西南大学外国语学院 英语专业本科毕业论文引文及参考文献格式规范
I. Introduction Academic writing may use American Psychological Association (APA) Style, Modern Language Association (MLA) Style, the Chicago Style, and so on. But APA and MLA are two commonly used ones. Both can be found in “style manuals” bearing their names,for example, APA’s Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (20
  01) and MLA’s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (19
  99). The choice as to which style is appropriate for a given paper may be determined by three factors: the requirements of the particular course, the standard for the discipline in which you are studying, or your individual preference. A safe way is to consider which style will be most appropriate for your area of specialization. If you are pursuing a major in the humanities, consider learning the MLA style. If behavioral or social sciences are likely to be your interest, then the APA style may be most appropriate. Generally, humanities disciplines may include literary, philosophical, cultural, historical, translation studies, and the like. Social sciences may include applied linguistics, psycholinguistics, foreign language teaching, second language acquisition studies, and the like, which are mostly empirical studies involving statistic analyses. II. APA for Academic Writing: Essentials

  1. Text citations
Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. The word “and” is used before the last author when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Commas are only used to separate the names of three or more (but not two) authors for a source, for example, Wirth and Mitchell (19
  94) found that . . . . B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses. The ampersand & is used before the last author when multiple authors for a source are identified and commas are only used to separate the names of three or more (but not two) authors for a source. And when more than two sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered
alphabetically by first authors' surnames and separated and joined by semicolons in the parentheses, for example, Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 19
  91). C. If publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname are cited, include the first authors’ initials in all text citations, even if the publication dates differ, for example, R. D. Luce (19
  59) and P. A. Luce (19
  86) also found….. J. M. Goldberg and Neff (19
  61) and M. E. Goldberg and Wurtz (19
  72) studied…… D. Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth after the year; repeat the year; separate the year-plus-suffixes with commas, for example, Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Singh, 1983, in press-a, in press-b) indicated that . . . . E. A major citation is separated from other citations within parentheses by the phrase “see also” used after a semicolon and before the first of the remaining citations, which are arranged in alphabetical order, for example, (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 19
  97) F. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) but is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list, for example, Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 19
  96) suggested … G. When a source has two authors, both authors are included every time the source is cited. When a source has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the source is cited; in subsequent citations, include only the first author's surname and “et al.” and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph, for example, Payne, Bergin, Bielema, and Jenkins (19
  91) showed that … [Use as first citation in text.] Payne et al. (19
  91) showed that ... [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.] Payne et al. showed that … [Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph.]
H.
I.
When a source has six or more authors, cite only the first author's surname followed by “et al.” and the year for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and “et al.”, for example, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (19
  94) and Bradley, Soo, et al. (19
  94) Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al. (19
  96) and Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al. (19
  96)
J.
K.
If the English translation of a non-English work is used as the source, cite the original publication date and the date of the translation, for example, Laplace (1814/19
  51)…
L.
To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. As a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the References section, for example, B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 19
  78) claimed . . . .

  2. Quotations
When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence, for example, Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p.8
  29). B. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in double-spaced block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin but without the usual opening paragraph indent. But with more than one paragraph, indent the first line of second and additional paragraphs five to seven spaces from the new margin. Enclose direct quotations within a block quotation in double quotation marks. For a quotation in running text that is already enclosed in double quotation marks, use single quotation marks to enclose quoted material. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate an omission within a sentence. Type four periods to indicate an omission between two sentences (a period for the sentence followed by three spaced periods).
C.
D.
E.
When a period or comma occurs with closing quotation marks, place the period or comma before rather than after the quotation marks. Put other punctuation marks (e.g., colon, semicolon) outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quoted material.

