Mr. Yellow 寄语 2011 年全国考研学子: 年全国考研学子:
毋庸置疑,阅读是考研英语中最为重要的组成部分,这不仅仅是因为阅读占了总分数的 “半壁江山”,而且还在于阅读从根本上决定着我们考研英语的成败,因此,“考研成败在于 英语,英语成败在于阅读,阅读成败在于方法”。得阅读者得天下。考研阅读文章不仅难, 而且选项更具迷惑性,所以从考研准备阶段一开始就需要我们去认真对待阅读,先打好句 子分析这一关,然后重点掌握排除错误选项的技巧。
阅读理解 15 大原则
考研阅读共四篇文章,大约 1600 字,是国内英语考试中最难的考试。这些文章时效 性强,选自的杂志有 The Economist, Newsweek, Scientific Americans, Time 等,09 年的阅读 还选了一篇来自网络的文章。这些文章一般都会经过命题专家的删改后成为测试时所用的 文章,因此希望广大同学都阅读一些时效性强的英文报刊文章。 关于考研英语阅读理解的复习,我们应当掌握的最基本的应试方法就是命题专家的出 题思路和原则,考生应利用信号关键词来进行定位,然后到四个选项中找到最佳重叠原文 意思的选项。 考生在判断选项是否能重叠原文时,常常会感到迷惑,无法判断选项是否与原文内容 完全重叠,这是因为在设计考题时常用一些语言点来迷惑考生。一般说来,命题专家最常 用的有四种方式:“语言简化”、“同义转化”、“反话正说”和“正话反说”。 “语言简化”就是在设置选项时,四个选项的长度及句法不应有太大差异,而选项所使 用的语言难度必须低于文章本身的难度。 “同义转化”是出现最频繁的命题方式,几乎每年都有一些用这种方式设置的题目。
一.同义替换原则
Passage 1 This, in brief, is what the Futurist says: for a century, past conditions of life have been continuously speeding up, till now we live in a world of noise and violence and speed. Consequently, our feelings, thoughts and emotions have undergone a corresponding(相应的) change. This speeding up of life, says the Futurist, requires a new form of expression. We must speed up our literature too, if we want to interpret modern stress(压力).
  1. Futurists claim that we must . [A]increase the production of literature [B]use poetry to relieve modern stress [C]develop new modes of expression [D]avoid using adjectives and verbs
1
Passage 2 When I decided to quit my full time employment it never occurred to me that I might become a part of a new international trend. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress prompted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit 辞职) by claiming "I wanted to (辞职) spend more time with my family". (2001 年第 67 题)
  2. Which of the following is true according to this paragraph? [A] Full-time employment is a new international trend. [B] The writer was compelled by circumstances to leave her job. [C] "A lateral move" means stepping out of full-time employment. [D] The writer was only too eager to spend more time with her family. Passage 3 During the middle of the 19th century, Germany, along with other European nations, experienced an unprecedented(史无前例的)rash of workplace deaths and accidents as a result of growing industrialization. Motivated in part by Christian compassion(怜悯)for the helpless as well as a practical political impulse to undercut the support of the socialist labor movement. Chancellor Bismarck created the world's first workers' compensation law in 18
  84.
  3. The world's first workers' compensation law was introduced by Bismarck . [A] for fear of losing the support of the socialist labor movement [B] out of(出于)religious and political considerations [C] to speed up the pace of industrialization [D] to make industrial production safer
  4. We learn from the passage that the process of industrialization in Europe . [A] met growing resistance from laborers working at machines [B] resulted in the development of popular social insurance programs [C] was accompanied by an increased number of workshop accidents [D] required workers to be aware of the potential dangers at the workplace Passage 4 The Supreme Court's decisions on physician-assisted suicide carry important implications for how medicine seeks to relieve dying patients of pain and suffering. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of “double effect," a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects ? a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen ? is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect. Doctors have used that principle in recent years to justify using high doses of morphine to control terminally ill patients' pain, even though increasing dosages will eventually kill the
2
patient. (2002 年第 56, 57 题)
  5. From the first three paragraphs, we learn that . [A] doctors used to increase drug dosages to control their patients' pain. [B] it is still illegal for doctors to help the dying end their lives. [C] the Supreme Court strongly opposes physician-assisted suicide. [D] patients have no constitutional right to commit suicide.
  6. Which of the following statements is true according to the text? [A] Doctors will be held guilty if they risk their patients' death. [B] Modern medicine has assisted terminally ill patients in painless recovery. [C] The Court ruled that high-dosage pain-relieving medication can be prescribed. [D] A doctor's medication is no longer justified by his intentions. Passage 5 The researchers studied the behavior of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de Waal's study. (05 年 23 题)
  7. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are . [A] more inclined to weigh what they get. [B] attentive to researchers' instructions. [C] nice in both appearance and temperament. [D] more generous than their male companions
二.思维角度转换原则
思维角度转换包括正话反说和反话正说。“反话正说”的命题方式是指文中用否定方 式,选项用肯定的方式。即所谓的否定形式表达肯定意思。 Passage 6 How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a devalued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride." American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government," It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity, says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as" a golden age of business management in the United States."
  8. The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the _. (
  00) [A]turning of the business cycle
3
[B]restructuring of industry [C]improved business management [D]success in education Passage 7 The strange, almost incomprehensible fact is that many professors, just as they feel obliged to write dully, believe that they should lecture dully. To show enthusiasm is to risk appearing unscientific, un-objective, it is to appeal to the students' emotions rather than their intellect. Thus the ideal lecture is one filled with facts and read in an unchanged monotone.
  9. The majority of university professors prefer the traditional way of lecturing in the belief that . [A] it draws the close attention of the students [B] it conforms in a way to the design of the Creator [C] it presents course content in a scientific and objective manner [D] it helps students to comprehend abstract theories more easily
Exercises:

