本科生毕业论文(设计)
题目: 呼啸山庄》 《 题目: 呼啸山庄》与《基督山伯爵》中 基督山伯爵》 复仇之对比
完成日期: 2008 年
3
月 25 日
A Comparison between the Revenge in Wuthering Height and The Count of Mont Cristo
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of Foreign Language Department Xingtai College in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Arts
By Yin Shanshan
February,2008
Acknowledgements
My deepest gratitude goes first and foremost to Professor Ma Xiaona, my supervisor, for her constant encouragement and guidance. She has walked me through all the stages of the writing of this thesis. Without her consistent and illuminating instruction, this thesis could not have reached its present form. Second, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to Professor Zhang Shaojuan, who led me into the world of literature. I am also greatly indebted to the professors and teachers at the Department of English: Professor Liu Yanyun, Professor Shen Yuge, who have instructed and helped me a lot in the past two years. Last my thanks would go to my beloved family for their loving considerations and great confidence in me all through these years. I also owe my sincere gratitude to my friends and my fellow classmates who gave me their help and time in listening to me and helping me work out my problems during the difficult course of the thesis.
Contents
Abstract (in Chinese)…………………………………………………………………i Abstract (in English)………………………………………………………………....ii Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..1 I. The Sameness between the Revenge in Two novels………………………….….3 A. The Same Thematic Clues………………………………………………….….3 B. The Same Miserable Fate of the Heroes…………………………………...…..2 II. The Differences between the Revenge’s Character in Two Novels………..…..5 A. The Inhumanity of Heathcliff’s Revenge………………………………………5 B. The Justice of Edmond’s Revenge……………………………………………..5 III. The Differences between the Revenge’s plot in Two Novels………..…….…...7 A. The Differences of the Revenge’s Reasons……………………………...……..7 B. The Differences of the Revenge’s Methods……………………………..……..8 C. The Differences of the Revenge’s Results……………………………………10 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………...11 Notes…………………………………………………………………………………12 Bibliography………………………………………………………………………...13
摘 要
小说家艾米莉? 勃朗特的<<呼啸山庄>>和法国作家大仲马创作的<<基度山 伯爵>>都是以复仇为主题的小说。希思克利夫和埃德蒙?唐代斯分别是两部小说 中的主人公。希思克利夫被称之为“恶魔”或“魔鬼” 复仇扭曲了他的人性, , 他设计阴谋,使人破产,还要对仇人的子孙实施报复。而唐泰斯历来被世人视为 “天神”的化身,一个完美的人物。他化身为基度山伯爵,小心地接近敌人,在法 律和道德的基础上,聪明地将敌人绳之以法。两人的品性虽然不同,但同为复仇 者, 他们内心都充满仇恨,经历了坎坷的命运,并且两人最后都获得了一定程度上 的新生。本文在细读小说的基础上,对比分析两部作品男主人公的复仇背景,复 仇原因,方法和结果。 关键词:复仇;非人类;正义 关键词
i
Abstract
Both of Wuthering Height and The Count of Monte Cristo’s thematic clues are revenge. Heathcliff and Edmond Dantes are the heroes of the two works respectively. Heathcliff is referred to as “like the devil” or as “evil”. His humanity is twisted by the revenge. He designs the plot, making people go bankrupt and does harm to his descendants. He makes everyone miserable until the end, when he gives up his plan of revenge and dies. But Edmond is different from Heathcliff. He is called the agent of god, and is an ideal and perfect character. Disguised as the Count of Monte Cristo, he carefully makes acquaintances with his enemies. Dantes formulates a plan to punish enemies who hurt him by the different means on the basic of law and morality. Though Heathcliff and Edmond Dantes have different characters, they are all the avengers who are filled with revenge in their hearts. They have the same miserable experience and fate. To a certain extent, they obtain rebirth eventually. This paper mainly analyzes the sameness and the differences of the revenge in Wuthering Height and The Count of Monte Cristo after reading through the two books. Key Words: revenge; inhumanity; justice
ii
Introduction
Wuthering Heights is a story about Heathcliff’s revenge on the people of Wuthering Heights① and Thrushcross Grange and its terrible effects. Heathcliff is an orphan with unknown family background. By chance, he is picked up and adopted by old Earnshaw who is the owner of Wuthering Heights. Earnshaw’s son named Hindley detests the dark-skinned Heathcliff. But Catherine who is Hindley’ sister quickly comes to love him, and the two soon grow inseparable. Earnshaw's favor on Heathcliff leads to Hindley's jealousness and resentment. After Earnshaw's death, Hindley inherits Wuthering Heights and begins to persecute Heathcliff. During the time, Catherine betrays Heathcliff and their love due to some worldly reasons. She marries a rich man Edgar Linton, who lives Thrushcross Grange next to Wuthering Heights. All the sorrow leads him to fulfill his crazy plans of revenge. He ruins Hindley by changing Hindley’s life to a living hell. When Hindley dies, Heathcliff inherits the manor. In the mean time, He destroys Isabella’s life by marrying her only for his revenge on Edgar. Heathcliff controls both Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. But when he accomplishes his revenge and realizes his mistake, humanity finally returns to him. This paper depicts Heathcliff's cruel and the means of revenge, and tries to find the reasons behind his revenge. The Count of Monte Cristo describes the life of its main character Edmond Dantes. He is promoted to captain of his ship, and has plan to marry his beautiful lover Mercedes . His success ignites the jealousy of his enemies. They write a letter falsely accusing him of being a Bonapartist. This means he sides with Napoleon Bonaparte and is committing treason against his own king. He is arrested on his wedding day and sent to a prison called the Ch?teau d'If②.These three enemies are Danglars, Fernand Mondego, and Villefort. Danglars will become captain of the Pharaon once Dantes is removed, Fernand aspires to win Mercedes' love. While Edmond is in prison, he learns from another prisoner of a secret treasure hidden on the island of Monte Cristo. Edmond concocts a daring and audacious plan: escape and find the treasure. When Edmond escapes, he takes revenge against his three enemies
1
who conspired against him to send him to prison. Disguised as the wealthy count, Edmond returns to his native land to find his enemies and make them pay for their crime.
