作文复习专题 (一)掌握技巧: (
  1)注意篇章结构,合理布局 开始部分(opening paragraph)??说出文中的要点、核心问题。 正文部分(Body paragraphs)??围绕主题开展叙述、讨论。 结尾部分(concluding paragraphs)??对全文的总结和概括。 要做到全文中心突出、段落之间必须是有机地联系,内容完整、连贯。前后呼应,祛除与主题无关的内容。 (
  2)确定主题句 主题句是对全文的概括,是文章的主旨。它能在文章中起到“画龙点睛”的作用。通常主题句出现 在一篇文章的开头,而后,全文对主题句所提出的内容进行解释,扩展。 写主题句应注意以下几点: ①归纳出你要写的文章的几个要点 ②提炼出一句具有概括性的话 ③主题句应具有可读性,抓住、吸引读者。 (二)巧用连接词 要想使文章有整体性、连贯性,就要学会正确使用连接词 1, 表示罗列增加 First, second, third, First, then / next, after that / next, finally For one thing … for another…, On (the) one hand…on the other hand, Besides / what’s more / in addition / furthermore / moreover / another / also, Especially / In particular,
  2,表示时间顺序 now, at present, recently, after, afterwards, after that, after a while, in a few days, at first, in the beginning, to begin with, later, next, finally, immediately, soon, suddenly, all of a sudden, at that moment, as soon as, the moment form now on, from then on, at the same time, meanwhile, till, not…until, before, after, when, while, as during,
  3,表示解释说明 now, in addition, for example, for instance, in this case, moreover furthermore, in fact, actually
  4,表示转折关系 but, however, while, though, or, otherwise, on the contrary, on the other hand, in contrast, despite, in spite of, even though, except (for), instead, of course, after all,
  5,表示并列关系 or, and, also, too, not only … but also, as well as, both… and, either …or, neither…nor
  6,表示因果关系 because, because of, since, now that, as, thanks to…, due to…, therefore, as a result (of), otherwise, so…that, such…that
  7,表示条件关系 as (so) long as, on condition that, if, unless
  8,表示让步关系 though, although, as, even if, even though, whether …or…, however, whoever, whatever, whichever, wherever, whenever, no matter how (who, what, which, where, when, whom)

  9,表示举例 for example, for instance, such as…, take… for example
  10,表示比较 be similar to, similarly, the same as, in contrast, compared with (to)…just like, just as,
  11,表示目的 for this reason,, for this purpose, so that, in order to, so as to, 12 表示强调 in deed, in fact, surely, certainly, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously, above all,
  13,表示概括归纳 in a word, in short, in brief, on the whole, generally speaking, in my opinion, as far as I know, As we all know, as has been stated, as I have shown, finally, at last, in summary, in conclusion, (三)掌握常用句型:
  1. 重点句型
  1). It’s adj for sb to do 做…对某人来说… ……是必要的 It is necessary (for sb.) to do / that … ……是重要的 It is important/essential (for sb.) to do / that … …… 是适当的 It is proper (for sb.) to do / that … ……是紧急的 It is urgent (for sb.) to do / that … 例:It is proper for us to keep the public places clean. It is proper that we (should) keep the public places clean. 我们应当保持公共场所清洁。
  2). … so … that … 如此… 以至于… … too … to do 太… 而不能… such … that … 如此… 以至于… 例?They were all so tired that they could do nothing but yawn. 例?It was such a cold day that there was nobody on the street.
  3). not…until… 直到…才… 例: I didn’t go to bed until my mother came back.
