补充:
  01) velum: The soft palate. 软腭 单词补充:
  02) uvula: A small, conical, fleshy mass of tissue suspended from the center of the soft
palate. 小舌,悬雍垂悬垂在软腭中央的小的圆锥状肉块
  03) larynx: n. 喉
  04) vocal cord: 声带
  05) membrane: n. A thin, pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connecting regions, structures, or organs of an animal or a plant. 膜薄而柔软的组织层,覆 盖在表面或分割连接各种区域、结构或动植物器官
  06) the soft palate: 软腭
  07) the hard palate: 硬腭
  08) the teeth ridge: 齿龈
  09) alveolus: A tooth socket in the jawbone 牙槽颚骨处的牙床
  10) the teeth: 牙齿
  11) the lips: 上下唇
  12) blade of tongue: 舌面
  13) back of tongue: 舌根
  14) pharyngeal cavity: 咽腔
  15) nasal cavity: 鼻腔
  16) velar: Articulated with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate, as (g) in good and (k) in cup.软腭音的用舌头后部挂触或靠近软腭清楚地发音的,如在 good 中的 (g)以及在 cup 中的(k)
  17) the tip of the tongue: 舌尖
  18) the upper front teeth: 上齿
  19) the roof of the mouth: 上颚
  20) the lower lip: 下唇 音标……宽式和严式标音法 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs) 元音(单元音&双元音) The constants 辅音 Broad transcription: transcription with letter-symbols only. (in dictionaries and teaching textbooks) 用一个符号来表示一个语音的标音方式叫做宽式标音法,这种音标法常见于词典和教科书。 Narrow transcription: the transcription with diacritics. 但实际上, 同一语音在不通的语音环境中的发音不尽相同, 比如 Pit 和 spit 中的/P/音发音就不 一样。 在宽式标音的基础上, 再用变音符号表示同一语音在不同的语音环境下不同发音的标音法叫做窄 式标音法。 Classification of English speech sounds 英语语音的分类 The basic difference between a vowel and a constant is that in the pronunciation of the former the air that comes from the lungs meets with no obstruction of any kind in the throat, the nose, or the mouth, while in that of the latter it is obstructed in one way or another. Classification of English constants 英语辅音分类 此主题相关图片如下:
Classification of English vowels :the position of the tongue in the mouth 舌位高低 :the openness of the mouth,口的张开程度 :the shape of the lips 园唇与否 :length of the vowels 元音的长度 此主题相关图片如下:
Phonology 音系学 Phonology and phonetics 音系学和语音学 Phonetics is of a general nature; it is interested in all the speech sounds used in all human languages. 语音学研究的是人类所有语言的语音,旨在对语音进行描述和分类。 Phonology is interested in the system of sounds of a particular language; it aims to discover how speech sounds in a language form patterns and how these sounds are used to convey meaning in linguistic communication. 音系学研究的重点是特定语言的语音体系,语音表达意义作用。
Phone,phoneme and allophone 语音,音位,音位变体 Phones, which can be simply defined as the speech sounds we use when speaking a language. 语音是语音学研究的单位, 是一个个具体的声音。 Phonology is concerned with the speech sounds which distinguish meaning. 音位是音系学研究的单位,是抽象的概念, 每一个音位是一组语音特征的集合体,音位具有区别 意义的作用。 The different which can represent a phoneme in different phonetic environments are called the allophones of that phoneme. 音位变体是一个音位在特定的语音环境力的具体体现, 同一音位在不同语音环境里体现为不同的 变体,也就是语音。 Phonemic contrast, complementary distribution, and minimal pair 音位对立,互补分布,最小对立对 rope and robe that /P/ and /b/ can occur in the same environments and they distinguish meaning; therefore they are in phonemic contrast. 可以出现在不同语音组合中的同一为止, 产生意义差别。 /P/ and /Ph/ these two allophones of the same phoneme are said to be in complementary distribution. When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment which occurs in the same place in the strings, the two words are said to form a minimal pair. [pen] and [ben] 最小对立对指出现在同一位置上的一个音之外其余都相同的两个语音组合。 Some rules in phonology 几条音系规则 Sequential rules 序列规则 :blik, klib , bilk, kilb is possible. But lbki, ilbk, bkil , ilkb not possible. Assimilation rules 同化规则 Deletion rule 省略规则 Sign, design, there is no {g} sound Signature, designation the {g} is pronounced. Delete a [g] when it occurs before a final nasal constant. Suprasegmental features?? stress, tone, intonation 超切分特征??重音, 声调,语调 the phonemic features that occur above the level of the segments are called suprasegmental features; 超切分特征指切分即单音层面以上的音系特征。 请结合《词汇学中的构词法 进行学习。 学中的构词法》 三、 MORPHOLOGY 形态学 请结合《词汇学中的构词法》进行学习。
