青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
摘要
在跨文化交际中经常会遇到这种情况, 当两个人初次见面时会互相介绍自己 的姓名.由此可见,姓名在文化交际中发挥着重要作用.在社会中,姓名也被看 作是区别独立个体的标志并伴随人的一生.作为人类语言的重要组成部分,姓名 被赋予了深刻的文化内涵.不同的姓名能反映出不同的文化.通过对中美姓名文 化的研究,本论文分为五部分,旨在分析其所体现的中美价值观的差异.首先, 前言部分主要阐述了语言的习得离不开一国独有的文化背景及了解姓名文化在 跨文化交际中发挥的重要作用;然后通过举例,对比分析中美两国姓名的出现时 间,起源,命名方式等方面的差异所体现的两国集体主义和个人主义,平等观, 宗教观的不同; 结论部分总结了姓名文化对文化交流的影响及对今后英语方面的 学习和两国间的交流有重要作用.
关键字:中美姓名,差异,价值观
5
青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
ABSTRACT
In the cross-cultural communication, it's commonly experienced by people that they introduce each other' name when they meet at the first time. So, names play an indispensable part in cultural exchange. It's used by human beings as symbols, which usually accompanies them for the whole life, indicating each particular member in society. As an essential part of human language, name is also bestowed with profound cultural connotations. Different personal names reflect different cultures. By making a close study of Chinese and American names, this paper attempts to display the differences in Chinese and American values. This paper consists of five parts. It begins with a brief introduction that says learning a language is inseparable from learning its culture, and name culture plays a very important role in the cross-cultural communication. Then by exploring the differences between Chinese and American name roots and examining the different characteristics of Chinese and American name, this paper shows that there are three different values reflected in the cultural connotation of name. Finally, this paper concludes that it can help people deeply understand the Chinese and American culture and it's useful for language study and the cross-cultural communication.
KEY WORDS: Chinese and American names, difference, value
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青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
Contents
Introduction………………………………………………………………………… (
  8) Chapter One The Exploration of Chinese and American Name Roots…………….. (
  9)
  1.1 Origin and evolution of Chinese name…………………………………… (
  9)
  1.2 Origin and evolution of American name………………………………… (
  11) Chapter Two The Characteristics and Forms of Chinese and American Name….. . (
  12)
  2.1The Components and forms of Chinese name…………………………......(
  12)
  2.2 The Components and forms of American name………………………..... (
  13)
  2.3Different ways of naming between China and America…………………. (
  14) Chapter Three The Cultural Connotation of Name……………………………….. (
  16)
  3.1 The family psychology?"more attention to surname than given name" and "more attention to given name than surname"……………………..…....... (
  16)
  3.2 Different equality value………………………………………………...... (
  17)
  3.3 Different religious value………………………………………………..... (
  18) Conclusion............................................................................................................... (
  20) Acknowledgements ...................................................................................…….... (
  21)
Bibliography ...................................................................................…………...... (
  22)
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青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
Introduction
The cross-cultural communication plays a great role in modern society. The mobility of people and the contact between countries have greatly increased international communication. English, as an international language, has called for Chinese learners' international awareness. People used to assume that learning the rules of English grammar and a large amount of vocabulary was sufficient in learning English. However, experience has shown that many learners, while knowing a lot about the target language were unable to communicate effectively in it(Zhang 1999:
  2). Learning a foreign language well means to see the world as native speakers of that language see it, learning the ways in which their language reflects the ideas, customs, and behavior of their society, learning to understand their "language of the mind"(Deng & Liu 1991:1
  60). Learning a language, in fact, is inseparable from learning its culture. People's name is one of the most universal language phenomena in each human society. It is the specific symbol, which people use to distinguish themselves from other people and which usually accompany them for the whole of their lifetime. To be exact, different personal names reflect different culture because people's name is the carrier of its respective culture. With this function, names play a significant role in people's social interactions, political involvement, as well as in economical life. Meanwhile, in naming the newborns, people are inevitably influenced by their cultural surroundings. They put in names their expectation of best wishes for the newborn, which manifests their value and aesthetical taste. The ordering of family name and given name and the preference of a certain name truthfully reveal a nation's psychology and reflect its social reality. In a word, personal names are windows for people to see through different cultures in different societies. By comparing and analyzing the origins and characteristics of the names, this paper will display three different values between China and America.
8
青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
Chapter One
The Exploration of Chinese and American Name Roots
At first, people do not have their own names. With the development of economy and the reformation of society, people have to create a special sign to distinguish themselves from others in society. So "name" comes into being gradually in the world. But the time of appearance of name and origin of name between China and America are different.