  4).The reason why + 句子 is that + 句子 … 的原因是… 例?The reason why he got angry was that she told him a lie. ( 他生气的原因是她对他说了谎。)
  5). That is why + 句子 那是…的原因
  6). That is because + 句子 那是因为…
  7). It is said that + 句子 据说… 例?It is reported that + 句子 据报道…
  8). There is no doubt that + 句子 毫无疑问…
  9). It goes without saying that + 句子 不言而喻,毫无疑问
  10). There is no need to do 没必要做…
  11). There is no point in doing 做某事毫无意义
  12. as is known to all, +句子 众所周知 as we all know, +句子 据我们所知 it is generally/ publicly known / considered that…, 众所周知
  13) find it + adj to do… 觉得/发现做… 是…的。 例?I find it necessary to take down notes while listening. 我觉得作听力时有必要作笔记。
  14) not only…but also 不但…而且 例?In just three years, she had not only finished all the lessons, but also received her doctor’s degree. 在短短的三年的时间里她不但完成了所有课程,而且还获得了博士学位。
  15)in order to 为了.... 例?He worked very hard in order to realize his dream. 为了实现他的梦想,他学习非常努力。
  16)in order that 以便于... 例?She worked hard in order that everything would be ready by 6 o’clock..她拼命干活以便到六点时把一切都准 备就绪。

  17). 不用说…… It goes without saying that …= (It is) needless to say (that) ….= It is obvious that …. 例:It goes without saying that it pays to keep early hours. 不用说早睡早起是值得的。
  18)在各种……之中,…… Among various kinds of …, … /= Of all the …, … 例?Among various kinds of sports, I like jogging in particular. 在各种运动中我尤其喜欢慢跑。
  19) 就我的看法……;我认为……In my opinion, …= To my mind, ….= As far as I am concerned, … = I am of the opinion that …. 例:In my opinion, playing video games not only takes much time but is also harmful to health. 就我的看法打电动玩具既花费时间也有害健康。
  20) 随着人口的增加…… With the increase/growth of the population, … 随着科技的进步…… With the advance of science and technology, … 例:With the rapid development of Taiwan's economy, a lot of social problems have come to pass. 随着台湾经济的快速发展许多社会问题产生了。
  21). Since + S + 过去式, S + 现在完成式. 例:Since he went to senior high school, he has worked very hard. 自从他上高中,他就一直很用功。
  2. 提建议 had better (not) do 最好(不)做 how about / what about doing …怎么样? I think you should do 我认为你应该… I suggest / advice that you should do 我建议你做… If I were you, I would do… 我要是你的话,我会做… It’s best to do 最好做… Why not do / why don’t you do…? 为什么不…
  3. 表示喜欢和感兴趣 like / love doing enjoy doing be fond of doing 喜欢做… be keen on n/doing 喜欢做… prefer to do A rather than do B 宁愿做 A 也不愿做 B Compared with women, men always prefer to sleep at home rather than spend so much time shopping. 比起女人,男人总 是宁可在家睡觉也不愿花那么多时间来购物。 would rather do…than do 宁愿…而不愿… He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听他人讲而不愿自己说。 be interested in doing = show/ take great interest in n. / doing
  4. 努力做… try to do 努力做… strive to do 努力做… try one’s best to do = do one’s best to do 竭尽全力做… make efforts to do = make every effort to do 尽力做… do what sb can (do ) to do 尽力做… spare no effort to do 不遗余力的做… do what / everything sb. can to do 尽某人全力做…
  5. 打算做… / 计划做… intend / plan to do 打算做… be going to do 打算做… decide to do 决定做… determine to do 决定做… be determined to do 决定做… make up one’s mind to do 下定决心做…

  6. 表示想/希望 want to do = would like to do 想做… hope to do 希望做… wish to do 希望做… consider doing 考虑做…