  3. References
All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). A.Pagination: The References section begins on a new page. B. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header). C. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. D.Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are two to six authors, use the ampersand & after a comma and before the last author. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al.” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (20
  00). An experimental evaluation . . . . One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, for example, Alleyne, R. L. (20
  01). …… Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (19
  99). …… References with exactly the same author (or authors in the same order) are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first, for example, Hewlett, L. S. (19
  96). …… Lewlett, L. S. (19
  99). …… Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (20
  00). …… Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (20
  01). …… References by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A, An or The) that follows the date. However, if the references with the same authors published in the same year are identified as articles in a series (e.g., Part 1 and Part
  2), order the references in the series order, not alphabetically by title. Lowercase letters ? a, b, c, and so on ? are placed immediately after the year, within the parentheses, for example, Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control . . . . Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of . . . .
E. Publication date: Publication date is put in parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the authors. For any work accepted for publication but not yet printed, use “in press” in parentheses following the authors. F. Source reference: Include title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers but not titles of articles. Capitalize the major words of periodical names but not the major words of titles of books or articles. G. Publishers’ locations: Give the location (city and state for U.S. publishers, city, state or province if applicable, and country for publishers outside of the U. S.) of the publishers of books, reports, brochures, and other separate, nonperiodical publications. If the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or province) is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the name in the publisher location. The names of U.S. states and territories appear in the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations. The following major and well-known locations can be listed without a state abbreviation or country: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna H.Examples of sources
  1. Book Paloutzian, R. F. (19
  96). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (19
  71). Alcohol and health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  2. Book with no author or editor Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (19
  93). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  3. Book with author and publisher being identical American Psychiatric Association. (19
  94). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  4. Article or chapter in an edited book James, N. E. (19
  88). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-2
  23). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Cicero, T. J. (19
  79). A critique of animal analogues of alcoholism. In E. Majchrowicz & E. P. Noble (Eds.), Biochemistry and pharmacology of ethanol (Volume 2, pp. 31-
  59). New York: Plenum Press.
  5. Journal article
Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (19
  96). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-16
  26. [If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number.] Wilcox, R. V. (19
  91). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(
  2), 53-
  65.
  6. Newspaper Article Di Rado, A. (1995, March
  15). Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles Times, p. A
  3.
  7. Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon, T. (19
  95). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-3
  92). Danbury, CT: Grolier.
  8. Web document on university program or department Web site Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (20
  00). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=7 96 [If information is obtained from a document on the Int
 

相关内容

英语专业本科毕业论文引文及参考文献格式规范

   西南大学外国语学院 英语专业本科毕业论文引文及参考文献格式规范 I. Introduction Academic writing may use American Psychological Association (APA) Style, Modern Language Association (MLA) Style, the Chicago Style, and so on. But APA and MLA are two commonly used ones. Both can be ...

英语专业本科毕业论文讲座(三):毕业论文格式、规范与要求

   毕业论文格式规范与要求 黄清贵 一,论文总体要求 二,论文结构 三,注释和参考文献格式 1. 注释 2. 参考文献 3. 参考文献排列其他注意事项 四,福建师大福清分校外语系论文基本格式范例 一,论文总体要求 General Requirements of theses 1. 论文应与本专业有关; 2. 独立完成; 3. 论文字数:英语字数8000字左右〖计算方法:word文档中 "字数统计"栏中的字符数(不计空格)除以2〗;汉语字 数 一般不少于6000字. 4. 如 ...

(2010-5-19修订)英语本科毕业论文引注格式及外文翻译要求

   英语本科毕业论文引注格式及外文翻译要求 外国语学院 2010 届英语本科毕业论文采用国际通用的 MLA Modern Language ( Association)引注格式(格式见附件)。外文翻译为英翻汉,具体要求如下:由 导师指定学生翻译一篇与自己所写论文密切相关的英文文献, 译出的汉字不少于 500 字。除此之外的其它所有格式要求,请严格参照教务处新发布的《新疆大学 本科毕业论文(设计)工作》文件的要求执行。 附件 MLA 引用格式 Modern Language Association ...

英语系本科毕业论文格式说明

   关于英文学位论文基本参考格式的说明 说明: 本说明的内容主要根据燕山大学本科生毕业论文的要求, 并结合燕山大学外语学院硕 士论文格式要求而适当修改而成,在本说明中,有部分内容和“燕山大学本科毕业论文格式 要求”不尽相同,请各位同学按本说明 本说明的要求进行操作。在学校要求和模板与英语系的要 本说明 在学校要求和模板与英语系的要 求和模板内容出现冲突时,请以英语系的规定为参考,英语系未作说明之处, 求和模板内容出现冲突时,请以英语系的规定为参考,英语系未作说明之处,请参考学校 规定。 规定。 ...

镐京学院-英语专业本科毕业论文缩写稿格式要求

   本科毕业论文(设计说明书)缩写稿格式、版面要求 1.每个学生应完成一篇 500 词左右的缩写稿,打印并单独装订后,与毕业设计有 关资料一同装入档案袋,电子文档由学院统一收集,备查。缩写稿书写格式必须符合 科技论文书写格式与要求,图表规范,单位标注统一、正确。 2.缩写稿的版面要求 在页面设置中设置如下: 1)页边距:上:2.8 厘米、下:2.2 厘米,左:2.6 厘米、右:2.6 厘米;纸张 纵向。 2)纸张:A4; 3)文档网格:字符每行 45;行每页 28。 4)在页面底端(页脚) ,居 ...