  1.1 Origin and evolution of Chinese name In Chinese history, family name appears before given name. As a mark of blood relationship, Chinese family name was first used around 5000 years ago. People used the surname to represent the whole family. While the given name came into being much later until after Shang Dynasty to mark individuals. People get to know a person first of all through which family he belongs to. And it is secondary to know him by his own features. Surname, at first, in the tribal matriarchal society is the code, that later becomes the family's flag. A person's surname refers to his descendent blood relationship. Primitive people living in ancient times, due to blood relationship will be divided into different tribes; differences between the various tribes form their own names, these names are the name of the prototype. After Shang and Zhou dynasty, because of the increasing in population and social development, China's last names become popular. In the long history of development, these names after differentiation, evolution, become the names we use today. After researching on the family name, this paper finds that different surnames have different origins. For example, some surnames evolve from the country's name: names like Qi (齐), Lu (鲁), Qin (秦), Wu (吴), etc., are still commonly used today. The royal clan and the common people of Qi, Lu, Qin, Wu and other countries, to commemorate the old countries, use their countries' names as their surnames. Some surnames descend
9
青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
form the official post and the posthumous title of the ancestors. At the period of Western Zhou, the feudal lord's son is called "Gong Zi", and Gong Zi's son is called "Gong Sun". So people use "Gong-zi" and "Gong-sun" as their last names. The source of some surnames of some families relate to families' totem and the name and job of the ancestors. Lu Qing gong's son, Gong zisui(公子遂) lives in the capital Lu East Gate. And children and grandchildren will use "Dong Men"(东门) as the surname. In addition, most of the original family names, such as Wu(巫), Bu(卜), Jiang(匠), Tao(陶), are concerned with the jobs which their ancestors did before (Wang 2000:
  12). In the process of evolution of the surnames, many old surnames are abolished, while many new surnames are born. Among these surnames, some belong to this situation that people change their names in order to evade the empire's name. For instance, the family Ji (籍) in Qin-Han Dynasty change their name into Xi (席) to dodge the name of Xiang ji(项籍).Some are willing to alter their name by themselves. Take Tian Qianqiu (田千秋), the prime minister in Han Dynasty for example. He alters his surname to Che (车),because the empire HanWu allows him to take a carriage to the palace. It is a great honor for his family, so he changes his family name. Chinese people have surname first. With the progress of social development and increased population, interpersonal communication become more frequently. To distinguish each other in a certain group, there is only a personal mark, which is name. Early human's names are also not so fixed. After the letter appears, the name originally expressed by oral stage evolutes to the letter. In short, the Chinese name in the original period of human society is a cultural phenomenon, its origins and development has undergone a process of imperfection to perfection, and become indispensable to human society.

  1.2 Origin and evolution of American name In the West, things are much different. American family name is originally used in the 11
th
century and is not popularized until the 18th century. Before the 18th
century, it is not very common for people to have family names. They are
10
青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
distinguished only by their given names. However, as society develops, people are compelled to apply family names to reduce the problem of homonymous. In the United States, at first, the person's name is produced on the basis of the name of the totem. Tribes within a group often regard a totem as their ancestors, and the name of this totem is also their name, such as birch, rose, fox, lions and so on. However, with the intensive human interaction, economic development and complex political factors, individual consciousness is on the rise, everyone wants to find a unique symbol to distinguish themselves with others. Then person's name appears. American surname appears much later than the name. The production of the name is gradually formed and fixed in the long course of history. With the development of society, the use of single-name is no longer enough. Especially around the 11th century, due to alien invasion, the same name causes a serious phenomenon, which gives a lot of troubles to people's communication. So people have to use a group of instructions after the original name to be distinguished. Although the name jointed with description language has some role in communication, the structure appears cumbersome and is often omitted in conversation in order to simplify the form. For example, when people call John who is living in the mountains, John from the hill can be simplified to John hill. Thus, the formation of the embryonic form is the American surname. Description Language in the evolution of American surnames plays an important role. Through the changes of history, it turns into a fixed American surname. Therefore, the name is not only the differences between each other's symbols, but also a microcosm of the national culture.
11
青岛理工大学毕业设计(论文)用纸
Chapter Two The Characteristics and Forms of Chinese and American Name
Name is a sign with the national feature. Each country's name has its unique connotation and content and shows the characteristic of its name culture. This chapter will analyze the differences in name culture of China and America from two parts?components of name and feature of naming.

  2.1 The components and forms of Chinese name Most Chinese today only have one surname and one given name. But in ancient times, in addition to first and last name people also have word (字)and number (号).In fact, "name" in ancient times, includes three parts?"surname"(姓), "name" (名), "word"(字), each part having its own role, but still dependent on each other in a whole. "Name" is used to distinguish each other; "word" is the expression of virtue. Xiao Ming is used in one's childhood, it is also called nickname .There is this habit both in ancient and modern times. People choose a nickname for their children before taking a formal name. In ancient times, up to the emperor down to the common people, all have nicknames. For example, Cao Cao's small name is A Man(阿瞒). First Ming emperor Zhu Di's nickname is Chong Ba(重八). Modern people take the situation more common than before, such as Zhou
 

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