西南大学外国语学院 英语专业本科毕业论文引文及参考文献格式规范
I. Introduction Academic writing may use American Psychological Association (APA) Style, Modern Language Association (MLA) Style, the Chicago Style, and so on. But APA and MLA are two commonly used ones. Both can be found in “style manuals” bearing their names,for example, APA’s Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (20
  01) and MLA’s MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (19
  99). The choice as to which style is appropriate for a given paper may be determined by three factors: the requirements of the particular course, the standard for the discipline in which you are studying, or your individual preference. A safe way is to consider which style will be most appropriate for your area of specialization. If you are pursuing a major in the humanities, consider learning the MLA style. If behavioral or social sciences are likely to be your interest, then the APA style may be most appropriate. Generally, humanities disciplines may include literary, philosophical, cultural, historical, translation studies, and the like. Social sciences may include applied linguistics, psycholinguistics, foreign language teaching, second language acquisition studies, and the like, which are mostly empirical studies involving statistic analyses. II. APA for Academic Writing: Essentials

  1. Text citations
Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper. A. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. The word “and” is used before the last author when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Commas are only used to separate the names of three or more (but not two) authors for a source, for example, Wirth and Mitchell (19
  94) found that . . . . B. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses. The ampersand & is used before the last author when multiple authors for a source are identified and commas are only used to separate the names of three or more (but not two) authors for a source. And when more than two sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered
alphabetically by first authors' surnames and separated and joined by semicolons in the parentheses, for example, Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 19
  91). C. If publications by two or more primary authors with the same surname are cited, include the first authors’ initials in all text citations, even if the publication dates differ, for example, R. D. Luce (19
  59) and P. A. Luce (19
  86) also found….. J. M. Goldberg and Neff (19
  61) and M. E. Goldberg and Wurtz (19
  72) studied…… D. Identify works by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date by the suffixes a, b, c, and so forth after the year; repeat the year; separate the year-plus-suffixes with commas, for example, Several studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b, 1991c; Singh, 1983, in press-a, in press-b) indicated that . . . . E. A major citation is separated from other citations within parentheses by the phrase “see also” used after a semicolon and before the first of the remaining citations, which are arranged in alphabetical order, for example, (Minor, 2001; see also Adams, 1999; Storandt, 19
  97) F. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) but is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list, for example, Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 19
  96) suggested … G. When a source has two authors, both authors are included every time the source is cited. When a source has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the source is cited; in subsequent citations, include only the first author's surname and “et al.” and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph, for example, Payne, Bergin, Bielema, and Jenkins (19
  91) showed that … [Use as first citation in text.] Payne et al. (19
  91) showed that ... [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.] Payne et al. showed that … [Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph.]
H.
I.
When a source has six or more authors, cite only the first author's surname followed by “et al.” and the year for the first and subsequent citations. If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and “et al.”, for example, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (19
  94) and Bradley, Soo, et al. (19
  94) Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, et al. (19
  96) and Kosslyn, Koenig, Gabrieli, et al. (19
  96)
J.
K.
If the English translation of a non-English work is used as the source, cite the original publication date and the date of the translation, for example, Laplace (1814/19
  51)…
L.
To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. As a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the References section, for example, B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 19
  78) claimed . . . .

  2. Quotations
When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation. A. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence, for example, Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p.8
  29). B. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in double-spaced block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin but without the usual opening paragraph indent. But with more than one paragraph, indent the first line of second and additional paragraphs five to seven spaces from the new margin. Enclose direct quotations within a block quotation in double quotation marks. For a quotation in running text that is already enclosed in double quotation marks, use single quotation marks to enclose quoted material. Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate an omission within a sentence. Type four periods to indicate an omission between two sentences (a period for the sentence followed by three spaced periods).
C.
D.
E.
When a period or comma occurs with closing quotation marks, place the period or comma before rather than after the quotation marks. Put other punctuation marks (e.g., colon, semicolon) outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quoted material.

  3. References
All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section). A.Pagination: The References section begins on a new page. B. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header). C. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. D.Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are two to six authors, use the ampersand & after a comma and before the last author. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al.” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference. Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (20
  00). An experimental evaluation . . . . One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname, for example, Alleyne, R. L. (20
  01). …… Alleyne, R. L., & Evans, A. J. (19
  99). …… References with exactly the same author (or authors in the same order) are arranged by year of publication, the earliest first, for example, Hewlett, L. S. (19
  96). …… Lewlett, L. S. (19
  99). …… Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (20
  00). …… Cabading, J. R., & Wright, K. (20
  01). …… References by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the same order) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A, An or The) that follows the date. However, if the references with the same authors published in the same year are identified as articles in a series (e.g., Part 1 and Part
  2), order the references in the series order, not alphabetically by title. Lowercase letters ? a, b, c, and so on ? are placed immediately after the year, within the parentheses, for example, Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control . . . . Baheti, J. R. (2001b). Roles of . . . .
E. Publication date: Publication date is put in parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.” in parentheses following the authors. For any work accepted for publication but not yet printed, use “in press” in parentheses following the authors. F. Source reference: Include title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers but not titles of articles. Capitalize the major words of periodical names but not the major words of titles of books or articles. G. Publishers’ locations: Give the location (city and state for U.S. publishers, city, state or province if applicable, and country for publishers outside of the U. S.) of the publishers of books, reports, brochures, and other separate, nonperiodical publications. If the publisher is a university and the name of the state (or province) is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the name in the publisher location. The names of U.S. states and territories appear in the official two-letter U.S. Postal Service abbreviations. The following major and well-known locations can be listed without a state abbreviation or country: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Vienna H.Examples of sources
  1. Book Paloutzian, R. F. (19
  96). Invitation to the psychology of religion (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. (19
  71). Alcohol and health. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
  2. Book with no author or editor Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (19
  93). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
  3. Book with author and publisher being identical American Psychiatric Association. (19
  94). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  4. Article or chapter in an edited book James, N. E. (19
  88). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic (pp. 219-2
  23). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Cicero, T. J. (19
  79). A critique of animal analogues of alcoholism. In E. Majchrowicz & E. P. Noble (Eds.), Biochemistry and pharmacology of ethanol (Volume 2, pp. 31-
  59). New York: Plenum Press.
  5. Journal article
Murzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (19
  96). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1617-16
  26. [If, and only if, each issue of a journal begins on page 1, give the issue number in parentheses immediately after the volume number.] Wilcox, R. V. (19
  91). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek: The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(
  2), 53-
  65.
  6. Newspaper Article Di Rado, A. (1995, March
  15). Trekking through college: Classes explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles Times, p. A
  3.
  7. Encyclopedia Article Sturgeon, T. (19
  95). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 24, pp. 390-3
  92). Danbury, CT: Grolier.
  8. Web document on university program or department Web site Degelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (20
  00). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=7 96 [If information is obtained from a document on the Int
 

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