浙江省自学考试英语(高中起点本科)毕业论文格式要求

   浙江省自学考试英语(高中起点本科) 浙江省自学考试英语(高中起点本科)毕业论文格式要求 一、 格式 论文至少依次包括封面、目录、英文摘要(Abstract)与关键词(Key words) 、中 文摘要与关键词、英文提纲(Outline) 、中文提纲、英文引言(Introduction) 、正文、结 语(Conclusion)和文献目录(Works Cited)等十部分。 二、封面 具体样式参见论文样本页 A,封面格式可到外国语学院网站下载。 封面 三、标题 居中。如果有副标题,用冒号把英文主 ...

英语论文参考文献格式

   用 Times New Roman。每一条目顶格, 如某一条目超过一行,从第二行起 “悬挂 缩进”2 字符。参考文献中所有标点与符号均在英文状态下输入,标点符号 后空一格。 参考文献条目排列顺序:英文文献、中文文献、网络文献。分别按作者姓 氏字母顺序排列。文献前不用序号。 1)英文参考文献 ) 专著与编著 (1)专著与编著 排列顺序为:作者姓、名、专著名、出版地、出版社、出版年。 例如: Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. New York: Kno ...

英语专业本科毕业论文---情感

   How To Carry Out The Emotion Teaching *** ************************************* April 8, 2009 How To Carry Out The Emotion Teaching Investigator: * * * Submitted on April 8th, 2009 In fulfillment of the course “Practical Project Design” Acknowledge ...

英语专业本科毕业论文选题

   英语专业本科毕业论文选题 一、英美文学研究选题 1. A Brief Comment on Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (浅淡莎士比亚的 《威尼斯商人》 ) 2. Hamlet: His Characters as a Humanist (哈姆雷特人物性格分析) 3. Parallelism and Contrast of Shakespeare’s Dramatic Language (莎士比亚戏剧的排比与对照 用语) 4. The Socia ...

英语专业本科毕业论文选题

   英语专业本科毕业论文选题 考试秘籍 2009-06-27 16:41 阅读 604 评论 0 字号: 大 中 小 引用 HUGO 的 英语专业本科毕业论文选题 一、英美文学研究选题 1. A Brief Comment on Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (浅淡莎士比亚的《威尼斯商 人》) 2. Hamlet: His Characters as a Humanist (哈姆雷特人物性格分析) 3. Parallelism and Contrast ...

热门内容

大学英语四级词汇活记活用

   导读]在备考四级考试的过程中,大家普遍感觉比较困难的问题就是背单词。单词背的好坏 导读 直接决定着考试成绩的高低,为了帮助考生有效记忆单词,考试大整理了以下资料,供考生 复习。 1,People’s expectations about the future may have more influence on their sense of well-being than their state does. A) current B) initial C) modern D) primiti ...

完全商务英语手册EF_real_eng_BE

   2 你的英语有多实用呢?在碰上外国人的时候,能真正地和老外无障碍地沟通吗? 在学校学英语学了好几个年头,由学abc到用英语写文章,经历了不少挑灯夜读为考 试的时光.分数可能是拿到了,可是让我问一下,这些年头来,你学到的有多少真的 能应用在生活中呢? 好吧,就让我在这里先考考你? 1. 你会用英语买单吗? 2. 朋友提议"Go and catch a flick″,是提议什么呢? 3. 伦敦话"Bob's your uncle″是什么意思呢? 4. 澳洲人说"Struth!',他的意思到底是什 ...

小学六年级英语阅读理解专项习题

   小学六年级英语阅读理解专项习题 1. Poor Man! Look at this man. What is he doing? He’s carrying a very big box. The box is full of big apples. He wants to put it on the back of his bike and take it home. Can he do that? No, I don’t think so. Why not? Because the bo ...

攻克考研英语

   攻 克 考 研 英 语 在准备考研时就梦想过,如果有一天我可以通过研究生英语考 试,就一定要把我学英语的血泪经验写出来,今天虽然考研的最后结 果还悬而未决,但是对于英语考试来说,却已经告一个段落了,而对 于已经懒成习惯了的我来说,这个曾经很奢侈的梦想,也可以在一个 平心静气的早晨,随着指尖清脆的敲击声,慢慢流淌出来了. 如果你也和我一样是一个倍受自己的超烂英语折磨的人, 拿一点 时间,慢慢看我这篇文章吧,我不敢说有多少有价值的经验,但是却 会有一些用沉重代价换来的宝贵教训, 呵呵~~而我的学 ...

高考英语动词时态单选

   选校网 www.xuanxiao.com 高考频道 专业大全 历年分数线 上万张大学图片 大学视频 院校库 高考英语动词时态单选 1 Here the bus! B comes C has come D has been coming A is coming 2 It's the third time I him this month. A had seen B see C saw D have seen 3 If you go to the western suburbs of the c ...