2
I. The Sameness between the Revenge in Two novels
A. The Same Thematic Clues
Wuthering Heights, by Emily Bronte, and The Count of Monte Cristo, by Alexander Dumas, are romantic tragedies which share many common elements. Heathcliff's desire for revenge begins in the Wuthering Heights, while Edmond Dantes’s desire for revenge begins in the Count of Monte Cristo.Emily Bronte's character, Heathcliff, is the man with a desire for revenge. In Wuthering Heights, Heathcliff does search for revenge on anyone who has done harm to him, or in some cases punishes somebody in order to seek revenge on others. Earnshaw brings Heathcliff home from one of his journeys and he is immediately ostracized by Hindley. Hindley is afraid Heathcliff will usurp his position of power as head boy in the family. Similarly, Edmond, at the prime of his life and career, is betrayed by close friends because of their jealousy. His shipmate, Danglars, covets his designation as the captain of the mighty Pharon. Ferdinand Mondego wishes to wed Mercedes who is affianced to Edmond. Desire for power and jealousy composes the two roots of the revenge tree. Both Heathcliff and Edmond lose status in their social surroundings. And they through the revenge to seek their authority.
B. The Same Miserable Fate of the Heroes
Both Heathcliff and Edmond experience miserable fate before vengeance. They share the same despair and grievances. They are tragic figures. Generally speaking, all these sufferings which happen in their life are caused by the society. Heathcliff has an unhappy and grievous childhood and also suffers from the abuse of Hindley. Before joining Earnshaw’ family, he is apparently abandoned on the streets and looks like a gypsy. After entering Wuthering Height, all the other members of the household are opposed to the introduction of a strange boy. He is viewed as a thing rather than a child. He has suffered pain and rejection. Everyone dislikes him except for Catherine.
3
Following the death of Mr. Earnshaw, Heathcliff suffers cruel mistreatment at the hands of Hindley. He is reduced to the status of a servant. He is harshly treated, working from day until night. Edmond Dantes used to be a successful, happy, young sailor. However he is wrongfully imprisoned. Dantes suffers for fourteen grueling years. Fighting off the thoughts of suicide, Dantes suffers from years of horrible conditions in the dungeon. He is often abused and is covered with scratch. In prison, Dantes loses hope and decides to starve himself to death, but he fails. He suffers from body and heart.
4
II. The Differences of the Revenge’s Characters in Two Novels
A. The Inhumanity of Heathcliff’s Revenge
The main character in Wuthering Heights is the devilish Heathcliff. An orphan is despised since his birth. Heathcliff grows up to become a inhuman, sadistic, cruel, vengeful and immoral man .He is often referred to as “like the devil” or as “evil”, and that is certainly the result he acts. However, Edmond Dantes is different from him. Edmond Dantes is referred to as “God's agent,” or as “An Angel of Providence”. Heathcliff’s intense yet destroyed passion towards Catherine causes him to despise all members of the Linton family of Thrushcross Grange, and he determines to destroy them in numerous. His character develops from chapter to another chapter when he becomes a horrible person, especially when he abuses Isabella who is Edgar Linton’s sister. He uses her infatuation as a tool of revenge towards the Edgar, and he constantly and savagely attacks Edgar Linton until Linton is tormented to death. Heathcliff's love for Catherine is tinged with danger and violence. (标点) Through the process of his revenge, people can find that Heathcliff is a selfish, inhuman person. And Heathcliff is the most hateful person in all the characters of Wuthering Heights. He ruins Catherine’s life when he retune to Wuthering Heights after five years. He also ruins Isabella’s life by marrying her only for his revenge. These are the major actions in the novel that show Heathcliff’s selfishness and inhumanity. Of course, it is one aspect of his character. At the first glance he seems to be entirely wicked and brutal, even criminal. He breaks the law of society and its moral code.
B. The Justice of Edmond’s Revenge
Heathcliff is called the representative of devil. But Edmond, unlike Heathcliff, is called the agent of god. People think well of Edmond because his goodness, charity
5
and justice. He punishes enemies who hurt him by the law of society. It illuminates that Edmond’s revenge is law-abiding and reasonable. When Edmond Dantes is unfairly given a life-prison by his enemies, he spends every waking moment planning his revenge. As soon as Dantes miraculously escapes and returns to the world with riches, he sees it as a sign that God has opened for him the door of revenge. The rest of Edmond’s life is spent, at first, performing acts of goodness and charity for the good people whom he has known, then he devotes his life to against the evil people who are responsible for his imprisonment. Edmond’s actions testify to his good character. His mind and heart is not filled with revenge and anger absolutely, and he also has humanity. He does not forget people who ever help him before revenge. In the end, he also obtains a good result to novels. People worship Edmond due to his justice and morality. He is an ideal character. Edmond Dantes' moral reconciliation brings a happy ending to this novel and is of great significance to the work as a whole. It completes the heroic character of Monte Cristos, who already possesses physical strength, great knowledge, endless resources, and the ability to punish the wicked. It also demonstrates that Edmond can distinguish between anger and justice and have the power to punish the wicked.
6
III. The Differences between the Revenge’s plot in Two nove
 

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