随着新课程标准的不断实施,重综合运用能力、轻语法已成为中考英语的命题趋势。阅读是英语学习中听、说、读、写四种技能之一,阅读理解能力的高低也是衡量一个人英语水平的重要标志之一。目前,离中考只有200多天了。在这200多天里,如何有针对性地提高自己的英语阅读能力,突破中考阅读理解的障碍,是每个同学都在关心的问题。日前,记者采访了石家庄市41中的王金老师,请她根据自己多年的教学备考经验,对广大考生做以点拨。
王老师说,要想做好中考的阅读理解,首先要知道中考对阅读理解的要求。根据教育部制定的英语课程标准,初中毕业生应达到五级综合语言运用能力。阅读理解五级的目标部分描述如下:

  1、能根据上下文和构词法推断、理解生词的含义;

  2、能理解段落中各句子之间的逻辑关系;

  3、能找出文章中的主题,理解故事的情节,预测故事情节的发展和可能的结局;

  4、能读懂常见体裁的阅读材料;

  5、能根据不同的阅读目的运用简单的阅读策略获取信息;

  6、能利用字典等工具进行学习;

  7、除教材外,课外阅读量应累计达到15万词以上。
阅读理解的能力不是短期内能够培养成的,同学们在当前的复习阶段,主要是熟悉各种题型的解题方法,提高解题的正确率,以便在中考中得到理想的分数。下面,王老师从解题步骤、阅读技巧、答题技巧三方面对“如何应对中考阅读理解题”做了介绍。
■解题步骤
王老师说,同学们在做阅读理解时,可遵循三部曲的原则,即:快速阅读短文;认真逐题作答;复查校对答案。
第一步,快速阅读短文;通读测试题,明确考查点。
先读题,明确题目要求,弄清考点,然后带着问题去读文章,这种方法在英语中称为scanning,就是寻读。快速阅读一遍弄清段落大意,对全文有一个整体了解,阅读时从宏观入手,掌握中心意思,注意哪些用以说明中心意思的主要事实和细节,抓住关键词,弄清作者写此篇文章的目的及意图。如遇到生词,应先跳过,继续通读全文,切忌长时间死扣生词,因为有些生词并不影响对全文的理解,还有一些词可以通过上下文推测含义。
第二步,认真逐题作答。
看完短文后,对整篇短文的内容有了大致的了解,然后马上看后面的问题,带着问题去找答案。如果属于客观信息题,就可直接在短文中找到出处。如果是主观判断题,则应迅速再读全文,仔细分析思考,将近似的答案对照原文反复比较,推敲,选出最佳答案。
第三步,仔细校对所选答案。
做完所有题目后,再读一遍短文,逐一检查所有答案是否有误。如果有拿不定主意的答案,不要随意更改。一定要从原文中找到依据,方可更正。
■阅读技巧
①要快速浏览全文,掌握主旨和大意,特别注意文章的主题句,理出作者的写作思路。(What is the idea?What are facts?)
②要尽快浏览课文后的思考题,尽量带着问题读;
③完成事实细节题时,要找到定位句;
④要把有关WHO,WHAT,WHERE,HOW和WHY等方面内容用笔圈画出来。
⑤遇到推理判断题时,要注意作者的态度和命题人的意图,不可从个人的经验出发。
■答题技巧
“做英语阅读理解时,答题也有讲究。如果同学们具备一定的答题技巧,那么最终将事半功倍。”王老师说,做猜测词义题、细节理解题、主旨归纳题、推理判断题都有一定的技巧。
一、猜测词义题
阅读理解经常会遇到生词,这些生词怎么解决呢?这就需要一些猜词的技巧。
(一)根据生活常识猜测词义
Children are always boasting.They say things like“My Dad's car is bigger than your Dad's,”“My Mom is smarter than yours.”and“My family has more money than yours.”
The word“boasting” means __B
A.骄傲 B.吹牛 C.顽皮 D.幼稚
Many plants and animals are going extinct.Mammoths,which are related(有关联的) with Asia elephants,are now extinct.There are no mammoths in the world today.

  1.A mammoth is a kind of _C.
A.plant B.bird C.animal D.tree

  2.The word extinct means _C_
A.出现 B.危险 C.灭绝
Usually people make dumplings at home.If you have no time to make them,you can buy them from any supermarket. Then you take them home and eat them with vinegar.
The wor d“vinegar” means 醋
Water is made from oxygen and hydrogen.
The words“oxygen and hydrogen” mean 氢和氧
(二)根据上下文的意思来猜测

  1.Some people like to walk quickly home after work,but I prefer to stroll home and look at the store windows along the way.(溜达)

  2.She is usually prompt for all her classes,but today she arrives quite late.(准时的)