  7. 只加 doing 作宾语的动词 finish 完成/ practice 练习 / suggest 建议 / consider 考虑 / mind 介意 / enjoy 喜欢 doing 固定句型 look forward to doing 盼望做… keep on doing 坚持做… dream of doing 梦想做… can’t help doing 情不自禁地做… keep / stop / prevent sb. from doing 阻止某人做… be busy (in ) doing be busy with + 名词 忙于做… spend time / money (in )doing spend time / money on + 名词 花费时间做… 例:我们不应该在我们不感兴趣的事情上花太多的时间。 We shouldn't spend too much time on something we aren't interested in. have fun / have a good time / enjoy oneself doing 玩得开心 have trouble / have problem / have difficulty (in) doing 或 with + 名词 做…有困难 中考英语常见写作错误归纳 中考英语常见写作错误归纳 一、“汉语式”英语 例:His father’s body is strong. 他父亲身体很好。 析:汉语说“某人的身体强弱”时,在英语中不必加 body。因此,在书面表达中要注意英语的习惯用法,否则 容易杜撰出“汉语式”英语,使人难以看懂。同时不能先想汉语意思,然后再直译成英语,而要擅于直接用英语思考。 正:His father is strong. 二、难词解释 例:the time fell sleeping 就寝时间 析:同学们遇到要表达的术语有难词时,想不到用合适的单词来表达,于是就闹出了这样的笑话。因此,在平 时学习中学生们就要知难而进,想方设法记忆必要的单词,同时增强解释的能力,只有这样才能提高英语书面表达 能力。 正:the sleeping time 三、单词堆砌 例:Our go to school time is 8:
  00. 上学时间是 8:
  00。 析:同学们在书面表达中应尽量使用自己熟悉且有把握的习惯用语,不能凭着自己的中文习惯主观臆造句子, 否则不可能做到“语言准确,得当”。 正:We go to school at eight. 四、时态的误用 例:She like it very much and reads it to the class. 她很喜欢它并且读给同学们听。 析:在书面表达中,应根据上下文或时间状语来确定动词的时态。 正:She liked it very much and read it to the class. 五、用词错误 例:He gave me a very good advice yesterday. 昨天他给我一个非常好的建议。 析:advice 表示“建议”时,是不可数名词,不能用不定冠词来修饰,而应用 a piece of。 正:He gave me a piece of very good advice yesterday. 六、一致性错误 所谓不一致不仅指主谓不一致,它还包括数的不一致、时态不一致以及代词不一致等。 例
  1:Once one have money, he can do what he want to do. 人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么。
析:one 是第三人称单数,因此本句的 have 应改为 has。同理,want 应改为 wants。 正:Once one has money, he can do what he wants to do. 例
  2:Water will boil at 100℃. 水在 100℃沸腾。 析:表示客观真理的句子,其谓语动词应用一般现在时。 正:Water boils at 100℃. 七、修饰语错位 英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子中不同的位置,句子的含义就有可能发生变化。 例:I can dance. I too can sing. 我会跳舞,也会唱歌。 析:too 一般位于句尾,不能用于句首。 正:I can dance. I can sing too. 或 I can dance and sing too. 八、结构不完整 在口语中,交际可借助手势、语气、上下文等来理解结构不完整的句子。可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完 整会令句意表达不清。这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,作者又想加些补充说明的时候。 例: There are many ways to know the society. For example, by TV radio, newspaper and so on. 有许多方式来了解这 个社会,例如通过电视、广播、报纸等等。 析:本句后半部分 For example, by TV, radio, newspaper and so on 不是一个完整的句子,仅仅是一些不连贯的 词语,不能独立成句。 正:There are many ways to know the society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper and so on. 九、悬垂修饰语 所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子逻辑关系混乱不清。 例:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 在我 10 岁时,我祖父去世了。 析:at the age of ten 只指出 10 岁时祖父去世了,但没有说明是“谁”10 岁时。按一般的推理不可能是 my grandfather。 正:When I was at the age of ten, my grandfather died. 十、词性误用 “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用,形容词当副词用,名词当动词用等。 例
  1:Few people can around the world. 很少人能周游世界。 析:around 是副词,这里误当动词用。 正:Few people can travel around the world. 例
  2:The place is danger. 这个地方危险。 析:danger 是名词,这里误用为形容词。 正:The place is dangerous. 或 The place is in danger. 十一、指代不清 指代不清主要指代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。 例
  1:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. 玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要 她做她的伴娘。 析:此句让读者无法判
 

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