  10. They are nowhere close to achieving anything.
  11. He is no more fit to be a president than a schoolboy would be.
  12. A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is.
  13. I don’t so much love him as sympathize with him.
  14. There is no rule but has exceptions.
  15. They never meet without quarreling.
  16. Nobody sought his aid but were helped.
  17. It never rains but it pours.
  18. The potential benefit of exercises can’t be overestimated.
  19. Hardly a day goes by without missing my mother. 另外一种常用的命题方式“正话反说”,是指原文用肯定方式表述,而选项用否定方式 表述,两者意义相吻合。 Passage 8 How many men would have considered the possibility of an apple falling up into the tree? Newton did because he was not trying to predict anything. He was just wondering. His mind was ready for the unpredictable. Unpredictability is part of the essential nature of research. If you don't have unpredictable things, you don't have research. Scientists tend to forget this when writing their cut and dried (简洁的)reports for the technical journals, but history is filled with examples of it. (99 年阅读)
  20. The author asserts that scientists . [A]shouldn't replace “scientific method” with imaginative thought
4
[B]shouldn't neglect to speculate on unpredictable things [C]should write more concise reports for technical journals [D]should be confident about their research findings Passage 9 If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. (99
  05)
  21. The author implies that the results of scientific research . [A] may not be as profitable as they are expected [B] can be measured in dollars and cents [C] rely on conformity to a standard pattern(取决于对标准模式的遵守) [D] are mostly underestimated by management
Exercises:

  22.Donavan would have loved the Internet.
  23.We couldn’t have gone to the beach on a better day.
  24.Its results fell short of my expectations.
  25.This is the last thing I want to do.
  26.Your answer is far from my satisfaction.
  27.He is anything but an artist.
  28.It’s out of the question/ out of question.
  29.This is more than I can chew. /It’s beyond/above me. 我解决不了。
  30.He is grieving over the loss of something beautiful more than useful.
  31.You should have known better than to take my words seriously.
三.主题原则
主旨题题干的信号词为:best title /main idea /most likely to agree / conclusion/ If you intend using humor in your talk to make people smile, you must know how to identify shared experiences and problems. Your humor must be relevant to the audience and should help to show them that you are one of them or that you understand their situation and are in sympathy with their point of view. /Depending on whom you are addressing, the problems will be different. If you are talking to a group of managers, you may refer to the disorganized methods of their secretaries; alternatively if you are addressing secretaries, you may want to comment on their disorganized bosses. Here is an example, which I heard at a nurses' convention, of a story which works well because the audience all shared the same view of doctors. A man arrives in heaven and is being shown around by St. Peter. He sees wonderful accommodations, beautiful gardens, sunny weather, and so on. Everyone is very peaceful, polite and friendly until, waiting in a line for
5
lunch, the new arrival is suddenly pushed aside by a man in a white coat, who rushes to the head of the line, grabs his food and stomps over to a table by himself. “Who is that?” the new arrival asked St. Peter. “Oh, that's God” came the reply, “but sometimes he thinks he's a doctor.” If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it'll be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman's notorious bad taste in ties. With other audiences you mustn't attempt to cut in with humor as they will resent an outsider making disparaging remarks about their canteen or their chairman. You will be on safer ground if you stick to scapegoat like the Post Office or the telephone system. If you feel awkward being humorous, you must practice so that it becomes more natural. Include a few casual and apparently off-the-cuff remarks which you can deliver in a relaxed and unforced manner. Often it's the delivery which causes the audience to smile, so speak slowly and remember that a raised eyebrow or an u
 

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