  3.The door is so low that I hit my head on the lintel.(门梁)
(三)根据转折、因果关系猜测词义
通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。有时文章借助关联词(如because,as,since,for,so,thus,asaresult,ofcourse,therefore等等)表示前因后果。例如:
You shouldn't have blamed him for that,for it wasn't his fault.通过for引出的句子所表示的原因(那不是他的错),可猜出blame的词义是“责备”。
(四)通过同义词和反义词的关系猜词
通过同义词猜词,一是要看由and或or连接的同义词词组,如happya nd gay,即使我们不认识gay这个词,也可以知道它是愉快的意思;二是看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词,如Man has known something about the planets Venus,Mars,and Jupiter with the help of spaceships.此句中的Venus(金星)、Mars(火星)、Jupiter(木星)均为生词,但只要知道planets就可猜出这几个词都属于“行星”这一义域。通过反义词猜词,一是看表转折关系的连词或副词,如but,while,however等;二是看与not搭配的或表示否定意义的词语,如:He is so homely,not at all as handsome as his brother.根据not at all...handsome我们不难推测出homely的意思,即不英俊、不漂亮的意思。
(五)通过构词法猜词
在阅读文章时,总会遇上一些新词汇,有时很难根据上下文来推断其词意,而它们对文章的理解又有着举足轻重的作用,此时,如掌握了一些常用的词根、前缀、后缀等语法知识,如前缀un-表反义词,如happy、unhappy,fair、unfair,important、unimportant等;后缀-ment表名词,如develop、development,state、statement,argue、argument等;后缀-er、-or或-ist表同源名词;如calculate、calculator,visit、visitor,law、lawyer,wait、waiter,sci-ence、scientist,art、artist等,这些问题便不难解决了。
(六)通过定义或释义关系来推测词义
例如:But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time.Then there is a dry period,or drought.从drought所在句子的上文我们得知很久不下雨,于是便有一段干旱的时期,即drought,由此可见drought意思为“久旱”,“旱灾”。而a dry period和drought是同义语。这种同义或释义关系常由is,or,that is,in other words,be called或破折号等来表示。
(七)通过句法功能来推测词义
例如:Bananas,oranges,pineapples,coconuts and some other kind of fruit grow in warm areas.假如pineapples和coconuts是生词,可以从这两个词在句中所处的位置来判断它们大致的意思。从句中不难看出pineapples,coconuts和bananas,oranges是同类关系,同属fruit类,因此它们是两样水果,准确地说,是菠萝和椰子。
(八)通过描述猜词
描述即作者为帮助读者更深更感性地了解某人或某物而对该人或该物作出的外在相貌或内在特征的描写。例如:The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the South Pole.It is fat and walks in a funny way.Although it cannot fly,it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish.从例句的描述中可以得知penguin是一种生活在南极的鸟类。后面更详尽地描述了该鸟类的生活习性。
二、细节理解题
首先浏览一遍题目,看清题目要求理解什么细节,然后有选择性地在文中找出相应的段落句子或短语,认真分析理解,选出正确答案。
Example
  1:What do you think of your teachers?Now,American students can say what they think on a new website!
On www.ratemyteachers.com,students canrate(评定) their teachers.So far,there have been 2 million ratings for 3
  65,000 teachers at
  21,000 schools in the US and Canada.
Where can the students rate(评定) their teachers according to the passage?(A)
A.On a new website
B.At the classmeeting
C.In the classroom.
D.Out of the school
Example
  2:Years ago,many zoos kept all kinds of animals in small cages.Small cages made it easy for people to see the animals,but a small cage is not a good place for an animal to live in.Today zoos keep animals in different kinds of cages.The cages are very big and open.They usually have plants and a little lake.

  1.Zoos kept animals in small cages so that people can(B)
A.protect them B.see them better
C.feed them D.save them

  2.Today,zoos keep animals(A)
A.in bigger cages
B.in the wild
C.in smaller cages
D.in the field
三、主旨归纳题
议论文和说明文的主题句经常在开头或结尾。记叙文往往没有主题句,需要在读懂全文、体会作者用意的基础上进行概括。
People in different countries have different table manners.Something that is polite in one country may be quite impolite in another.In Britain,you mustn't lift your bowl to your mouth when you are having some liquid(液体)food.But it's different in China.And in Japan you even needn't worry about making noises when you have it.It shows that you are enjoying it.But it is regarded as bad manners in Britain.
The passage mainly(主要) tells us(B)
A.some table manners in Britain
B.some different table manners
C.different ways of having liquidf ood
D.to have good manners
People in many countries learn English and they learn it in different ways.Some learn it at school.Some learn it by themselves.Others learn Englishby radio on TV or in films.
The main idea of the passage is(A)
A.People in many countries learn English in many ways
B.Some learn English at school
C.Some learn English by themselves
D.Others learn English by radio,on TV or in films.
四、推理判断题
推理判断题,需要同学具有严密的逻辑推理和分析问题的能力。
A man was looking for things of old times.One day he came to a village and found a blue bowl,which looked very old.The bowl was on the ground and a cat was drinking milk from it.A farmer,the owner of the cat,was lying beside the bowl.In order not to draw the farmer's attention to(吸引…的注意力) the value(价值) of the bowl,the man said to him in a soft voice,“What a nice cat you have!Won't you sell it to me?”“How much would you give me for it?”the farmer opened his eyes and asked.
“Twenty dollars.Would it be enough?”
A few minutes later,the farmer agreed.After he paid the farmer,the man said,“My cat will certainly feel thirsty.May I take the bowl so that the cat can have milk?”
But the farmer said,“I am sorry I can't give it to you.Thanks to the bowl,I have already sold twenty cats.”
Who is much cleverer?(A)
A.the farmer B.the man
C.both of them
D.neither
总而言之,阅读理解靠的是扎实的语言基础,扎实的语言基础来自平时严格的基本功训练和长期的知识积累。只要平时刻苦用功,打下扎实的英语知识基础,又掌握了较科学的解题方法做阅读理解题是不会太难的。
 

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