英语中的独立主格结构归纳
非谓语动词作状语时,它的逻辑主语应该是句子的主语。但有时非谓语动词带有自己的主语,从而在结构上与主语不发生关系,我们称之为独立主格结构(Absolute Construction)。其实,所谓“独立主格结构”也并非真正独立,它还是一种从属的结构。

一、 非谓语动词独立主格结构
在独立主格结构中,非谓语动词和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。
Such an able man to help you,you will surely succeed sooner or later.
有这么能干的人来帮你, 你迟早一定会成功的。(such an able man和 to help you 之间存在着主谓关系)
= Since such an able man will help you, you will surely succeed sooner or later.
He seating himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story.
他在书桌旁坐好后,他母亲开始给他讲故事。(seating himself at the desk拥有了自己的逻辑主语he,注意是“主格”)
= When he seated himself at the desk, his mother began to tell him a story.
The key to the bike lost, he had to walk to school.
由于丢了自行车钥匙,他只好步行去学校。(lost 的逻辑主语是the key,lost 也可以用完成式having been lost)
= Because the key to the bike had been lost, he had to walk to school.
A. 不定式“独立主格结构”
在“逻辑主语+动词不定式”结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。这种结构也可用一个从句或并列分句来表达。

  1.动词不定式用主动的形式
在独立主格结构中,动词不定式和它前面的名词或代词存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。
His mother to come tonight,he is busy preparing the dinner.
他母亲今晚要来,他正在忙着准备饭菜。
(= As his mother is to come tonight, he is busy preparing the dinner.)
??will you go to the comcert tonight 你今晚去听音乐会吗?
??sorry.So many exerise-books to check,I rially can't afford any time.
对不起,有这多的作业要批,我真的抽不出时间。
(=Because I shall check so many exercise-books tonight,I really can't afford any time.)
The four of us agreed on a division of labour,each to translate a quarter of the book.
我们四人同意分工干,每人翻译全书的四分之一。
(=The four of us agreed on a division of labour and each is to translate a quarter of the book.)
Many trees,flowers,and grass to be planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful. 种上许多的树,花和草后,我们新建的学校将看上去更美。(=If many trees,flowers,and grass are planted,our newly-built school will look even more beautiful.)
B.-ing形式“独立主格结构”
动词的-ing形式作状语时,其逻辑主语一般应与句子的主语保持一致。
Being ill, he went home.
由于生病,他回家了。(= As he was very ill, he went home.)
Seating himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine.
在课桌旁坐好后,他开始看杂志。(= When he had seated himself at the desk, he began to read a magazine.)

  1. 表示时间的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”
Everyone being ready, the teacher began his class.
每个人都准备好后,老师开始上课。(相当于一个时间状语从句When everyone was
ready)
The chairman began the meeting , everyone being seated.
每个人坐好后,主席开始开会。(相当于一个时间状语从句after everyone was seated)

  2. 表示原因的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”
The boy leading the way, we had no trouble finding the strange cave. 由那个男孩带路,我们没有困难就找到了那奇怪的洞。(相当于一个原因状语从句Because the boy led the way)
Many eyes watching him, he felt a bit nervous. 许多眼睛看着他,他感到有点儿紧张。(相当于一个原因状语从句As many eyes were watching him)
必背:
含有being的独立主格结构。
It being National Day today,the streets are very crowded. 今天是国庆节,街上很拥挤。
= As it is National Day today, the streets are very crowded.
There being no further business to discuss, we all went home. 没有别的事可讨论,我们都回家了。
= As there was no further business to discuss, we all went home.

  3. 表示条件的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”
Time permitting, we will have a picnic next week.
时间允许的话,我们下星期将进行一次野炊。(相当于一个条件状语从句If time
permits)
My health allowing, I will work far into the night.
我的健康许可的话,我愿工作到深夜。(相当于一个条件状语从句If my health allows)