语素:语言最小的意义单位 语素的类型 复合词的类型 复合词的特征
Morphology is a branch of grammar which studies the internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed. It is divided into two sub-branches: inflectional morphology and lexical or derivational morphology. 形态学研究单词的内部结构以及构词规则, 有屈折形态学和词汇形态学两大分支。
Morpheme:the smallest meaningful unit of language. 语素:语言最小的意义单位。
Free Morpheme: A free morpheme is one that can stand by itself. (independent) 自由语素可以作为单词独立使用。
Bound Morpheme: A bound morpheme is one that cannot stand by itself. 粘着语素必须和其他语素结合成单词 Bound Morpheme includes two types: (
  1) root (
  1)Inflectional affixes (屈折词缀)(inflectional morphemes): affixes attached to the end of words to indicate grammatical relationships are inflectional
  2)Derivational affixes(派生词缀) A) prefix: A prefix comes before words. B)suffix An adjective suffix (形容词后缀) that is added to the stem, whatever classis belongs to , the result will be an adjective. free=free root(自由词根)
Morpheme(词素) Bound root prefix bound derivational affix suffix inflectional
Root and stem(词根和词干)
  1) Root
  2) Stem
The differences between root and stem: A root is the basic form of a word which cannot be further analyzed without total loss of identity.
A stem is the surplus part after the cutting of inflectional morpheme in a word with inflectional morphemes,can be further analyzed, it sometimes could be a root. Individualistic Undesirables Individualist (stem) undesirable (stem) Individual (stem) desirable (stem) dividual (stem) desire (root, stem) divide(root, stem)
Affixation 词缀法(Derivation 派生法):adding word-formation or derivational affixes to stem. Prefixation 前缀@:It's the formation of new words by adding a prefixes to stems.
  1)'表示否定'nagative prefixes: un-,non,in-,dis,a- etc.
  2)''reversative or privative prefixes: un-,de-dis etc.
  3)'表示贬义'pejorative prefixes: mis-, mal-, pseudo- etc.
  4)'表示程度'degree or size prefixes: arch-, super-,out-,sub-,over-,under-,hyper-,ultra-,mini- etc.
  5)'表示方向、态度'orientation & attitude prefixes:counter-,contra-,anti-,pro- etc.
  6)locative prefixes:super-,sub-,inter-,trans- etc.
  7)'表示时间、次序'time and order prefixes:fore-,pre-,post-,ex-,re- etc.
  8)'表示数量'number prefixes:uni-/mono-,bi-/di-,tri-,multi-/poly- etc.
  9)'混杂'miscellaneous prefixes:auto-, neo-, pan-, viceSuffixation 后缀@: It's the formation of a new word by adding suffixes to stems.
  1)noun suffixes
  2)adjective suffixes
  3)Adverb suffixes
  4)verb suffixes
Compounding 复合法 (also called composition) Compounding: is the formation of new words by joining two or more stems Formation of compounds Noun noun(名词+名词) ?? handbook, sunshine Adjective noun(形容词+名词)??highway, deadline Adjective noun -ed(形容词+名词+ed)??white-haired, red-eyed Verb noun(动词+名词)??driveway, breakwater(挡水板) Adverb noun(副词+名词)??downtown, overburden Noun verb(名词+动词)??toothpick, snowfall Verb adverb(动词+副词)??follow-up, kick-off Noun adjective(名词+形容词)??world-famous, lifelong -ing form noun(ing 名词)??baking power, dining-room
other forms(其他)??go-between, father-in-law Features of compounds 复合词的特征
  1.Orthographically 书写特征 (Compounds ar


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