  4. 表示方式的-ing形式作“独立主格结构”
The students are walking in the school happily, each wearing a card in front of his chest.
学生们快乐地在学校里走着,每个人胸前都带着一张卡。(相当于一个并列分句and each wears a card in front of his chest)
The boy lay on the grass, his eyes looking at the sky.
男孩躺在草地上,眼睛看着天空。(相当于一个并列分句and his eyes were looking at the sky)
C.-ed形式“独立主格结构”
与逻辑主语+动词的-ing形式一样,如果-ed形式的逻辑主语和句子的主语不一致的话,就需要用-ed形式的独立主格结构。
The book written in simple English, English beginners were able to read it.
该书是用简单英语写的,英语初学者也能看懂。
= As the book was written in simple English,English beginners were able to read it.
The workers worked still harder, their living conditions greatly improved.
由于工人们的生活条件大大提高,他们工作得更起劲了。
= As their living conditions were greatly improved, the workers worked still harder.
He was listening attentively in class, his eyes fixed on the blackboard.
他上课专心听讲,眼睛紧盯着黑板。
= He was listening attentively in class, and his eyes were fixed on the blackboard.
The task completed,he had two months' leave.
任务完成以后,他休了两个月的假。(=When the task had been completed,he had two months' leave.)
比较:
动词不定式表示动作没有发生或即将发生,动词-ed形式表示动作已经结束,动词-ing形式往往表示动作正在进行。
The manager looks worried,many things to settle. 经理看上去很着急, 有这么多的事情要处理。(事情还没有处理,而且是由经理本人来处理,用不定式to settle)
The manager looks relaxed, many things settled. 许多事情已经处理好了, 经理看上去很轻松。(事情已经处理好了,用动词-ed形式settled表示动作已经结束)
The food being cooked, the boy was watching TV. 小孩一边做饭,一边看电视。(两个动作同时进行)
The food cooked, the boy went to bed. 饭做好了,小孩去睡了。(两个动作有先后,饭已做好,小孩才去睡觉的)
二、 动词独立主格结构
“逻辑主语+being+其他”是独立主格结构中的“逻辑主语+动词-ing形式”的一种形式。在这种结构中,being往往可以被省去,这种省去being的结构,称之为无动词“独立主格结构”。
A.逻辑主语+名词
Ten students entered for the competition, the youngest a boy of
  12.
十个学生报名参加了这次竞赛,年纪最小的是个12岁的男孩。(the youngest和a boy of 12之间省去了being)
注意:
独立主格结构中的being在下列两种情况下一般不能省略,一是在“There being + 名词”结构中,二是在逻辑主语是代词的情况下。
There being no bus, we had to walk home. 由于没有公共汽车,我们只好走回家。
It being Sunday, all the offices are closed. 因为是星期日,所有办公室都关门。
B.逻辑主语+形容词
He turned to me, his eyes sleepy.
他睡眼惺忪地转向我。(his eyes和sleepy之间省去了being)
= He turned to me, and his eyes were sleepy.
He stood there, his mouth wide open.
他站在那里,嘴张得大大的。(his mouth和wide open之间省去了being)
= He stood there, and his mouth was wide open.
C.逻辑主语+副词
School over, we all went home.
放学了,我们都回家了。(school和over之间省去了being)
= School was over, and we all went home.
He sat at his desk, his shoes off.
他坐在课桌旁,没穿鞋子。(his shoes和off之间省去了being)
= He sat at his desk and his shoes were off.
D.逻辑主语+介词短语
He is standing in front of the blackboard, his back towards us.
他站在黑板面前,背对着我们。
= He was standing in front of the blackboard, and his back was towards us.
The new teacher came in, a smile on her face.
新老师面带微笑走了进来。
= The new teacher came in and she had a smile on her face.
The teacher came into the classroom,a rule in his hand.
老师走进教室,手里拿着一把直尺。
= The teacher came in and a ruler was in his hand.
提示:
在“逻辑主语+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构里,如果名词用单数,可以不用冠词,同时介词短语里的限定词也可省略。
The music teacher stood at the door, violin in hand.
音乐老师站在门口,手里拿着一把小提琴。(= The music teacher stood at the door, a violin in his hand.)
三、 withwithout 引导的独立主格结构
介词withwithout +宾语+宾语的补足语可以构成独立主格结构,上面讨论过的独立主格结构的几种情况在此结构中都能体现。
A. with+名词代词+形容词
He doesn’t like to sleep with the windows open.
他不喜欢开着窗子睡觉。
= He doesn’t like to sleep when the windows are open.
He stood in the rain, with his clothes wet.
他站在雨中,衣服湿透了。
= He stood in the rain, and his clothes were wet.
注意:
在“with+名词代词+形容词”构成的独立主格结构中,也可用已形容词化的-ing形式或-ed形式。
With his son so disappointing,the old man felt unhappy.
由于儿子如此令人失望,老人感到很不快乐。
With his father well-known, the boy didn? want to study.
父亲如此出名,儿子不想读书。
B. with+名词代词+副词
Our school looks even more beautiful with all the lights on.
所有的灯都打开时,我们的学校看上去更美。
= Our school looks even more beautiful ifwhen all the lights are on.
The boy was walking, with his father ahead.
父亲在前,小孩在后走着。
= The boy was walking and his father was ahead.
C. with+名词代词+介词短语
He stood at the door, with a computer in his hand. 或
He stood at the door, computer in hand.
他站在门口,手里拿着一部电脑。
= He stood at the door, and a computer was in his hand.
Vincent sat at the desk, with a pen in his mouth. 或
Vincent sat at the desk, pen in mouth.
文森特坐在课桌前,嘴里衔着一支笔。
= Vincent sat at the desk, and he had a pen in his mouth.
D. with+名词代词+动词的-ed形式
With his homework done, Peter went out to play.
作业做好了,彼得出去玩了。
= When his homework was done, Peter went out to play.
With the signal given, the train started.
信号发出了,火车开始起动了。
= After the signal was given, the train started.
I wouldn? dare go home without the job finished.
工作还没完成,我不敢回家。
= I wouldn? dare go home because the job was not finished.
E. with+名词代词+动词的-ing形式
The man felt very happy with so many children sitting around him.
有这么多的孩子坐在他周围,那男子感到很高兴。
= The man felt very happy when he found so many children sitting around him.
The girl hid her box without anyone knowing where it was.
小女孩把盒子藏了起来,没有人知道它在哪里。
= The girl hid her box and no one knew where it was.
Without anyone noticing, he slipped through the window. 他趁没人注意的时候,从窗口溜走了。
= When no one was noticing, he slipped through the window.
F. with+名词代词+动词不定式
The little boy looks sad, with so much homework to do.
有这么多的家庭作业要做,小男孩看上去很不开心。
= The little boy looks sad because he has so much homework to do.
The kid feels excited with so many places of interest to visit.
有这么多的名胜可参观,小孩很激动。
The kid feels excited as there are so many places of interest to visit.
提示:
在withwithout 的复合结构中,多数情况下with 能省略,但without 不能省略。
Without a word more spoken, she left the meeting room.
她没再说什么话就离开了会议室。(without不能省略)
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